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Full text of "Fire technology abstracts / prepared by Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University"

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VOLUME 
NO. 4 



dH 



JANUARY 




TECIDroi4M>T 
ABSTRACTS 







4 A 




COLL. 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Fire Prevention 

and Control Administration 



NOTE . . . 

This is Volume 1, No 4. of the new Fire Technology Abstracts, sponsored and 
published by the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, U.S. 
Department of Commerce. Issues of this abstract journal will be published bi- 
monthly, Subscriptions may be ordered directly from the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. The price is 
$11.50 per year ($14.50 foreign). Send check or money order payable to: 
Superintendent of Documents. Or charge your Supt. Docs. Deposit Account, if you 
have one. 



VOLUME U 
NO. 4 

JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1977 



FKE 

TECimOLOOT 

ABSTRACTS 




..-. ■"*. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



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*^4rES of ^ 



National Fire Prevention 
and Control Administration 
Fire Reference Service 

Prepared by 

Applied Physics Laboratory 

The Johns Hopkins University 



For further information contact: 
Fire Reference Service 
P.O. Box 19518 
Washington, DC 20036 
Telephone: 202/634-3913 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 
APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY 



L. J. Holtschlag 

Chief Editor 



B. W. Kuvshinoff 

Associate Editor 



J. B. Jernigan 

Assistant Editor 



TECHNICAL ASSISTANTS 

A. I. Bailey B. E. Hess 

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD 



I. A. Benjamin 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

W. G. Bar! 

Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

J. E. Bihr 

International Conference of 
Building Officials 

J. L. Bryan 

University of Maryland 
Fire Protection Curriculunn 

R. M. Fristrom 

Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

A. F. Robertson 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

P. S. Schaenman 

National Fire Prevention and 
Control Administration 

P. G. Seeger 

University of Karlsruhe (FRG) 
Fire Protection Engineering 
Research Facility 



J. H. Shern 

City of Pasadena, California 
Fire Department 

G. W. Shorter 

National Research Council (Canada) 
Division of Building Research, 
Fire Research Section 

V. Sjolin 

National Defense Research 
Institute (Sweden) 

R. E. Stevens 

National Fire Protection Association 

A. R. Taylor 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Forest Service 

P. H. Thomas 

Building Research Establishment (UK) 
Fire Research Station 

T. Wakamatsu 

Ministry of Construction (Japan) 
Building Research Institute 

I. J. Witteveen 

TNO for Building Materials and 
Building Structures (The Netherlands) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



GENERAL 

a. Fire Protection Organization. . .215 

b. Meetings and Professional 
Activities 216 

c. Literature and Notices 217 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident 

Critiques and Analyses 217 

e. Fire Science Education 218 

f . Legislation 218 

g. Research and Development Pro- 

grams 218 

DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and 

Spread 219 

b. Flammability, Ignition, and 

Extinction 219 

c. Flow of Combustion Products. .. .219 

d. Instrumentation 220 

e . Meteorology 221 

f . Radiation 221 

g. Thermal Conductivity 221 

BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal 

Behavior of Materials 221 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and 

Flammability Tests and 
Methods 224 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of 

Materials 228 

d. Nature of Combustion Products. .231 

e. Protection and Modification of 

Materials 232 

f. Stability of Materials at 

Elevated Temperatures 236 

FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

a. Field Evaluation 237 

b. Fire Testing, Structures 238 

c. Modeling and Scaling 239 

d. Systems Behavior 240 

FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. Building Design and Construc- 

tion Principles 240 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment . .241 

c. Fire and Explosion Risks 248 

d . Fire Loads 248 



e. Heat and Pressure Load Effects 

on Structures 248 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction. 249 

g. Protective Devices and Equip- 

ment 252 

h. Suppression Devices and Equip- 
ment 255 

6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. Agriculture and Wildlands 260 

b. Commercial Occupancies 260 

c. Electrical 260 

d. Industrial Occupancies 261 

e. Institutional Occupancies 263 

f . Mining 263 

g . Power Plants 264 

h. Public Buildings 264 

i. Residential Occupancies 264 

j . Transportation 264 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILI- 
TIES 

a. Administration, Organization, 

and Management 266 

b. Education and Training 266 

c . Facilities 266 

d . General Equipment 267 

e. Information Systems 269 

f. Investigation and Reporting 269 

g . Personal Equipment • 269 

h. Personnel Affairs 270 

8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUP- 
PRESSION 

a. Communications and Signalling. . .271 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Ad- 

ditives 271 

c. Hydraulics and Water Supplies. . .273 

d. Inspection 274 

e. Operational Problems 275 

f. Public Education and Public 

Relations 275 

g. Rescue Operations 275 

h. Tactics 277 

9 . PLANNING 

a. Budgeting 278 

b. Logistics 278 

c. Operations Analysis 278 



III 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL 
PROBLEMS 

a. Arson 278 

b. Combustion Toxicology 279 

c. Emergency Medical Services and 

Facilities 282 

d. Injuries and Fatalities 282 

e. Physiology 282 

f . Psychology 282 

11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, 
IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

a . Codes 283 

b. Hazards Identification 283 

c. Safe Handling of Hazardous 

Materials 283 

d . Standards 284 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND 
PREVENTION 

a. Insurance 284 

b. Losses- 285 

c. Restoration 285 

d . Risk Management 285 

e . Salvage 285 

13. STATISTICS 285 

AUTHOR INDEX I-l 

SUBJECT INDEX 1-5 

SOURCE INDEX 1-29 

REPORT NUMBER INDEX 1-35 

EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS .1-37 



IV 



FIBE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 

Fire_Technolo3Y Abstracts is an abstracts journal being prepared bimonthly by 

the Fire Problems Program Group of the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johts Hop- 
kins University, Laurel, Maryland, USA, under the sponsorship of the National Fire 
Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA) of the US Department of Commerce. It 
complements the Fire_Resea£ch_Abstracts_and_Eeviews published under the auspices of 
the US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in cooperation with 
the NFPCA. 

SCOPE, ANE_COViR AGE 

The aim of Fire_Technolo3Y_Abstracts is to provide comprehensive reference to 
the applied fire literature in the broad range of topics outlined in the "lable of 
Contents." Most topics are covered fully; a few topics, such as forest fires and 
mine fires, are referenced selectively, because they are covered systematically in 
other specialized indexing and abstracting serials. For such topics an appropriate 
notice has been entered under the respective category. 

The information contained in Fire_Techaologj_Abstracts has been gleaned from a 
wide variety of sources (journals, books, reports, patents, codes, and standards) , 
with particular emphasis on the report and patent literature, for which, referencing 
heretofore has been inadequate. Although the English-language literature comprises 
the majority of the entries, the coverage includes selections from the world fire 
literature, identified in part through such sources as Safety in Mines Abstracts of 
the Safety in Mines Research Establishment (DK) , identified in the abstracts as 

(SMRE) , the Soviet Abstracts Journal, Series 68, "Fire Protection," identified as 

(RZh) , and the card abstracts issued monthly by the Fire Literature Documentation 
Section of the German Fire Technology Research Center at the University of Karls- 
ruhe, identified as (Fachdok) . 

Many of the entries in Fire_Technoiogi_Abstract§ are being used with the per- 
mission of the copyright holder. Any abstract terminating with (Author) should be 
considered as possibly subject to copyright restrictions. 

ARRANGEMENT 

The journal is arranged in two sections: Abstracts and Indexes. 

The Abstracts section contains complete bibliographic description required for 
retrieval of the item, along with a brief description of the contents of the item, 
usually consisting of the author's abstract, summary, or conclusions. The patents 
entries contain, in addition, citations of the patent classes, in most cases in 
accordance with the international classification system, in some cases preceded by 
classes according to a national classification scheme, as well as filing and 
disclosure dates, priorities and, if available, assignees. The abstracts are clas- 
sified under the 13 main categories listed in the "Table of Contents" and a suitable 
number of subcategories, which are subject to revision as the necessity for finer 
classification arises. The page-keyed categories and subcategories of the "Table of 
Contents" are repeated on the appropriate pages in the abstracts section to assist 
the reader in rapid identification of the topical field of interest. 

The Index section consists of four indexes: author, subject, source, and report 
number. Each entry in each index is keyed to an abstract number. Annual cumulative 
indexes will be published. 

The Author__Index is an alphabetical list of all authors cited in the abstracts 
section, whether principal or secondary. 

The Subject Index entries consist of up to three hierarchic descriptive levels 

to characterize the nature of the subject content. 



The Source Index displays citations in alphanumeric order of the sources under 

the headings: Books, Codes, Conferences, Congresses, Dissertations, Journals, Meet- 
ings, Patents, Reports, Seminars, Standards, and Symposia. 

The Report Index lists in alphabetical order the numbers of all the reports 

entered in each issue, including multiple numbers, as well as the accession numbers 
under which reports are available from document repositories. 

These indexes (as indeed the entire journal) are composed and printed out by an 
IBM 360/91 computer, using the INFO-360 Document Writing Package of programs develo- 
ped at the Applied Physics Laboratory. All but the subject index are produced direc- 
tly from the printed portion of the entries. The subject index terms are typed in at 
the ends of the abstracts, but are not printed in the body of the journal. Author 
affiliations, whenever available, are also included in the records. These are not 
printed cr listed, but are reserved for future use in developing directories and the 
like. 

AVAILABILITY 

Fire_Technology Abstracts is a literature announcement service only and cannot 

respond to requests for the documents announced in the journal. For all literature 
citations an effort is made to provide the information needed by the reader to 
acquire the document. In general, however, the full text of many of the journal 
articles cited in the FTA can be purchased through the Original Article Tear Sheet 
service (registered tradename OATS) of the Institute for Scientific Infcrmaticn 
(registered ISI) in Philadelphia, PA. The full text of those abstracts terniirating 
with (Fachdok plus number) can be purchased by citing the number and ordering frcm 
the Documentation Center of the German Fire Technology Research Center in Karlsruhe, 
FRG. The addresses of these two organizations are given below. 

For books, sonogra^hs, conference £§.£ers, and proceedings the source is, in 

most cases, either the publisher or the sponsoring organization. 

Dissertations are available in xerographic copy from University Microfilms of 

Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Patents can be obtained from the respective national Patent Offices. 

CS_Re£orts are available for a fee from the National Technical Inforicaticn 
Service (NTIS) or from the US Government Printing Office (GPO) . If availability is 
not indicated, the issuing organization should be queried. 

ADDRESSES 



NTIS National Technical Information Service 
Springfield, VA 22161 



Fachdok Forschungsstelle fuer Brandschutztechnik 
an der Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) 
Abteilung Fachdokumentation 
Hertzstrasse 16, Postfach 6380 
Federal Republic of Germany 



Firebase Firebase Operations Center 

Boise Interagency Fire Center 
3905 Vista Avenue 
Boise, ID 83705 
Telephone: (208) 38U 9457 
FTS: 554 9457 



GPO Superintendent of Documents 

US Government Printing Office 
Washington, DC 20402 

VI 



OATS 



Institute for Sciertific Information 
325 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19106 



Pat Off Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks 
Washington, DC 20231 



Univ Micro 



University Microfilms 
300 North Zeeb Boad 
Ann Arbor, MI U8106 



VII 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Volume 1, Number 4 



January-February 1977 



1. GENERAL 

a. FIRE PROTECTION ORGANIZATION 

1091. Dollingerfnu 

ORGANIZATION OF A MODERN FIRE AND RESCUE 
SERVICE 

Face au risque; (123):32-36, 1976 (French) 

Three years ago the city of Muehlhausen in Alsace 
(France) provided for a highly modern fire service and 
ambulance organization, which has now completed its trial 
period. The chief reviews the history of its development 
and then goes immediately into a concrete description 
of the innovations that were introduced and the technical, 
material and personnel facilities that were obtained by 
the five main departments and their subunits. All aspects 
were considered, such as response crew, administration, 
workshops and maintenance shops, training center and 
techniques, as well as communications. All the facilities 
are backed up by an alternative. The functions, superviso- 
ry installations, the command control panel and the trans- 
mission of orders to the tactical command vehicle are 
illustrated. 3 figs. (Fachdok 12/1125) 

1092. Anon 

HRE PROTECTION AND THE HEALTH AND RESCUE 
COMMITTEES 

Face au risque; (123):39-45, 1976 (French) 

Safety costs money, but may not on that account be 
neglected, especially when what is involved is protection 
against fire, which can result in not only direct, but also 
indirect and subsequent damage. The Health and Rescue 
Committees have tasks to perform in this area also. The 
risks to be monitored, the causes of many fires, the legal 
responsibilities of entrepreneurs and their possible 
penalization for negligence, the execution of these tasks 
and, finally, the problems and principles with which the 
committees deal are described. 4 figs. (Fachdok 12/1102) 

1093. Fusilier R 

THE MISSION OF COMMUNITY FIRE BRIGADES 

Prot Civ Secur Ind; (250):7-26, 1976 (French) 

The fire brigades of the municipalities in France are 
subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and are 
civil organizations. The legal documents on which the fire 
brigades are based are listed. The functions of the fire 
brigades, in addition to the basic task of extinguishing 
fires, includes all measures involved in rendering 
assistance to people and animals in emergency situations 
and in salvaging valuables. In addition, as an exceptional 



case, the fire brigades may be called on to provide an 
escort in official ceremonies (usually in cities without mili- 
tary garrisons). Also imposed on the fire brigades is 
cooperation with the police in the case of threat to public 
order. Despite the imcreasing number of fires, the number 
of responses to fires in 1973 totaled only 13% of the 
total number of responses; 47% of the responses were 
made to aid people and animals and to salvage valuables, 
and 22% of the responses were made for other services. 
The details of each type of fire-brigade function are con- 
sidered. 

1094. Badack P 

INDUSTRIAL FIRE BRIGADES IN BERLIN 

Schadenprisma; 5(3):54-57, 1976 (German) 

In 1974 the city of Berlin (FRG) amended paragraph 
10 of the fire protection law to include a new section 
3, whereby "plants with special fire and explosion 
hazards" can be required to organize and maintain an 
industrial fire brigade. This amendment represents the 
basis for the "Ordinance on Industrial Fire Brigades," 
which is the subject of the article. It regulates the kind 
of plant and size, structure, equipment, and training of 
brigade personnel, as well as their age and qualifications. 
(Fachdok 12/1050) 

1095. Hayman A 

PUBLIC SAFETY DEPARTMENTS: COMBINING THE 
POLICE AND FIRE FUNCTIONS. Internat City Man 
Assoc, Management Information Service; ICMA 

18759/MIS-776/N, 21 pages, 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-256 473/OGA 

Rising costs of public services in conjunction with grow- 
ing concern for increasing productivity have caused many 
municipalities to examine alternative ways to provide mu- 
nicipal services, especially in the areas of police and fire. 
One such non-traditional approach is consolidation, which 
integrates police and fire functions. This report presents 
an historical overview of the consolidation issue, defines 
different types of consolidated relationships, and details 
some of the legal restraints which may hamper a mu- 
nicipality's effort toward any type of consolidation. A 
case study approach is used to document the experiences 
of several cities that have successfully consohdated their 
departments, or developed other cooperative arrange- 
ments, as well as several cities that have tried or in- 
vestigated the concept and dropped it. Published in Man 
Information Service, 8(7): 1-16, 1976. (Author) 



215 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 



b. MEETINGS AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 

10%. Anon 

Fire Research Conference, NFPCA. Annual, Proc; 1976, 

Jul 14-16, APL/JHU, Laurel, MD; APL/JHU FPP B76- 

2, 207 pages. Sep 1976. 

Sponsor: National Fire Prevention and Control Admin, 

US Dept Commerce 

This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth 
annual conference devoted to exchanges among the con- 
tractors in the NSF/RANN Fire Research Program. A 
series of nine invited lectures was added to the program 
this year for the purpose of reporting, to the fire commu- 
nity, some of the baffling current problems. The contents 
consist of the nine invited lectures, NSF/RANN progress 
reports from Brown University, California Institute of 
Technology, Cornell University, Georgia Institute of 
Technology, School of Aero-Space Engineering and 
School of Mechanical Engineering, Harvard Universi- 
ty/Factory Mutual Research Corporation, the Johns Hop- 
kins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Northwestern 
University, Princeton University, Research Triangle In- 
stitute, Stevens Institute of Technology, University of 
California at Berkeley, University of California at San 
Diego, University of Montana, University of Notre Dame, 
and the University of Utah. 

1097. Anon 

HOME OFFICE OPERATIONAL STUDY ON SHIP FIRE 
FIGHTING 

Fire; 69(853):74, 1976 

A two-day operational study on ship fire fighting and 
port hazards was held at the Fire Service Technical Col- 
lege, Moreton-in-Marsh, UK, at the end of May 1976. 
The purpose was mutual consideration of problems as- 
sociated with fire fighting in ships and port installations 
between the fire service and port and shipping interests. 
The papers presented were as follows: fires on ships in 
docks and ports — current developments; fires in passenger 
ships, container ships and very large crude oil carriers 
in port; fires in cargo ships in port and associated 
preplanning arrangements; dangerous substances in rela- 
tion to ships and port areas; oil jetties — fire fighting 
problems; fire prevention in ships in port and under repair; 
fire training of Merchant Navy personnel; and ship fire 
fighting training at the Fire Service Technical College. 
Several articles in Fire Internal 5(52) are based on papers 
delivered at the conference (consult the Source Index). 

1098. Sylvia RP 

PUBLIC APATHY, LACK OF DATA HURT ARSON 
FIGHT, SFPE SEMINAR HEARS 

Fire Eng; 129(7):50-52, 1976 

Lack of public interest and useful data to determine 
the contribution of arson to the fire problem were cited 
as major weaknesses in the fight against arson at the 
Fifth Annual Seminar of the New York Chapter of the 
Society of Fire Protection Engineers on April 29, 1976, 
in New York City. A multifaceted view of the nation's 
arson problem was presented by speakers representing 
the fire service, investigators, the federal government, in- 
surers and industry. 8 photos. 



1099. Anon 

HIGH STANDARD TECHNICAL PAPERS AT RESTRUC- 
TURED CONFERENCE 

Fire Prot Rev; 39(433):552-553, 1976 

A brief report is made of the technical papers presented 
at the UK Fire Service Conference at Harrogate from 
11-15 October 1976, which comprised, in fact, three con- 
ferences: those of the Institution of Fire Engineers, the 
Fire Protection Association, and the Chief and Assistant 
Chief Fire Officers Association. The following papers 
were read: Training and Safety — Preparation; Training 
and Safety ' Planning and Protection: Training and Safety 
— Making it Work; Fire Engineers Education, Training 
and Status; Developments in Education for Fire Engineer- 
ing; Developments in Town Centres; Fire Loss Adjust- 
ment and Damage Control; The Estabhshment of Stan- 
dards and Codes of Practice for Special Extinguishing 
Systems; Insurance Requirements for Sprinkler Installa- 
tion Designs for Particular Risks; Speed — The Essence 
of Fire Protection; Protection of Flammable Liquid Bulk 
Storage and Handhng Facilities; Current Developments of 
Water Spray Systems; British Standards Institution Or- 
ganization and Our European and International Commit- 
ments; Vehicle Manufacturing Standards in This Country 
Relative to the EEC; Health and Safety Legislation; In- 
dustrial Relations; and Transportation of Dangerous Goods 
in Various Spheres, Particularly its Association with Eu- 
rope. 

1100. Anon 

FIRE SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION; Paper No. 1-12 

International Construction Science College Seminar, Proc; 

1975, Nov 18-20, Saint-Remy-les-Chevreuse, France, pages 

1-272 

Sponsor: International Construction Science College 

This publication contains the twelve papers presented 
at a seminar devoted to "Fire Safety in Construction" 
held at the College International des Sciences de la Con- 
struction at Saint-Remy-les-Chevreuse, France, in 
November, 1975. The titles of the papers, for which in- 
dividual abstracts are not available, are as follows: The 
Different Heat Transfer Modes — Fundamental Concepts; 
Toxicity of Fires; Fire and Medicine; Temperature Curves 
after Back Draft as a Function of the Duration of a Com- 
partment Fire; Fire Propagation Inside and Outside 
Buildings; Studies Conducted at the University of Gand 
on the Significance of Fire Resistance Tests of Concrete 
Floors; Fire Calculation of Concrete Structures; Principles 
and Proof Data by Calculating the Fire Behavior of Metal 
Structures; Method of Evaluating the Fire Hazard; 
Theoretical Calculation of Fire-Exposed Structures; Sum- 
mary Review; and, as an appendix. Mathematical Models 
for the Fire Behavior of Structures. The volume was 
published by the Eyrolles Co, Paris, France. 134 figs. 
(Author) 

1101. National Research Council 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 1-238 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

The proceedings, pubUshed in 1977 by the National 
Academy of Sciences, contains the 17 papers presented 



216 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

b. Meetings and Professional Activities— Continued 

at the 1975 symposium. For abstracts of the individual 
papers, consult the appropriate source index entry under 
Symposia. 

1102. Anon 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internal, 1st, 
Discussion Volume; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, 
pages 1-49 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 
Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The "Discussion Volume" represents the second volume 
of the complete proceedings of this symposium, the papers 
of which are abstracted in this issue of FTA and which 
can be found by consulting the Source Index under the 
appropriate symposium hstings. This volume contains the 
summary and concluding remarks of the host, Dr. D. 
J. Rasbash. 

c. LITERATURE AND NOTICES 

1103. Adams GH and Lehmann EJ 

BUILDING FIRES. VOL 1. 1964-1974 (A BIBLIOG- 
RAPHY WITH ABSTRACTS). Nat Tech Information Ser- 
vice, Springfield, VA; NTIS PS-76/0702/1GA, 136 pages, 
1976 
Availabihty: NTIS 

The bibliography covers reports on the flammability, 
fire resistance, burning characteristics, and fire safety of 
buildings, building materials, and building furnishings. Fire 
prevention, protection, and control are discussed, along 
with smoke, ignition, and thermal radiation characteristics. 
Fire tests and extinguishing equipment are also described. 
(This updated bibUography contains 137 abstracts, none 
of which are new entries to the previous edition.) See 
also NTIS PS-76/0703/1GA. (Author) 

1104. Adams GH and Lehmann EJ 

BUILDING FIRES. VOL. 2. 1975-1976 (A BIBLIOG- 
RAPHY WITH ABSTRACTS). Nat Tech Information Ser- 
vice; NTIS PS-76/0703/9GA, 114 pages, 1976 

The bibliography covers reports on the flammability, 
fire resistance, burning characteristics, and fire safety of 
buildings, building materials, and building furnishings. Fire 
prevention, protection, and control are discussed, along 
with smoke, ignition, and thermal radiation characteristics. 
Fire tests and extinguishing equipment are also described. 
See also NTIS PS-76/0702, Volume 1 covering 1964-1974. 
(This updated bibUography contains 112 abstracts, all of 
which are new entries to the previous edition.) (Author) 

d. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INCIDENT CRITIQUES 

AND ANALYSES 

1105. Anon 

EXPLOSION AND FIRE IN A CONFINED AT- 
MOSPHERE 

Face au risque; (122):18-19, 1976 (French) 

An explosion of undetermined origin and the subsequent 
fire in the cellar of a house resulted in three deaths and 
considerable property damage. The three victims were in 
a comer room on the ground floor and were taken 
unawares by the explosion below them in the cellar, which 



immediately spread upward through the stairwell in the 
form of a fire. The situation is illustrated in a sketch. 
The suppression and rescue operations are described and 
a number of observations on the incident and events sur- 
rounding it is offered. There was no possibility of escape 
from the comer room on the ground floor. 1 fig. (Fachdok 
12/0995) 

1106. Culver CG and Crist RA 

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF MILITARY RECORD 
CENTER 

J Am C oner Inst \ 72(4): 164- 165, 1975 

A brief description is given of the stmctural behavior 
of the Military Personnel Record Center, St. Louis, MO, 
during a severe fire on July 12, 1973. The building, buih 
in 1956 without expansion joints, is one of extremely large 
floor area. Damage incurred by the building is described. 
3 figs, 1 photo. (Author) 

1107. Viger R 

FIFTEEN FATALITIES IN A NIGHTCLUB FIRE 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(1 58): 50, 1976 (French) 

Safety codes were ignored when a building was con- 
verted into a nightclub; the exits were closed, for the 
most part, or walled up. Only one exit through a corridor, 
1 m wide and 11 m long, was open. The fire broke out 
in decorative wreaths; the ensuing panic resulted in fifteen 
fatalities. 

1108. Horeff TG 

A CRASHWORTHINESS ANALYSIS WITH EMPHASIS 
ON THE FIRE HAZARD: US AND SELECTED 
FOREIGN TURBINE AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, 1964- 
1974. Fed Aviation Admin, Sys Res and Dev Service; FAA 
RD-75-156, 167 pages, Jul 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A029 162/5GA 

An analysis of 382 impact-survivable/substantial damage 
turbine aircraft accidents and incidents which occurred 
during the 11 -year period from 1964 through 1974 was 
performed as part of an overall study of the interrelation- 
ship of aircraft crashworthiness and airport crash fire- 
rescue services. The analysis included 343 accidents and 
incidents which occurred in the US and 39 outside the 
US. Crashworthiness data were obtained from accidents 
both in and outside the US. The US accidents also pro- 
vided data for an airport crash fire-rescue service analysis. 
The crashworthiness analysis indicated that 94.9% of the 
fatalities in world-wide US air carrier impact-survivable 
accidents resulted from accidents where fire occurred. 
Fire and its effects were estimated to be the cause of: 
(1) 40% of the fatalities; (2) fatal injuries to 23.3% of 
the occupants in survivable/fatal accidents; and (3) a 
reduction in survivability, from 65.2% to 41.9%, of the 
occupants in survivable/fatal accidents. The status of FAA 
crashworthiness R and D programs directed toward the 
development of aircraft fire protective measures is 
described to focus on efforts being taken to reduce the 
fire hazard. (Author) 



217 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



GENERAL 



e. FIRE SCIENCE EDUCATION 

1109. Zwingmann R 

THE "FIRE PROTECTION" FIELD OF ACTIVITY - 
SEMINAR FOR ARCHITECTS AT THE BERLIN 
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY 

Brandschutz; 30(9):239-241. 1976 (German) 

The realization that thorough knowledge of preventive 
structural fire protection should be part of the professional 
background of every architect led to a seminar at the 
Institute for Construction and Interior Finishing, Environ- 
mental Engineering Department, divided into 3 working 
phases: basic information on fire protection is introduced 
to the students in several two-hour lectures (collection 
of information). At the same time, problems specific to 
fire protection are described in a comprehensive program 
by project teams (information processing). In the last 
phase the contributions of the project teams are presented 
in condensed form to the other seminar participants. A 
seminar critique to review the success of the teaching 
and learning program forms the conclusion of the seminar. 
1 fig. (Fachdok 13/0079) 

f. LEGISLATION 

1110. Dorias H 

LAW ON THE TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS 
GOODS 

Berufsgenoss; (6):219-224, 1976 (German) 

The law on the transportation of hazardous goods 
became effective on August 12, 1975. The law is intended 
to create a uniform legal basis for the Federal Republic 
of Germany so as to permit, by rapid decision and im- 
mediate involvement of the competent authorities, averting 
hazards which might arise, owing, e.g., to new products, 
designs or transportation. The development and expansion 
of the highway network and the increase in traffic volume 
of hazardous goods on highways, railroads, and inland 
waterways are shown in tables. The individual paragraphs 
of the law are commented on in detail in the sequel. 
7 tables, 1 ref. (Fachdok 12/0935) 

1111. Anon 

FIRE LEGISLATION 

Denryoku to lelsudo; 26(2):14-19, 1976 (Japanese) 

Some changes in the Japanese fire legislation aimed at 
increasing the fire safety requirements are reported in 
the article. The fire legislation represents a collection of 
codes and standards developed and approved by the Fire 
Protection Agency of the Japanese Ministry of Internal 
Affairs. The changes consist in the introduction of new 
documents (blanks are included) that must be correlated 
and approved by the Agency in the design stage of con- 
struction projects. The organization designing the building 
or other construction projects must fill out, correlate, and 
present these documents for approval. Various informa- 
tion on the design, dimensions, purpose, planning and 
operation of the project must be given in detail in these 
blank forms. Also entered is information on the fire-safety 
design, planning and materials used in the structure. A 
hst of the fire-protection measures taken in the major 
construction stage is given and, separately, a list of the 
fixed firefighting equipment provided for the project. 



Either mass-produced or individually designed fire detec- 
tion and extinguishing systems can be used. If specially 
designed, a detailed chart of the numerical values of the 
tactical and technical parameters of the systems and their 
components must be registered in separate blank forms. 
8 tables. (RZh) 

1112. Jiromaru S 

CHANGES IN THE JAPANESE FIRE LEGISLATION 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):l-3, 1976 (Japanese) 

A brief report is given on the principal changes con- 
nected with confirmation of the new fire legislation in 
Japan on 1 June 1974. The two main features of the 
new legislation compared with the old are noted: first, 
the new legislation contains a large number of specifica- 
tions, recommendations, standards, references to stan- 
dards, etc, that is, the regulatory provisions are given 
in considerable detail; secondly, the requirements of the 
new legislation have been made considerably more 
rigorous. The nature of the principal changes is illustrated 
graphically. It is reported that the majority of the technical 
specifications laid down in the new legislation was 
developed by the Standardization Group of the Ministry 
of Construction Work of Japan. (RZh) 

1113. Anon 

FIRE LEGISLATION AND DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):4-5, 1976 (Japanese) 

A number of definitions connected with problems of 
the new fire legislation as well as with terms used in 
fire practice is given. The principal categories of fire- 
hazard premises and of fire-fighting means are classified. 
A brief report is made on some of the essential features 
of the new fire legislation. (RZh) 

g. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 

1114. MassoudiMS 

THE IMPACT OF FIRE RESEARCH ON THE BUILDING 
INDUSTRIES AND FIRE SERVICES IN THE NEXT 
DECADE 

J Fire Flammability- 7(2):279-287, 1976 

The importance of fire research to the building indus- 
tries and fire services in the coming years is discussed. 
Despite present difficulties and deficiencies, fire research 
will be capable of making significant progress. 66 refs. 
(Author) 

1115. Anon 

SCIENTIFIC FIRE RESEARCH 

Prz poz: 64(2) :4-6, 1976 (Polish) 

Problems of standardization and coordination of scien- 
tific work in the fire area between scientific research or- 
ganizations of the USA are examined. An example is 
given of implementation of a scientific program at the 
Applied Physics Laboratory; the program was carried out 
by the following principal groups: information, statistics, 
theory of combustion, and protection. It is pointed out 
that the USA lacks a unified national program for scien- 
tific research in the fire area. (RZh) 



218 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF 
FIRE 



a. FIRE BUILDUP, PROPAGATION, AND SPREAD 



1116. Werthenbach HG 

SIGNAL FLOW CHART OF A 

TIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 

PARAMETERS. Part 2 

VFDB Z; 25(3): 100-102, 1976 (German 



TANK FIRE - RELA- 
MOST IMPORTANT 



The control process which governs the entire course 
of the fire is described, demonstrating the internal charac- 
teristics of a tank fire. The dependence of the essential 
fire parameters on the fire conditions can be seen. The 
assumptions and simplifications on which the control 
process is based are verified by comparison with measure- 
ments of tanks up to 2m in diameter. Thus, the control 
process provides a means for calculating tank fires and 
for further experiments aimed at refining the calculation 
process. (See FTA abstract 61 for the first part of this 
paper.) 9 figs, 5 refs. (Author) 

1117. Tu K-M and Davis S 

FLAME SPREAD OF CARPET SYSTEMS INVOLVED IN 
ROOM FIRES. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for Fire 
Res, Washington, DC, 42 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-256 130/6GA 

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that given 
a situation where a chair or other item of furniture 
becomes the first item to burn in a room (providing the 
ceiling and walls are non-combustible) there is little reason 
to expect involvement of the carpet in the fire beyond 
the immediate vicinity of the burning object. Four small- 
sized carpet fire tests and eight full-scale burn-room fire 
experiments were conducted. Experimental data for tem- 
perature distribution and incident heat flux to the floor 
covering were measured in the rooms. From this study, 
carpet systems used in rooms will not normally spread 
fire provided they meet the requirements of DOC FF 
1-70 (the pill test). (Author) 

1118. Budnick EK 

nRE SPREAD ALONG A MOBILE HOME CORRIDOR. 

Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for Fire Res, Washington, 
DC; NBSIR 76-1021, 56 pages, Jul 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-257 101/6GA 

A series of tests was conducted in the corridor area 
of a typically constructed mobile home. These tests were 
designed to: (1) evaluate the performance of a variety 
of combinations of wall and ceiling materials as a resuh 
of exposure to a typical ignition in a full-scale mobile 
home corridor, and (2) determine the relationship between 
full-scale tests and laboratory flammability tests, particu- 
larly the ASTM E-84 tunnel test, a measure of surface 
flame spread. The tests were restricted to one set of 
conditions in which the living room at the end of the 
corridor was exposed to a fire resulting from ignition of 
a standardized 6.4-kg (14-lb) wood crib. Nine tests were 
conducted with seven different combinations of wall and 
ceiling materials. (Author) 



b. FLAMMABILITY, IGNITION, AND EXTINCTION 

1119. Sumi K and Tsuchiya Y 

SPONTANEOUS IGNITION RELATION BETWEEN AM- 
BIENT TEMPERATURE AND SIZE OF SPECIMEN. Nat 

Res Council Canada, Div Bldg Res; BR Note ! 15, 6 pages, 
3 figs, Sep 1976 

A combustible material or a combination of reactive 
materials may undergo slow chemical reaction with the 
evolution of heat. If the rate of heat generation is greater 
than the rate of heat dissipation, the temperature of the 
specimen rises. The rise in temperature accelerates the 
self-heating process and causes further temperature rise. 
This self-heating process is one of the primary causes 
of spontaneous ignition. Materials that have a tendency 
to heat spontaneously include alfalfa meal, fish meal, coal, 
charcoal and rags contaminated with drying oils. 

The determination of kinetic constants of a self-heating 
reaction using an adiabatic furnace has been described. 
These data, combined with the more common physical 
properties of the material, permits the solution of general 
self-heating equations, including those where size and tem- 
perature become critical and ignition results. The relation 
between critical temperature and critical size of a self- 
heating material are thus obtained. Such information is 
extremely difficult to obtain directly from simple experi- 
ments in which ambient temperature and sample size are 
varied. (Author) 

c. FLOW OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

1120. Anon 

A REPORT ON SMOKE TEST METHODS 

ASTM Standardization News; 4(8): 18-25, 1976 

The following report is intended to update and supple- 
ment the article "The Control of Smoke in Building Fires" 
pubUshed in the Apr 71 issue of Materials Res and Stan- 
dards, particularly in regard to more extensive discussion 
on selected lab test methods for smoke measurement. A 
similar approach is followed in this report, namely, smoke 
problems are considered separately from the thermal, gas, 
toxicity, and oxygen deficiency hazards presented by 
fires. In summary, consideration of any smoke test 
method results for selection of building construction and 
furnishing materials should recognize that smoke limit 
requirements for building products should be based on 
the quantity of the product likely to be involved in the 
fire and in any apphcation of the results the values should 
not be considered fundamental material properties or 
characteristics. They are specimen properties and 
representative of the performance of the product in the 
thickness and assembly nature used and under the test 
conditions imposed. It is considered that more research 
is needed to fully understand the fire process itself and 
to demonstrate the fallacy of using simplified solutions 
to a complex problem. 5 figs, 1 table, 15 refs. (Author) 

1121. Rockett JA 

FIRE INDUCED GAS FLOW IN AN ENCLOSURE 

Combust Sci Technoh 12(4-5-6): 165-175, 1976 

The gas flow induced by a small fire in a large room 
is considered. The fire plume acts as a pump and the 
window opening as a throttle. Generalizations of 



219 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 
c. Flow of Combustion Products — Continued 

Kawagoe's expressions for the window air flow and height 
of the neutral plane are developed and used to rationalize 
previously unexplained features of Gross and Robertson's 
enclosure fire data. 8 figs, 17 refs. (Author) 

1122. Fire Check Consultants 

HRE SET IN A NEW BUILDING TO TEST SMOKE 
CONTROL BY PRESSURIZATION 

Fj>e;69{853):71-73, 1976 

Satisfactory tests of the pressurized smoke control 
system in a new six story building in Hamburg (FRO) 
are reported. The pressurization system was two-stage 
with a low level of pressurization in the elevator lobby 
and staircase during building occupancy and a higher level 
"emergency state" pressurization in the event of fire. 
Three types of tests were carried out: 1) measurement 
of the pressure differentials and air flows established in 
the building when simulated leakage areas were 
established; 2) a visual demonstration of the system 
behavior using cold smoke generated in the second-floor 
fire room; and 3) an actual fire test of the building in 
which a full-scale fire was staged. The fire load was 370 
kg of wood arranged in two groups of eight cribs with 
large slabs of polystyrene between cribs to produce 
smoke. Diagrams of the building and system and a table 
record of this fire test illustrate the test situation. 4 figs, 
1 table. 

1123. Olajossy A, Roszczymalski W and Waclawik J 
LINEAR MODEL OF THE FLOW OF FIRE GASES IN 
MINE WORKINGS 

Zesz probl gorn\ 13(2):3-20, 1975 (Pohsh) 

No abstract available. 

1124. Morgan HP, Marshall NR and Goldstone BM 
SMOKE HAZARDS IN COVERED MULTI-LEVEL 
SHOPPING MALLS: SOME STUDIES USING A MODEL 
2-STORY MALL. Building Res Estab (UK), Boreham 
Wood, UK; BRE CP-45/76, 14 pages, 14 figs, 5 tables, 
9 refs, Jun 1976 

A 1/10 scale model shopping mall was used to in- 
vestigate quantitatively the eifects of a number of struc- 
tural features of the mall on certain variables; these in- 
cluded the smoke extraction rate, and the optical density 
(and hence visibility) at head height. The optical density 
was studied using a tracer-gas modelling technique. Other 
variables studied were the vent area, air inlet area and 
the size of the openings (voids) passing smoke between 
levels. Conclusions are drawn concerning the optimum 
values for these variables. Further modifications are 
shown to be necessary to achieve maximum visibility on 
upper levels of the mall. It is shown that the lateral spread 
of smoke below the upper deck should be minimized, 
as should the perimeter of the rising smoke plume. Fresh 
air entering the upper mall should move at a low velocity 
when it first encounters smoke. (Author) 

1125. McCaffrey BJ and Quintiere JG 

BUOYANCY DRIVEN COUNTERCURRENT FLOWS 
GENERATED BY A FIRE SOURCE 

Turbulent Buoyant Convection Sem, Internat, 1976, Proc; 

1976, Aug 30-Sep 4, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, pages 457- 

471 

Sponsor: Internat Center for Heat and Mass Transfer 



The velocity and temperature fields were determined 
for fire-induced flows in corridors. The effects of scale, 
fire size, and doorway openings are presented. Detailed 
measurements illustrate the complex recirculating three- 
dimensional character of the flow field. Mass flow rates 
are determined for the doorway openings and are used 
to determine the extent of entrainment. A critical Richard- 
son number criterion was used to identify the mixed and 
stably stratified regions of the flow field. 11 figs, 5 refs. 
(Author) 

d. INSTRUMENTATION 

1126. Scheidweiler A 

THE IONIZATION CHAMBER AS SMOKE DEPENDENT 
RESISTANCE 

Fire Technol; 12(2):1 13-123, 1976 

The effect of aerosols on the ionic current flowing 
through an ionization chamber is useful in quantitative 
aerosol measurement and in the development of smoke 
dependent detectors. The ionization chamber is regarded 
as a nonhnear resistance, which changes its impedance 
when influenced by an aerosol. Starting with the charac- 
teristic chamber equation, impedance is calculated as a 
function of smoke density. As a means of measurement 
of the sensitivity to smoke, the relative change in re- 
sistance has an advantage over the relative current 
changes now being used. With uniform ionization and con- 
stant field, calculated and measured values are in good 
agreement. The approach has been successful in practice. 
7 figs, 1 table, 7 refs. (Author) 

1127. Breden LH and Meisters M 

THE EFFECT OF SAMPLE ORIENTATION IN THE 
SMOKE DENSITY CHAMBER 

J Fire Flammability; 1 (2) -.234-241 , 1976 

Smoke measurements were compared for various materi- 
als in the vertical and horizontal positions. There appeared 
a significant difference for thermoplastic materials because 
of the melting away from the incident heat flux in the 
vertical position. The horizontal mode in addition allows 
one to relate the chemistry of polymeric materials to the 
amount of smoke production. Finally, smoke measure- 
ments are made of products containing various amounts 
of smoke suppressants. 8 figs, 4 tables, 10 refs. (Author) 

1128. Kanury AM and Martin SB 

A PROFILE OF THE HEAT RELEASE CALORIMETER 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials S\mp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 266- 

278 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

This paper explores the potential of the heat-release 
rate calorimeter as a tool to develop information useful 
in assessing fire hazard of materials as they are used 
in construction. Details are given of concepts for deducing 
from a typical heat-release rate versus exposure time 
curve, a variety of basic and applied physicochemical pro- 
perties of materials in fires. The practical significance 
of these properties is discussed in relation to the com- 
bustion processes occurring in a fire. Among the proper- 
ties considered are: thermophysical properties of the 



220 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

d. Instrumentation — Continued 

tested material, time of piloted and spontaneous ignition, 
fire spread with external radiation, fire endurance of slabs, 
rate of heat-release, extinguishability, B-number, self-heat- 
ing and smoke production. 3 figs, 11 refs. (Author) 

e. METEOROLOGY 

f. RADIATION 

g. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 

3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF 

MATERIALS 

[For literature on fire and flame retardants, fire and 
flame proofing, etc see Chemical Abstracts] 

a. CHARACTERISTICS AND THERMAL 
BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS 

1129. Makein A 

DEVELOPMENT OF A DATA SHEET ON THE FIRE 
BEHAVIOR OF PLASTICS FOR PROCESSING BY EX- 
PERTS IN PREVENTIVE FIRE PROTECTION 

BF Hamburg (FRO); 66 pages, 1975 (German) 

The data sheet contains the name and symbol of the 
plastic, the characteristics of its fire behavior, the nature 
of the smoke, physiological properties, extinguishants 
required, and protective measures for the firefighter. 
Forty-one data sheets have been prepared for the plastics 
presently on the market; their properties were derived 
from the Hterature. It was found that many gaps exist 
in our knowledge of the fire behavior of a number of 
plastics. The reverse side of the data sheet contains addi- 
tional information for preventive structural fire protection. 
1 fig, 7 refs. (Fachdok 12/1118) 

1130. Anon 

PLASTIC COATINGS OBTAINED BY MEANS OF 
POWDER 

Face au risque; (120):35-39, 1976 (French) 

The "classical" application of plastic coverings and 
coatings by liquid plastics is being superceded by the 
development of new techniques in which the coverings 
and coatings are applied by means of plastic powders. 
A description is given of the different kinds of plastics 
that are suitable for demonstrating the advantages of this 
new technique, the occupancies chiefly suitable for this 
method, the technique of application by spray guns, baths 
and electrostatic methods, the flammability hazards and 
susceptibility to explosion and the latent hazards of the 
use 01 plastics. 3 figs, 1 table. (Fachdok 12/0695) 

1131. Kishitani K and Mori M 

PHYSICAL BEHAVIORS DUE TO HEATING OF CE- 
MENT-BASED COMPOSITE MATERIALS CONTAINING 
HIGH POLYMERS AS DISPERSED PHASE 

Nihon kenchiku gakkai ronbun hokokushu; (229):1-14, 1975 
(Enghsh; Japanese Summary) 

Many kinds of high polymers have been developed and 
have come into wide use, from clothing to building materi- 



als. These high polymers just happen to possess merits 
lacking in cement, and since they are convenient cement- 
reinforcing materials, they have been the subject of much 
research and experimental production focusing on cement- 
based composite materials containing high polymers as 
the dispersed phase. Although it is reported in such stu- 
dies that the weak points of the cement are eliminated 
with regard to degree of heat resistance and fire proper- 
ties, they have in fact only been suggested, and examina- 
tions based on experiments have not been carried out. 
It has been pointed out in research that most materials 
made up chiefly of high polymers have defects when sub- 
jected to fire that can be decisive. Since building materials 
containing high polymers have such properties as genera- 
tion of toxic gas and smoke, as well as aggravation of 
fire damage, the toxicities of the combustion gases must 
be rigorously checked, even when the high-polymer con- 
tent is very small. This study is therefore made by mea- 
suring strengths, changes in length, noncombustibility and 
generation of toxic gases in heating tests in order to deter- 
mine the behavior expected from cement-based composite 
materials containing high polymers when exposed to fire. 
1 photo, 12 figs, 6 tables, 8 refs. (RZh) 

1132. HiladoCJ 

AN OVERVIEW OF THE FIRE RESPONSE OF NON- 
METALLIC MATERIAL; Paper No. 7 

American Chemical Society National Meeting, 1 72nd, Ab- 
stracts of Papers: 1976, Aug 29-Sep 3, San Francisco, CA 

Nonmetallic materials should be considered from the 
systems viewpoint, because materials acquire their im- 
portance from their contribution to a total system. 
Systems can be divided into subsystems; subsystems can 
be separated into components, and components into in- 
dividual materials. A building or vehicle can be divided 
into rooms or compartments, which in turn are made up 
of walls and items of interior furnishings; all these can 
ultimately be separated into individual materials. Most of 
the work on fire response characteristics has been done 
on materials, much less on components, and even less 
on subsystems and systems. Fire experience represents 
a source of considerable information on systems, because 
an actual fire is the ultimate fire test. The number of 
deaths in a fire is the number of persons who need not 
have died, had the materials found proper use in the 
system. Relevant papers and reports published in 1974 
through 1976 indicate that fire spread, heat, and smoke 
were the most critical fire response characteristics in fatal 
fires in buildings, and that fire spread, smoke, and toxicity 
were the most critical fire response characteristics in vehi- 
cle fires. (Author) 

1133. Beall FC 

PROPERTIES OF WOOD DURING CARBONIZATION 
UNDER FIRE CONDITIONS; Paper No 39 

American Chemical Society National Meeting, 1 72nd, Ab- 
stracts of Papers; 1976, Aug 29-Sep 3, San Francisco, CA 

Selected basic properties of wood, potentially related 
to rate of charring and thermal parameters, are being mea- 
sured under simulated temperature conditions of fire expo- 
sure without flaming. A wide variety of species, of struc- 
tural and/or anatomical interest, are being carbonized in 
a horizontal furnace. Nominal 1 cm^ samples are oven- 
dried and exposed to heating at 1 to 50°C/min, in flowing 



221 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



nitrogen, to 200 to 600°C. Dimensions of the samples 
are obtained from photomicrographs before and after heat- 
ing. Shrinkage in each plane and density are obtained 
as functions of species, heating rate, and end temperature. 
Elemental analysis is being used to relate dimension 
changes to oxygen loss from samples. Crushed samples 
are measured for wood-substance density from which to 
obtain porosity. Preliminary studies are being conducted 
to extend the basic work into measurement of diffusion 
and permeability, effect of inhibited diffusion by sample 
coating, shrinkage restraint in fissure development, and 
thermal conductivity and expansion during heating. The 
information generated will be used to provide a better 
understanding of the role of density in the rate of charring 
of wood, and permit a more accurate analysis of thermal 
diffusivity during fire conditions. (Author) 

1134. Rogowski BFW 

PLASTICS IN BUILDINGS - FIRE PROBLEMS AND 
CONTROL. Building Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Sta; BRE 
LP-39/76, 14 pages, 4 tables, 14 refs, Jun 1976 

This paper reviews the more common applications of 
plastics in building construction and discusses the effect 
on their fire performance of factors such as density, 
thickness and method of use. Test methods appropriate 
for assessing the probable fire performance of construc- 
tional elements or lining materials incorporating plastics 
are listed and the possibility of different types complying 
with current Building Regulations requirements is in- 
dicated in the tables. (Author) 

1135. Dobbs AJ and Grant C 

REPORT ON THE BURNING OF WOOD TREATED 
WITH WOOD PRESERVATIVES CONTAINING 
COPPER, CHROMIUM AND ARSENIC. Building Res 
Estab (UK), Fire Res Sta; BRE CP-63/76, 9 pages, 2 ta- 
bles. 22 refs, Sep 1976 

Mixtures of copper, chromium and arsenic salts are used 
extensively in the UK to preserve timber. This report 
is concerned with the fate of these metals when timber 
treated with these salts is burned. A large percentage 
of the arsenic present in the timber is shown to be volatil- 
ized during combustion and the potential environmental 
imphcations of this are assessed by comparison with the 
release of arsenic during coal burning. From this assess- 
ment it is concluded that burning of treated wood is un- 
likely to add significantly to the quantity of arsenic 
present in the atmosphere, although the concentration of 
arsenic in the discharged flue gases could give rise to 
local problems. Much of the arsenic and the chromium 
that remains in the ash is in the water-soluble form and 
the possible implications of this are discussed. Recommen- 
dations based on findings reported here have been made 
to the Directorate General Water Engineering for con- 
sideration by the Arsenic Wastes Working Party, which 
will be producing guidelines for the disposal of treated 
wood under the Control of Pollution Act of 1974. (Author) 



1136. Maries K 

PREDICTION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRP 
LAMINATES. Building Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Sta; BRE 
CP-70/76, 8 pages, 4 figs, 3 tables, 6 refs, Oct 1976 

The prediction of thermal conductivity in glass-fiber- 
reinforced polyester resin (GRP) laminates from fire 
theoretical models are compared with the experimental 
results for five different types of glass reinforcement. 
One model is shown to predict values within ±3% of 
experimental data for all the samples except for non- 
planar, chopped-strand reinforcement, where the predic- 
tion was low. (Author) 

1137. Pagni PJ, Clow KH, Heffner G and Bard S 
OBSERVATIONS ON THE BURNING OF URETHANE 
MATTRESSES. Univ of California (Berkeley), Mech Eng 
Dept; UCB FRG 76-2, 28 pages, 12 figs, 4 tables, 14 
refs, Oct 1976 

Experimental results obtained by burning commercially 
available urethane mattresses on a weight loss apparatus 
are described. Flame shape, flame growth rate, solid- and 
gas-phase temperatures, and mass loss rate are measured 
during a six minute period after ignition. Empirical histo- 
ries of the flame radius, spread rate, mass loss rate and 
flame height are developed from a substantial data base. 
Species concentration data are also obtained for H2O, 
C02,H(x)C(y), O2, HCl and HCN in and above the flame. 
Experiments are currently underway to characterize soot 
particles in and above the flame. Predictions of radiant 
heat transfer to the mattress and the surroundings are 
in good agreement with radiant flux measurements in 
full-scale tests at Harvard-Factory Mutual which utilized 
identical urethane mattresses. (Author) 

1138. LieTT 

VERTICAL FLAME SPEED OF FABRICS. Nat Res Coun 
cil Canada, Div Bldg Res; NRC CNR TT-1855, 1976 

The most important factors that determine the degree 
of danger of flammable fabrics are the spread of propaga- 
tion of the flames and their intensity. Due to the erratic 
character of flames, measuring of these quantities is dif- 
ficult. In this paper a method is described that enables 
reasonably accurate measurement of the speed of flame 
propagation and flame intensity by using wires with a 
well-defined melting point. Based on this method the verti- 
cal flame speed of various materials has been evaluated. 
The method is also suitable for use in other areas in 
which the speed of propagation of flame front is of in- 
terest. (Author) 

1139. McCarter RJ 

SMOLDERING OF FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM. 

Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for Fire Res; PB-257 
125/5GA, 14 pages, Jan 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

The smoldering behavior of various flexible polyu- 
rethane foams was studied. All foams smoldered when 
exposed to cigarette and fabric smolder, posing degrees 
of potential hazard. A few foams exhibited self-sustained 
smolder and were judged exceptionally hazardous. 
Smolder behavior was compared to oxygen indices, densi- 
ty, permeability, and charring tendencies of the foams. 
A significant correlation was found between smoldering 



222 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



and charring (opposed to melting) tendencies. Distinctly 

different combustion behavior was noted for foams based 

on conventional polyols versus grafted polyols, and for 

foams containing fire-retardant additives. Possibilities for 

modifying smolder behavior are discussed. Also pubhshed 

in J Consumer Prod Flammability, 3:128-140, Jun 1976. 
(Author) 

1140. T'ien JS and Prahl JM 

EXTINCTION MECHANISM OF SPREADING DIFFU- 
SION FLAME OVER CELLULAR PLASTICS. Case 
Western Reserve Univ; RP-75-!-12, 36 pages, 10 figs, 2 
tables, 16 refs, Jul 1976 

The combustion and extinction phenomena in the stagna- 
tion point boundary layer of a condensed fuel is studied 
experimentally and theoretically with emphasis on the 
near-limit flame. The numerical analysis assumes a 
second-order forward overall chemical reaction in the gas 
phase, with gas-phase activation energy and modified 
frequency factor to be determined by comparison with 
the experimental results. The effect of external radiation 
on the extinction limit is computed using a simplified 
model. Burning rates and extinction data are determined 
from measurements taken on polymethylmethacrylate sam- 
ples in an opposed-jet diffusion flame apparatus. Favora- 
ble agreement between experimental extinction data and 
theoretical predictions are obtained for a gas-phase activa- 
tion energy of 30 kcal/mole and modified frequency factor 
of 5.27 X lO'^ sec"^ (This paper is the first annual 
progress report covering the period Aug 1, 1975 - Jul 
31, 1976.) (Author) 

1141. Smith HE and Heibel IT 

EVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF CELLULAR 
PLASTICS IN FIRE SYSTEMS. Ohio State Univ, Dept 
Chem Eng; PRC RP-75-1-36, 125 pages, 37 figs, 10 tables, 
1976 

During the past year, development work in two areas 
proceeded concurrently: (1) improving the equipment and 
procedures for acquiring release-rate data for heat and 
smoke, and (2) extending and improving the mathematical 
simulation models of developing fires. Under the first 
task, a computer system for data acquisition was 
specified, installed, and software completed to collect, 
calculate, and correct data from the release-rate apparatus; 
the radiant heating source was changed so that heat flux 
to the sample of 10 W/cm^ can be generated and a 
low-cost microcomputer designed to collect, calculate, and 
correct data from the release-rate apparatus. Procedures 
for measuring flame travel rates were modified, and ef- 
fects of'soaking" and oxygen concentration on heat- and 
smoke-release rates were studied. Work on modeling 
produced improvements in the compartment model and 
sensitivity analyses of the major variables in this model. 
A first-generation model of a comer test was formulated 
and tested. Details of these developments are described 
in the report. (Author) 



1142. Higgs DA and Manley TR 

THE USE OF THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES IN 
THE STUDY OF THE BURNING OF BUILDING 
MATERIALS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 226- 

230 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Preliminary results are presented of a study into the 
thermal degradation of woods and polymers, chiefly 
polyolefins, nylons and acrylics. Thermogravimetry and 
smoke emission measurements were made. Parameters 
determined were: (i) temperature at which (a) smoke first 
appeared, (b) at which the first weight loss was noted 
and (c) at which a standard proportion of the weight loss 
had occurred; (ii) activation energy for the reactions 
derived from (a) amount of smoke produced and (b) from 
weight lost; and (iii) area of the peak of the smoke emis- 
sion and the maximum obscuration, and the temperature 
at which maximum obscuration occurs. 1 fig, 1 table, 
3 refs. (Author) 

1143. HallGS 

HEAT RELEASE, BY WOOD-BASED MATERIALS AND 
THE ROLE OF FLAME RETARDANT TREATMENTS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 279- 

286 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The role of rate of heat release as a component of 
a material's reaction to fire is considered in the light 
of the possible need to exercise control of use of materials 
in building on this basis. Various methods of assessing 
rate of heat release are briefly summarized, and this is 
followed by a consideration of those material properties 
that influence results in this test. 1 fig, 6 refs. (Author) 

1 144. Handa T and Takahashi A 

THE COMBUSTION BEHAVIOUR OF ORGANIC 
MATERIALS AND THE EVALUATION OF FIRE RE- 
TARDANT EFFECTS BY SMALL ELECTRIC FURNACE 
TESTS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials S\mp, Internat, 1st, 
Proc: 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 287- 
295 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 
Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The combustion behavior of organic materials (wood, 
wood-plastic composites (WTC) and plastics), with and 
without fire-retardant treatment, was investigated in terms 
of the parameters burning rate, heat evaluation in the 
soUd and gas phases, smoke density, and toxic gas evolu- 
tion, obtained by small electric furnace tests. Varied were 
the input parameters: surrounding and hot-bath tempera- 
ture and the ratio of the air supply and oxygen partial 
pressure of the ambient air. Semi-empirical methods based 
on the test-furnace results were used for the analysis, 
correlating the combustion parameters with burning rate 
in order to evaluate the effectiveness of fire-retardant 
treatment in reducing the fire hazard of organic materials. 
Subsequently, the variation of heat output and burning 



223 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



rate with test conditions was studied in furnace tests. 
Finally, analysis of the correlation between the modes 
of radiative and connective heat transfer, the modes of 
input thermal flux, and the local burning velocity were 
studied by the furnace test. 12 figs, 4 refs. (Author) 

1145. Tatem PA and Wilhams FW 

EVALUATION OF MATERIALS FOR EXPOSURE TO 
FIRE ENVIRONMENT 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 341- 

347 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The flame retardancy of a material is not a sufficient 
measure of its safety. A variety of methods have been 
designed to test the flammabiUty of materials, but these 
designations usually fail to take into account other more 
insidious hazards, such as nonluminous smoldering and 
emission of toxic products. PreUminary fire performance 
tests have been formulated at the Naval Research Labora- 
tory for a special carbon-impregnated polyurethane foam 
that addresses the problems of smoldering combustion and 
toxic product emission. These tests have been adapted 
to phosphonitrilated cellulose fabrics. Product profiles 
from this material have been determined under similar 
stress conditions. 2 tables, 1 ref. (Author) 

1146. Taylor W 

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF PLASTICS IN FURNITURE 
AND FURNISHINGS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 348- 

354 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

This paper provides a description of the first two year's 
work of a contract placed at RAPRA by the Department 
of the Environment (UK) and financed by the Home Of- 
fice on the Fire Hazards of Plastics Furniture and 
Furnishings. The contract was for three years and finished 
in June, 1975. Most of the work was carried out in the 
full-scale fire testing facility at Shawbury. We have kept 
in mind throughout the work the way in which furniture 
may become exposed to fire hazard with special emphasis 
on the ease of ignition and behavior under developing 
fire conditions. This involved, initially, use of suitable 
small-scale tests on examination of real furniture used 
singly and as part of fully furnished rooms. The points 
covered in this paper include: a) The importance of suita- 
ble coverings in foam-filled upholstery; b) the importance 
of avoiding smoldering potential; c) factors affecting the 
fire hazard of beds, carpets and curtains; and d) factors 
affecting fire build-up in fully furnished rooms. 6 figs. 
(Author) 

1147. Alvares NJ 

SOME EXPERIMENTS TO DELINEATE THE CONDI- 
TIONS FOR FLASHOVER IN ENCLOSURE FIRES 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 375- 

383 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consuhancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 



Experiments on the ignition and fire spread charac- 
teristics of simulated upholstery items have been made 
by exposing the items to irradiances from a large incan- 
descent-thermal radiation source. The motive for this ex- 
periment was to determine the response of upholstered 
items to low levels of irradiance in the intensity range 
that could be expected in enclosures containing other 
burning items. The measured inflammabihty parameters 
were the time to ignition, the rate of weight loss, and 
the rate of flame spread. The results show that ignition 
thresholds of upholstered panels are significantly reduced 
compared to the threshold of the covering fabric, flame 
spread rates are greatly enhanced upon exposure to low 
irradiance levels, and single item flashover of ignited 
upholstered items occurs when the irradiance level equals 
or exceeds the critical irradiance for ignition. 7 figs, 8 
refs. (Author) 

1148. Herman PR 

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF LIGHTWEIGHT VERSUS 
TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975 , Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 391- 

401 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Within the permitted space/time, an outUne of 
established fire performance of timber-framed lightweight 
walls has been given and then may be compared with 
traditional masonry walls. The choice of material, system, 
or form of construction may be dictated by one or more 
of a number of requirements, e.g., cost, speed of erection, 
portability, or transportability, demountability, loadbearing 
capacity, durability, appearance, etc. The object of this 
paper is simply to show that adequate fire resistance is 
capable of being achieved, simply and economically, with 
combustible materials. Since building regulation require- 
ments are normally based upon performance, the designer 
has a great deal of freedom of choice of materials and, 
we hope, may not now feel needlessly bound by tradition. 
2 tables, 6 refs. (Author) 

b. COMBUSTION, EXPLOSION, AND 

FLAMMABILITY TESTS AND METHODS 

1149. Kelly KM 

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEW SIL- 
ICONE RTV FOAM 

Society of Plastics Engineers Annual Technical Conf, 34th, 
Proc; 1976, Apr 26-29, Atlantic City, NJ, pages 222-224 
Sponsor: Society of Plastics Engineers, Greenwich, CT 

In order to characterize the flammability properties of 
the new silicone foam that is being used as a penetration 
seal fire stop, a test program that includes laboratory 
tests and large-scale bums has been initiated. The tests 
range from vertical bum and Limiting Oxygen Index to 
large-scale wall and floor burns that follow ASTM E- 
119-73. The foam performed satisfactorily in every test 
condition, with the exception of ASTM E-126-73 "Non- 
Combustibility of Material" in which materials with mea- 
surable BTU contents do not perform well. The spectrum 
of testing of the flammability characteristics of the silicone 
foam will be broadened with additional testing that will 
include various standards of ASTM and UL. 2 refs. 
(Author) 



224 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods — Continued 



1150. Nelson GL 

PLASTICS, LABORATORY TESTS, AND FULL-SCALE 
FIRES 

Am Chem Soc, Div Org Coat Plast Chem, Prepr; 
36(l):217-223, 1976 

This paper discusses in general terms the problems of 
fire behavior of materials, particularly of plastics. The 
behavior of materials - in relation to fire stress can be 
described in a number of different ways: ease of ignition, 
flame spread, fire endurance, fuel contribution, and smoke 
evolution, etc. A multitude of flammability tests measuring 
one or more of these properties have been developed. 
One testing company reports abihty to perform 40 dif- 
ferent such tests. Current fire test programs in different 
countries, however, show considerable variance. One re- 
port of a relative rating of 24 materials by 6 national 
standard fire rating tests showed nearly random results; 
a material eminently acceptable in one country would be 
rejected in another. Materials behave to fire stress in 
different ways under different circumstances. By defini- 
tion the fire retardant materials are those materials which, 
after evaluation by a reasonable variety of tests both as 
materials and in the end product, show a reasonable 
degree of risk at a desired degree of stress. 27 refs. 
(Author) 

1151. Favand M 

THE RESULTS OF SMOKE AND TOXIC GAS ANALYSIS 
TESTS ON MATERIALS USED IN AIRCRAFT CABINS 

Face au risque; (123):26-30, 1976 (French) 

A compilation is made of all the smoke tests and toxic 
gas analyses worth mentioning that have been carried out 
to date. The values of CO, HCL, HCN, NO and NO2 
contents are listed for transparent and opaque materials, 
hot worked, appHed in layers or as a film coating, as 
well as those of flexible and rigid plastics. 3 figs, 5 tables. 
(Fachdok 12/1101) 

1152. Sauers DG 

THE EFFECTS OF FORCED AIR FLOW AND OXYGEN 
CONCENTRATION ON FLAMMABILITY, SMOKE DEN- 
SITY, AND PYROLYTIC TOXICITY 

J Fire Flammability; 7(2):181-199, 1976 

The question is posed whether forced air flow should 
be incorporated into flammability tests as a relevant varia- 
ble. A test apparatus is described which permits tests 
to be conducted, on small test specimens, in a forced 
flow which is (continuously) variable over flow velocities 
from zero to 300 feet per minute (1.52 m/s). The effects 
of air-flow rate and oxygen concentration on flame 
propagation rate, maximum smoke density, and pyrolytic 
product toxicity were measured for a single material and 
were statistically evaluated. Regression analysis was used 
to graph the resulting relationships. It is concluded that 
air velocity is an important variable for laboratory flamma- 
bility testing. 9 figs, 8 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 

1153. Ward CD and Jaeckel SM 

MEASUREMENT OF THE FLAMMABILITY OF AP- 
PAREL FABRICS 

J Text Inst; 67(9):309-318, 1976 

An account is given of an investigation of different 
ignition sources, fiber types, fabric configurations, support 



frames, and test-specimen dimensions to determine which 
were most reahstic and convenient for flammability test 
methods. The sources included gas and alcohol burners 
and electric fires; the fibers were cotton, wool, ther- 
moplastic fibers, and other synthetic fibers; the configura- 
tions were vertical planes and cylinders; the frames were 
pin-studded straight supports and curved cylinders and 
drums, with free and restricted access of air; and the 
dimensions were narrow, wide, long, and short in single- 
layer and multi-layer specimens. 9 figs, 3 tables, 4 refs. 
(Author) 

1154. Anon 

INFLAMMABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES 

Technica (Switz); 25(3): 165, 1976 (German) 

A device is perfected for the determination of the criti- 
cal oxygen concentration at which a specimen of material 
ignites. This device can determine the critical oxygen con- 
centration at temperatures up to 400°C with an accuracy 
of up to 5°C. The device permits direct observation of 
the process of combustion and flame spread. It includes 
a glass combustion chamber and an electronic circuit for 
controlling the temperature of the gas flowing through 
the chamber. The combustion chamber consists of two 
concentric glass cylinders. The inner cyUnder, into which 
the test specimen is placed, has a diameter of 75mm and 
height 45()mm. It is wound with a heating element, ensur- 
ing uniform temperature over the entire length of the 
specimen. The outer cylinder serves as a shield. The 
specimen is heated to 400°C in 15 minutes. After the 
specified temperature conditions are reached, an oxygen- 
nitrogen mixture of a specific composition is passed 
through the chamber. Specimens of textiles, plastics, elec- 
tronics parts, paints, structural materials, fertihzers, etc. 
can be tested in this device. (RZh) 

1155. Sugawara S 

NONCOMBUSTIBILITY TEST METHOD FOR ELEMEN- 
TARY BUILDING MATERIALS 

Tokyo daigaku kogakubu kiyo. A; (13):8-9, 1975 (Japanese; 
English Summary) 

It is emphasized that reducing the combustibility of 
building materials is one of the most effective means of 
reducing the material losses from fires. A brief survey 
is made of methods for studying the combustibility of 
the materials most widely used in industry and construc- 
tion. A basically new method is proposed for determining 
fire resistance which is complex and intended for a wide 
group of modem inorganic building materials. The com- 
plexity of the new method consists in combining the use 
of a special furnace chamber for burning test specimens 
and a comparatively complicated mathematical tool in the 
form of analytical computational formulas used to calcu- 
late by a specified method intermediate experimental data 
obtained from instruments during the burning of 
specimens. The design and operating principle of the fur- 
nace chamber are illustrated. The chamber design permits 
variation of the internal conditions over a broad range. 
In addition to the principal factors connected with the 
heating capacity of the specimen being burned, a study 
is also made of the nature of fire spread over the surface 
and bulk of the specimen. It is noted that knowing the 
topographical aspects of fire spread permits more rational 
use of the existing building materials from the viewpoint 



225 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods — Continued 



of fire safety. The use of the chamber and calculating 
method is illustrated on the basis of a concrete example. 
4 figs. (RZh) 

1156. Ziemelis MJ 

FLAMMABILITY AND FIRE HAZARD PROPERTIES OF 
POLY(DIMETHYLSILOXANE); Paper No. 88 

American Chemical Society National Meeting, 1 72nd, Ab- 
stracts of Papers; 1976, Aug 29-Sep 3, San Francisco, CA 

Flammability and fire hazard properties of 
poly(dimethylsiloxane) fluids are compared to hydrocar- 
bons of similar voIatiUty characteristics. Small- and large- 
scale test data relating to ignition, fire growth and flame 
spread, heat release, extinguishment, smoke evolution, fire 
gases, toxicity of smoke and fire gases, and oxygen deple- 
tion, are presented. Volatile siloxanes (b.p.<250°C) tend 
to bum at higher rates than hydrocarbons of similar 
volatility. However, fluids of b.p.<250°C undergo pool 
burning with concurrent surface oxidation, giving gradual 
formation of a white silica surface ash with a gelled 
methylsiloxane layer beneath. These reflective layers, if 
undisturbed, lead to a marked reduction in burn rate with 
self -extinguishment for low volatiUty, higher MW fluids. 
High MW fluids must undergo rearrangement to volatile 
cyclic siloxanes in order to bum, a process which is rapid 
above 350°C. Large-scale pool bums, monitored by weight 
loss, heat flux and temperature measurement, clearly show 
the effect of ash and char formation in reducing hazard. 
Smoke-density testing, including measurement of particu- 
late mass, indicates a lower hazard for silicones than for 
hydrocarbons. Animal toxicity tests confirm a lower 
hazard for smoke and fire gases from low volatility silox- 
anes. Extinguishment behavior is similar for hydrocarbons 
and silicones of comparable flash point. (Author) 

1157. Brein D and Schatz H 

MODEL FIRE TESTS TO DETERMINE THE COM- 
BUSTION PROCESS IN FIRES OF SOLID MATERIALS. 

Univ Karlsruhe, FRG, Fire Prot Eng Res Center; AGF 
27, 131 pages, 87 figs, 14 tables, 6 refs, 1975 
Availability: Fachdok 

Measurements were made in nine arrangements of wood 
cribs of varying porosities consisting of square pine tim- 
bers of differing length and thickness in order to deter- 
mine the combustion process of such cribs. Temperature 
measurements were also made within and above the cribs, 
with particular attention to the initial phase. The geometry 
of the cribs was varied and cribs were ignited at two 
different points, whereas the moisture of the wood was 
held constant by air conditioning. The ambient tempera- 
ture and humidity in the test area could not be influenced. 
Each test was repeated to check the reproducibility of 
the measured values. 

An analysis of the experimental results shows that the 
burning site is more strongly affected by the size of the 
gaps and the location of the ignition source than by the 
length of the timbers. The size of the gaps determines 
the quantity of combustion air supplied to the seat of 
the fire and, therefore, the intensity of the exchange 
between fresh and exhaust gases. Consequently, a max- 
imum burning rate is reached for gap diameters that are 
one to three times as large as the timber thickness. If 
the gaps are larger, the burning velocity drops. In this 
range the magnitude of the burning rate depends on how 
fast the flame can spread horizontally. 



The temperature measurements yielded information on 
the speed of horizontal fire spread through the cribs. A 
value is obtained for the speed of ignition of a single 
duct by determining the temperature gradient with time 
in the temperature range in which pyrolysis occurs. 
(Author) 

1158. Smith A 

FIRE/FLAMMABILITY TEST OF POLYURETHANE 
FOAMS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS. Construct Eng 
Res Lab (Army); CERL TR-M-129, 63 pages, 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A028 386/1 GA 

Foamed plastics offer a number of advantages in 
Theater of Operations (TO) construction. They can be 
shipped to a site in low- volume, high-density forms and 
converted to low-density, high-volume construction 
materials. The low-density forms thus made possess high 
strength and good stability and are typically excellent ther- 
mal insulators. They can be used either as primary stmc- 
tural materials (foam domes) or as secondary structural 
materials contributing to the rigidity and load-bearing 
capability of wood or metal framework (panelized 
buildings). The greatest drawback to use of foamed 
plastics is flammability; generally, such materials bum 
when subjected to fire, even with the best commercially 
available flame retardants incorporated. Protection of a 
stmcture (and its inhabitants) in which a foamed plastic 
' has been used requires the development and evaluation 
of a protective coating to reduce flammability of the 
foamed plastic. The objective of this investigation was 
to develop a protective coating medium which will allow 
and encourage the use of foamed plastics in TO constmc- 
tion. Polyurethane foams were identified as the most 
probable candidates for TO construction, and because 
using available materials without adding new ones to the 
inventory stock list is desirable, a coating composed of 
Portland cement, lime, sand, and water was developed. 
(Author) 

1159. Miles LB 

A BASIC INVESTIGATION OF THE EXTINGUISHABILI- 
TY OF VARIOUS FABRICS. Univ of Maryland, Dept Tex- 
tiles and Consumer Economics, College Park, MD; NBS 
GCR-76-77, 96 pages, 1976 
AvailabiUty: NITS PB-257 767/4GA 

In considering extinguishability hazards both the in- 
herent qualities of a fabric as well as human reactions 
are important. This study concentrates on the former 
aspect. Linear burning rate and heat flux are measured 
for twelve fabrics within a TRI Flammability Analyzer 
cabinet. Initial work deals with ambient oxygen effects 
on the burning rate and heat flux of each fabric measured 
at four levels of oxygen. From the resulting data, a series 
of relationships were studied by regression techniques. 
The latter work investigates heat sink/interstitial effects 
on buming rate and heat flux. Two heat-sink designs were 
evaluated using temperature and distance as variables. In 
studying cooling effects, each fabric was tested at three 
heat-sink distances. Burning rate and heat flux were 
plotted as functions of inverse heat-sink distance. (Author) 



226 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods — Continued 



1160. Annamalai K and Sibulkin M 

IGNITION AND FLAME SPREAD TESTS OF CELLULAR 
PLASTICS. Brown Univ, Div Eng; TR-1, 33 pages, 11 
figs, 2 tables, 18 refs, Jul 1976 

A literature review on the thermophysical and chemical 
properties of cellular plastics was conducted. A pilot flame 
gas ignition system with an associated relay system for 
triggering an event marker to record the appUcation and 
removal of the pilot flame was developed. An ionization 
probe and probe ampUfier for use in flame spread time 
measurements was designed and fabricated. In addition, 
a radiative spot heater was tried as»an ignition source. 
A radiative heat flux gage and electronic mass balance 
were used for radiative heat output and mass loss mea- 
surements. This report represents the final report for the 
first year of the research project. Details are reported 
for ignition tests, flame spread times, mass loss measure- 
ments, and radiative flux. (Author) 

1161. Thomas PH 

FACTORS AFFECTING IGNITION OF COMBUSTIBLE 
MATERIALS AND THEIR BEHAVIOR IN FIRE 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Sxmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 84- 

99 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The main emphasis in this paper is on presenting in 
some detail an attempt to integrate the theoretical view 
about ignition and burning for the idealized case of a 
laminar boundary layer. It will be argued that deciding 
whether or not ignition occurs can involve us in discussing 
a complex system including the gas phase, its composition 
and temperature, and the surrounding aerodynamic en- 
vironment which affects the boundary layers and the mix- 
ing of fuel and oxygen. In general, if ignition can occur, 
it will usually be dominated by the heating process of 
the sohd in normal atmospheres, which is little different 
from that of an inert material which has to be raised 
to a particular temperature. Whilst it is convenient to 
refer to this temperature as an ignition temperature, it 
is not a unique property of the materials, and this is 
particularly the case for materials with a strong component 
of self-heating in the solid phase. The properties of ther- 
mal conductivity and capacity of the various components 
of our material will also affect the rate at which flame 
can spread along its surface. 

The paper includes also some discussion of the role 
of ignition in flame spread and more generally some 
aspects of the growth of fire in buildings. 8 figs, 40 refs. 
(Author) 

1162. Kanury AM 

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF FIRE AND FLAMMA- 
BILITY TESTS: HI. THE LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX 
TEST 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 187- 

198 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

This paper is one in a series aimed at relating testing 
technology with fire science and presenting systematic 



theoretical analyses of the more promising methods of 
testing polymer flammabihty and performance in a fire. 
The well-known Umiting oxygen index test of Fenimore 
and Martin is analyzed here. Considering small laminar 
pool fires, an equation based on heat (im)balance at extin- 
guishment is derived for the dependency of Umiting ox- 
ygen index on various physicochemical properties of the 
test system. The predictions are in excellent accord with 
the extensively available experimental data. 3 figs, 1 table, 
21 refs. (Author) 

1163. Abbott C and Chalabi R 

THE HEATED OXYGEN INDEX TEST 

Fire Safetx of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 296- 

303 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Increasing interest has been shown in heated Oxygen 
Index testing since the original work reported by DiPietro 
and Stepniczka in 1970. This paper summarizes the recent 
developments in this field which prompted our investiga- 
tions. The original objective was to examine a range of 
polymer systems with selected flame-retardant additives. 
However, practical difficulties with polyurethane foam 
samples led to the development of a new technique for 
assessing the burning behavior of materials at high tem- 
perature. Recognizing the pioneering nature of the work, 
it is hoped that the principles estabhshed will promote 
further action on this subject. 4 figs, 8 tables, 5 refs. 
(Author) 

1164. Miles LB 

A BASIC INVESTIGATION OF THE EXTINGUISHABILI- 
TY OF VARIOUS FABRICS. Univ of Maryland, Dept Tex- 
tiles and Consumer Economics, College Park, MD; NBS 
GCR-76-77, 96 pages, 1976 
Availability: NITS PB-257 767/4GA 

In considering extinguishability hazards both the in- 
herent qualities of a fabric as well as human reactions 
are important. This study concentrates on the former 
aspect. Linear burning rate and heat flux are measured 
for twelve fabrics within a TRI Flammability Analyzer 
cabinet. Initial work deals with ambient oxygen effects 
on the burning rate and heat flux of each fabric measured 
at four levels of oxygen. From the resulting data, a series 
of relationships were studied by regression techniques. 
The latter work investigates heat sink/interstitial effects 
on burning rate and heat flux. Two heat-sink designs were 
evaluated using temperature and distance as variables. In 
studying cooling effects, each fabric was tested at three 
heat-sink distances. Burning rate and heat flux were 
plotted as functions of inverse heat-sink distance. (Author) 

1165. Wilde DO 

A REVIEW OF TEST METHODS FOR FIRE-RESISTANT 
CONVEYOR BELTS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 304- 

309 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburg Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 



227 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods — Continued 



Conveyor belts may have to resist the spread of flame 
over their surface while the belt is installed in a ventilated 
enclosure in conditions which favor the spread of fire 
in any material that becomes ignited. The nature of the 
hazard arising when work people are downwind of an 
enclosed fire is outlined. Three criteria are proposed 
which, it is suggested, conveyor systems and conveyor 
belts should meet to ensure that conveyor systems do 
not start fires and conveyor belts do not spread them. 
A number of tests for the fire resistance of conveyor 
belts in use in the mining countries of the EEC are briefly 
described, and the characteristics of the tests are com- 
pared with the three criteria. Some full-scale fire trials 
of conveyor belts carried out in Germany are mentioned. 
The relationship is discussed between full-scale fire trials 
and tests that have been adopted in some mining coun- 
tries. Results are summarized of industrial experience of 
fires on conveyor belts following the adoption of different 
tests in various countries. The role of a simple, rapidly 
conducted flame test as a means of quality control during 
the manufacture of belts is stressed. Suggestions are made 
for a re-examination of the conditions in which conveyor 
belts may be exposed to fire and for a reappraisal of 
the desired performance of belts in realistic simulations 
of industrial fires. 5 refs. (Author) 

1166. Suzuki H 

SOME PROBLEMS OF FIRE TESTING METHODS AND 
PERFORMANCE OF DURABILITY OF FIRE RE- 
TARDED BUILDING MATERIALS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials S\mp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 310- 

316 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Two types of testing methods similar to the methods 
specified in BS 476 are being enforced in Japan for the 
evaluation of non-combustibihty and fire propagation. 
However, some difficulties were encountered in the appli- 
cation of these methods to recently developed composite 
materials. This paper deals with a) some basic problems 
that have been experienced in the methods and b) the 
reliabiUty of fire-retardant performance for those materials 
with time when subjected to actual service environments. 
The test method for evaluating non-combustibility is dif- 
ficult to apply for some types of composite materials, 
e.g., those comprising aluminum or glass, which are 
melted away at temperatures below 750°C. One or two 
additional thermocouples are required to obtain more ac- 
curate temperatures in the test furnace. For the fire 
propagation test, newly developed composite materials 
with intumescent layers are rather hard to evaluate, as 
the swollen layer can reach the surface of the electric 
heater. Time-dependent reUability of fire-retardant per- 
formance of fireproofing is of prime importance but is 
not considered in any currently enforced standard fire 
test. In this paper experiments are described in which 
five types of fire retarded materials were subjected to 
accelerated weathering conditions. Results obtained clearly 
show some deterioration of fire-resistance performance 
as a result of delamination, deformation, loss of retardant 
agent, etc. 3 figs, 1 table. (Author) 



1167. Holmes FH 

FLAMMABILITY TESTING OF APPAREL FABRICS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 317- 

324 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

This paper outhnes the results of a research project, 
conducted jointly by the Shirley Institute and Hatra for 
the Home Office, with the aim of providing improved 
and more realistic methods of test of the fire hazard of 
apparel fabrics. Measurements of ease of ignition, rate 
of spread of flame, and amount of heat evolved were 
made on numerous single fabrics and two-fabric assem- 
blies. It was found that specimens much wider than those 
commonly used were necessary if the rate of spread of 
flame was to be related to real-life situations. Different 
materials could differ considerably in their manner of 
burning, and for an adequate characterization it was 
necessary to measure flame spread over the fabric in two 
dimensions (e.g., both vertically and horizontally). 
Proposed new methods of test are described. 5 figs, 1 
table, 1 ref. (Author) 

1168. MurchRM 

NEW SMALL SCALE TEST METHOD FOR CELLULAR 
PLASTICS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internal, Isl, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 333- 

340 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

In view of general dissatisfaction with the small-scale 
cellular plastics flammability tests currently in use in the 
US and uneasiness with the direction new test develop- 
ment is taking, we elected to generate interest in genuinely 
small-scale, rigorous testing procedures. Initially the pro- 
gram involved developing better understanding of the most 
common test procedures, then subsequently analyzing 
these with modifications in mind. The tests considered 
here are ASTM-D-1692, MVSS-DOT 302, UL 94, ASTM- 
3014, Mobil 45° Test, and the ASTM-D-2863 (Oxygen 
Index Test). We elected to modify the Oxygen Index Test 
in a manner patterned after the work of Stuetz and cowor- 
kers. The development of this new test, a wicked, inverted 
oxygen index measurement, involved studying many varia- 
bles to fix a set of conditions that provide reproducible 
data that are not dependent on the operator or type of 
foam being tested. The data developed from this test 
imply we may have a simple method of measuring the 
effects governed by polymer degradation and combustion 
energy evolution. 1 fig, 1 table, 1 ref. (Author) 

c. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF 
MATERIALS 

1169. Quintiere JG 

THE APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF A 
FIRE TEST METHOD TO DETERMINE THE FIRE 



228 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 

HAZARD OF FLOOR COVERING FIRE SPREAD IN 
BUILDING CORRIDORS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internal, 1st. 

Proc- 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 355- 

366 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

In recent years, much attention has been given to mea- 
suring the potential flame spread hazard of building cor- 
ridors, in which a floor covering material is the only com- 
bustible present. The intention has been to develop stan- 
dards for floor coverings which will limit corridor flame 
spread when the corridor is exposed to a large room fire. 
Under such circumstances, flame spread along the cor- 
ridor floor is promoted by radiant heat transfer due to 
the room fire. The proposed test method measures the 
flame spread characteristics of a floor covering material 
under an external radiant heat flux. One parameter the 
test measures is the external heat flux at the point of 
extinguishment. This has been interpreted as the minimum 
of "critical" radiant heat flux required to support flame 
spread. A theoretical model was developed to simulate 
the physical characteristics of the test method and sample 
materials. The test method can be applied to measure 
the potential hazard of building corridors with floor 
coverings by comparing the critical flux measured for a 
material with an anticipated corridor heat flux due to a 
large fire. Results are presented which display corridor 
floor heat flux for various room fire intensities. These 
results are compared to theoretical predictions which illus- 
trate the effect of corridor geometry and fire conditions 
on heat flux to the floor. 7 figs, 18 refs. (Author) 

1170. Labutin AL 

FLAMMABILITY OF PAINT AND VARNISH COATINGS 
CONTAINING ALUMINUM POWDER 

Bezop tr prom-sti; (4):34, 1976 (Russian) 

Varnishes containing aluminum powder are much used 
in the chemical industry because of their low price and 
attractive appearance. Tests in the USA have shown that 
sparks can be generated when varnished surfaces are 
struck by hard objects, especially when the surface is 
corroded. Soviet experiments have shown that the use 
of varnishes with 30-50% aluminum powder is very dan- 
gerous in areas with explosion hazards. Sparks can be 
generated in synthetic resin varnishes even without a 
powder additive. (Fachdok 12/1018) 

1171. Saranchuk VI, Raskidkin VK, Zenina MN and 

nRE-HAZARD PARAMETERS OF FLAT ORE WASTE 
HEAPS 

Bor'ba gazom, pyVyu i vybrosami v ugofn shakhtakh; 
(ll):15-20, 1975 (Russian) 

On the basis of theoretical and experimental investiga- 
tions, a method is proposed for determining the fire- 
hazard parameters of flat ore waste heaps: the height 
of the deposited layer of ore and the width of the insulat- 
ing layer at the edge of the bank. (RZh) 

1172. Kramer U 

WOOD-DUST FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS 

Holzrundschau; 32(699):699-710, 171-112, 1976 (German) 



The critical dust in the air is 12 grams per m^ . Ignition 
or explosion can occur from an external source, such 
as a cigarette spark, as well as from self -heating of the 
dust in contact with the air or as a result of an electro- 
static discharge. Considered are the causes for the forma- 
tion of explosion- and fire-hazardous mixtures of wood 
dust and/or of flour with air under industrial conditions, 
the possible causes of wood-dust fires and explosions and 
precautionary measures to prevent them. 

1173. Prager F 

"DIFFICULT TO IGNITE." A SEAL OF QUALITY IN 
FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING? 

Kunsist J, 10(l/2):6-7, 1976 (German; Enghsh, French and 
Italian Summaries) 

It is pointed out that the large number of fires in recent 
years has been associated with the absence of a unified 
terminology, classification and fire protection require- 
ments for the properties of materials that determine their 
fire hazard. Also commented on is the lack of methods 
of testing these materials, which should take into account 
the specific factors of the ambient medium (ventilation, 
duration of the fire source, etc.), which play an important 
role in the outbreak and development of a fire. The clas- 
sification of construction materials in effect in the FRG 
(in accordance with standard DIN 4102) is discussed, and 
a list of materials assigned to class BI (difficult to ignite) 
is given which, if used, will ensure reliable fire protection. 
(RZh) 

1174. Chelnokova VN, Khramova EI, Khazafiskaya LV 
and Rudakov IP 

DETERMINATION OF THE EXPLOSION- AND FIRE- 
HAZARD CATEGORIES OF BATCHES OF PAINT 

Lakokrasoch materialy i ikh primenenie; (l):78-80, 1976 
(Russian) 

A method is developed for determing the explosion- 
and fire-hazard categories of various batches of paint. 
The method contains recommendations establishing 
production categories by comput-.tional methods as well 
as quantity and properties of materials capable of forming 
an explosive mixture. The volume of the mixture is deter- 
mined on the basis of the accident situation of the 
premises. An example of calculating the explosion-hazard 
concentration in an occupancy of a spray-applied batch 
of paint is given. 5 refs. (RZh) 

1175. Anon 

FIRE HAZARD IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY 

Naeringsmiddelindustrien; 29(1/2):3,5,11, 1976 

(Norwegian) 

The fire-hazard materials being used in the food industry 
are enumerated: propane, ammonia and Freon (in coolers), 
alcohols and esters. Some of the physical properties of 
ammonia, propane and ethyl alcohol are given. The explo- 
sion hazard of dust is noted. 2 tables. (RZh) 

1176. Anon 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS WHICH HAMPER FIRE 
SUPPRESSION 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):22-23,191, 1976 (Japanese) 

Given are the results of complex studies in which the 
combustibility of some new construction materials widely 



229 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 

used in Japan was determined. It is noted that, in violation 
of the specifications of fire-protection legislation, these 
materials contain substances which actively promote com- 
bustion and which, in addition, generate toxic gases, creat- 
ing the added hazard of injuring people and hindering 
their evacuation and extinguishment of fires. Since most 
of these materials contain synthetic resins, when they bum 
they generate large quantities of such gases as acetylene, 
propane, butane, propylene, methane, ethylene, etc. The 
numerical parameters characterizing the experimental con- 
ditions and the specific volumes of the toxic gases given 
off when specimens were burned are given. (RZh) 

1177. Anon 

COMBUSTIBLE AND SEMI-COMBUSTIBLE MATERI- 
ALS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):24-31, 1976 (Japanese) 

A large number of the materials, including metals and 
organic compounds, most widely used in large modem 
industrial plants, such as sodium, potassium, aluminum, 
calcium carbonate (carbide), chlorobenzine, etc., are clas- 
sified by degree of fire hazard. The critical masses are 
given for each material; also analyzed are other parame- 
ters of the ambient medium and the conditions in which 
these materials begin to represent a fire hazard. The heat- 
ing capacity and other combustion characteristics of the 
classified materials are also estimated. 4 tables. (RZh) 

1178. Fredriksson R 

DIVIDED OPINIONS ON PLASTICS IN FIRES 

Plastforum; 7(3):30-33, 1976 (Swedish) 

The results of an inquiry carried out in Sweden on 
the role of plastics in fires are reported. The chief of 
the fire service in the city of Lund responded negatively, 
especially with respect to PVC, and stood for a complete 
ban on this materiaJ, citing examples from his fire suppres- 
sion experience of fires in which PVC was the chief 
reason for high losses. An engineer of the fire prevention 
section of the city of Malmo considers that PVC may 
be used, but with considerable restrictions. A representa- 
tive of a company producing PVC sections points out 
the advantages of this material, which, in his opinion, 
compensate for the deficiencies. All three indicate that 
not enough information is available on plastics, one of 
the principal reasons for the large losses in fires. (RZh) 

1179. Martin R 

DUST EXPLOSION RISK WITH METAL POWDERS 
AND DUSTS 

Poyvder Metall; 19(2):70-73, 1976 

Ignition of dust clouds of many combustible materials 
including metals may result in explosion; the charac- 
teristics of this phenomenon are described. Tests to deter- 
mine the explosibility of dusts, and precautions to limit 
the spread and effects of explosions, are discussed. Spe- 
cial reference is made to the explosible characteristics 
of magnesium, zinc, iron, and other metal powders and 
dusts. 5 refs. (Author) 

1180. Smelkov GI, Aleksandrov AA and Pekhotikov VA 
COMBUSTIBILITY OF METAL PARTICLES IN THE 
CASE OF SHORT-CIRCUITING 

Prom Energ; (2):9-I2, 1976 (Russian) 



Discussed in the article are the results of studies which 
will permit determination of the coefficient of fire hazard 
as a function of the distance between the short-circuit 
zone and the combustible material, of the energy released 
during shorting and of the type of combustible material. 
(RZh) 

1181. Blumhagen H-J 

FIRE HAZARDS OF ELECTRICAL LINES IN VEHICLES 

Schadenprisma; 5(3);46-51, 1976 (German) 

The electrical cables in a vehicle which connect the 
battery to the fuse distributor panel and the starter are 
not protected against shorting by cable protection assem- 
bhes, such as fusible conductor fuses. Here fire hazards 
can arise owing to ground shorting. All the other cables 
and electrical drive components are protected in ac- 
cordance with the cross section of the cable or the rated 
current of the drive component, which does not ehminate 
the fire hazard in case of ground shorting, but does reduce 
it. As an example, a number of vehicle (tractor) fires 
are cited in which defective battery cables were found 
to be the cause of the fires. The most expedient ways 
of protecting against such surprises are discussed, such 
as by installing a "battery switch" or by careful inspection 
of the battery cable. 12 figs, 3 refs. (Fachdok 12/1097) 

1182. Enstroem A 

FIRE HAZARDS OF FOAM INSULATION 

Vnser Brandschutz; 26(8):12, 1976 (German) 

Rigid urethane foams are an ideal insulating material, 
but are thermally unstable. They disintegrate when sub- 
jected to ultraviolet radiation. When exposed to heat, they 
ignite, and the flame spreads rapidly. Six guidelines to 
be observed when working with polyurethanes are given. 
(Fachdok 12/1046) 

1183. Affens WA and Lange EA 

IGNITION OF FLAMMABLE GASES IN CRUDE-OIL 
TANKERS AS A RESULT OF METAL FRACTURE. Nav 

Res Lab; NRL-8013, 15 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A027 411/8GA 

A literature search and an energy analysis have shown 
that the energies generated and the temperatures 
developed by metal fracture are not sufficient to ignite 
a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon vapor and air 
directly. It was concluded from this study that if metal 
fracture were to be a cause of ignition, it would be be 
due to frictional impact or friction of fractured metal 
structural members with each other or with other objects. 
It was also concluded that normal impact (without friction) 
or single rubbings would not generate sufficient energy 
for ignition unless friction sparks also resulted. Friction 
sparks are more likely to cause ignition if highly pyrophor- 
ic metals are present. It was also concluded that adiabatic 
compression is a possible source of ignition in the case 
of ship collisions. (Author) 

1184. Anon 

MATRIX OF ELECTRICAL AND FIRE HAZARD PRO- 
PERTIES AND CLASSIFICATION OF CHEMICALS. Nat 

Acad Sci; USCG D-82-76, 75 pages, 1975 
Availabihty: NTIS AD-A027 18177GA 



230 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 

The National Research Council Committee on 
Hazardous Materials established an Electrical Hazards 
Panel to make a detailed study of physical and flammabih- 
ty properties of vapors in order to assign classifications 
to chemicals of commerce according to the classification 
groups given in the National Electrical Code, Article 500. 
This matrix was prepared for use by the Panel as an 
aid in the classification of each chemical. The Coast 
Guard requested that it be published so that a permanent 
record of the data, which had only been made available 
to the Panel, would be retained and could be enlarged 
on in the future. The Matrix does not represent an ex- 
haustive coverage of the literature, but it is believed the 
most reliable references were used in assembling the data. 
(Author) 

1185. Buchbinder B and Buchbinder LB 

THE FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS PROCESS AT THE NA- 
TIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 156- 

161 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The Office of Information and Hazard Analysis (OIHA) 
performs its hazard analysis function by means of a 
multi-faceted program combining in-depth case history in- 
vestigation of fire accidents, laboratory experimentation, 
fire testing, and data analysis to identify and characterize 
specific hazards. 

Hazard characterization serves to influence the formula- 
tion of basic fire research, to guide test method develop- 
ment for codes and standards, to identify data required 
to be collected, and to provide input to public education 
for fire safety. These functions are performed in concert 
with other United States government agencies, including 
the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration 
(NFPCA) in the Department of Commerce, with which 
we have a close working relationship, and the Consumer 
Product Safety Commission, which we support in product 
standard development. 

The main portion of this paper defines the current fire 
hazard analysis process illustrated by results from the 
fabric flammability project, describes how this process 
is evolving into the more quantitative process of the fu- 
ture, and discusses the data needed for future hazard 
models. 2 figs, 1 table. (Author) 

d. NATURE OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

1186. Benbow AW and Culhs CF 

MECHANISMS OF SYNERGISM IN FLAME RE- 
TARDANCE 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internat, /jc, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 218- 

225 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Detailed studies have been made of the mechanism of 
the synergistic action between halogens and a wide variety 
of other elements in reducing the flammabiUty of 
hydrocarbon polymers. 

The commercially important synergism between an- 
timony oxide and halogen compounds, known to be due 



to gas-phase flame-poisoning reactions, has been shown 
to involve volatiUzation of the antimony solely as the 
trihaUde in an exothermic reaction. Studies of the thermal 
degradation of a wide variety of halogen compounds have 
shown that their synergistic flame-retardant activity in 
conjunction with antimony is related to their mode of 
decomposition or volatiUzation. 

Many halogen compounds decompose in the condensed 
phase to liberate hydrogen halide quantitatively. When 
a wide range of metal oxides are heated with such halogen 
donors, five types of behavior are observed. The metal 
oxide may be completely inert (e.g., AI2O3 and B2O3); 
or have an inhibiting effect (e.g., AgaO) or a promoting 
effect (e.g., Fe203) on the decomposition of the halogen 
compound without any metal hahde being volatilized. 
Other metal oxides may be partially volatilized (e.g., 
Sn02) or completely volatilized (e.g., Sb203 and ZnO). 
The mechanism of such volatiUzation, as well as that of 
the interaction between halogen compounds and hydrated 
or mixed oxides (e.g., zinc borate hydrate), has also been 
elucidated. 1 fig, 2 tables, 14 refs. (Author) 

1187. MorikawaT 

ACROLEIN, FORMALDEHYDE, AND VOLATILE 
FATTY ACIDS FROM SMOLDERING COMBUSTION 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):135-150, 1976 

The maximum evolution of volatile fatty acids, formal- 
dehyde, and acrolein was obtained when materials were 
subjected to smoldering combustion at 300 to 400°C. The 
materials which produced relatively large quantities of irri- 
tants were polyethylene, polypropylene, vinylon, and cel- 
lulose. Estimated concentrations of both acrolein and for- 
maldehyde versus time in a smoldering fire indicate that 
a considerably hazardous condition could be reached even 
when flaming does not occur. 16 figs, 3 tables, 14 refs. 
(Author) 

1188. Christopher AJ 

SOME ASPECTS OF SMOKE AND FUME EVOLUTION 
FROM OVERHEATED NON-METALLIC MATERIALS 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):89-102, 1976 

The development to date of a dynamic system assessing 
the smoke and fume emission characteristics of non-metal- 
lic materials is described. A sample of the material under 
examination is heated from ambient to 500°C in a stream 
of air. In this way, the behavior of the material under 
in-flight electrical overheating conditions is simulated more 
closely than in the NBS smoke chamber test. Sample 
temperature, smoke density, and electrode response in 
a water bubbler are monitored. Results, including "smoke 
numbers", obtained for various materials are presented 
and discussed. 8 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs. (Author) 

1189. Bankston CP, Cassanova RA, Powell EA and Zinn 
BT 

INITIAL DATA ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 
SMOKE PRODUCED BY BURNING MATERIALS 
UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS 
J Fire Flammability; 7(2):165-180, 1976 

A description is given of results obtained in a series 
of small-scale tests investigating the properties of the com- 
bustion products generated during the burning of samples 
of wood, rigid urethane foam and PVC plastic under non- 



231 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

d. Nature of Combustion Products— Continued 

flaming conditions, in a recently developed ventilated 
combustion-products test chamber. Smoke-particle size 
distributions are determined through sampling techniques 
utilizing a Whitby aerosol analyzer and an Andersen sam- 
pler (i.e., a cascade impactor). Available results provide 
quantitative and quahtative data on the burning rates of 
the samples and properties of the particulate matter 
generated by burning the above-mentioned materials. Dif- 
ferences in smoke properties are evident as burning condi- 
tions vary. 16 figs, 11 refs. (Author) 

1190. Grand AF 

DEFINING THE SMOKE DENSITY HAZARD OF 
PLASTICS 

J Fire Flammability, 7(2):217-233, 1976 

Using the NBS Smoke Chamber technique, the Max- 
imum Specific Optical Densities of a variety of flame- 
retarded and nonflame-retarded polymers were determined 
under both flaming and smoldering conditions. Tabulation 
of the "Maximum Smoke Density Hazard" was accom- 
plished by selecting the higher maximum smoke density 
(either flaming or smoldering) for each specimen. 
Likewise, the greater rate of initial smoke evolution was 
selected. This method for rating materials with respect 
to their worst smoke density hazard is especially pertinent 
in the cases of polymers such as flexible urethane foams 
and polypropylene, or cellulosics, where a higher smoke 
density is produced under smoldering conditions than 
flaming. Also, new light is shed on the comparisons of 
smoke densities from flame-retarded polymers compared 
to nonflame-retarded polymers. A normalization of the 
Maximum Hazard smoke densities to either a thickness 
or weight basis is further recommended to encourage more 
uniform tabulation of data. 5 figs, 4 tables, 14 refs. 
(Author) 

1191. Stauffer RC, Larsen ER, Petrella RV, Manca A 
and Miller DP 

DIBROMONEOPENTYL GLYCOL - ITS EFFECT ON 
SMOKE EVOLUTION IN UNSATURATED POLYESTERS 

J Fire Retard Chem; 3(l):34-43, 1976 

Dibromoneopentyl glycol influences the amount of 
smoke generated when unsaturated polyester resins are 
forced to burn. The results presented suggest that smoke 
production is not proportional to the bromine content of 
the system, and that other components of the system 
may have an even greater influence upon smoke evolution. 
The effect of alumina trihydrate on smoke production 
is also discussed. 6 figs, 16 refs. (Author) 

1192. Miller DP, Petrella RV and Manca A 

SMOKE AND TOXIC GAS EMISSION FROM BURNING 
UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESINS 

ModPlasf, 53(9):95,97-98,101,103, 1976 

By careful selection of fire retardant system, polyester 
backbone and reactive crosslinker, it is possible to obtain 
unsaturated polyester resins with high levels of flame re- 
tardancy and low smoke evolution. Data in this report 
are for one specified set of test conditions (small-scale 
and ignitions) and may not be predictive of what occurs 
in a large-scale fire situation. 6 figs, 6 tables, 7 refs. 
(Author) 



1193. Sumi K and Tsuchiya Y 

TOXICITY OF DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS — 
POLYACRYLONITRILE, NYLON 6 AND ABS. Nat Res 

Council Canada, Div BIdg Res; BR Note III, Apr 1976 

A decomposition method of obtaining quantitative data 
of combustion and pyrolysis products of various materials 
has been developed and reported in an earlier paper. 
Three more materials, polyacrylonitrile, nylon 6 and ABS 
(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene), were decomposed using 
that method over a wide range of experimental conditions 
and the main toxic products (HCN, CO and CO2) were 
quantitatively analyzed. The toxicity of the three was as- 
sessed using the fire toxicity concept (originally called 
toxicity index concept). (Author) 

1194. Calcraft AM, Green RJS and McRoberts TS 
BURNING PLASTICS: SMOKE FORMATION 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 253- 

257 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The study of smoke formation during the burning of 
plastics is of importance in the development of building 
materials that are free from hazard in real fire situations. 
Exposure of plastics to radiant heat yields combustible 
"fuel gases," but, owing to hmited infusion of oxygen 
to the burning zone, combustion of these gases is seldom 
complete. The smoke-producing behavior of materials can 
be influenced significantly by the conditions of generation, 
and this is very relevant to the design of standard tests. 
New equipment has been designed for exposing samples 
of plastics to variable heat radiation under controlled com- 
position and flow of atmosphere and for the measurement 
of the evolved smoke as optical density at maximum ob- 
scuration (D(max)). Studies have been carried out over 
a heat flux range of 15 to 75 kW m""^ on polystyrene, 
poly( vinyl chloride), and on three grades of cross-linked 
polyester formulated for different resistance to surface 
spread of flame. The relative order for smoke propensity 
of these materials depended on the intensity of the heat 
radiation. Analytical studies on the composition of the 
smoke have been compared with micropyrolysis experi- 
ments. The concentrations of some identified aromatic 
and aliphatic degradation products pass through maxima 
as the temperature of decomposition is increased, and 
there are indications that the presence of flame retardants 
has a direct effect on the yields of certain products of 
decomposition. 1 table, 8 refs. (Author) 

e. PROTECTION AND MODIFICATION OF 
MATERIALS 

1195. Schober J 

COMBUSTION-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS FOR 
LARGE TURBINES - BEHAVIOR, REQUIREMENTS, FU- 
TURE DEVELOPMENT 

Brown Boveri Mitt; 62(9):422-427, 1976 (German) 

A review is given of the present status of development 
since the pertinent problems mentioned in the title of 
the article were discussed in this journal in 1966. In con- 
clusion, the factors which are decisive for further develop- 
ment are pointed out. 5 figs, 3 tables, 12 refs. (Author) 



232 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

e. Protection and Modification of Materials— Continued 

11%. Anon - 

NEW FABRIC FOR FIRE HGHTERS 

Dupont Mag; 70(3): 10- 11, 1976 

The features of new fabrics made from the flame-re- 
sistant aramid fiber called "Nomex" III, an improvement 
of the original aramid fiber used for protection of fire 
fighters against thermal hazards, are presented. 4 photos. 



1197. Fowler DW and Grimm CT 
BREAKABLE FIRE RESISTANT 
FORMANCE CRITERIA 

Fire Technol; 12(2): 133- 140, 1976 



GLASS PER- 



A two-phase study was conducted on breakable fire- 
resistant glass. The first phase was to determine the need 
for a test method to evaluate the performance of breaka- 
ble fire-resistant glass. The second phase, which was to 
be conducted if there was a need for such a glass, was 
to develop a test method for the evaluation of the per- 
formance of the glass. 2 figs, 4 tables. (Author) 

1198. StepniczkaHE 

FLAME RETARDANT THERMOSET POLYESTER 
RESINS 

J Fire Retard Chem; 3(1):5-21, 1976 

A survey is made of available information on the com- 
mercial development of polyester synthetics, their end 
uses, and significance for various branches of industry. 
Methods of rendering polyester resins flame retardant are 
discussed in detail. The governmental and insurance-com- 
pany enforced use of such resins in construction, transpor- 
tation, marine, and electrical applications is cited, and 
future market growth is predicted. Production figures, the 
US participation in the commercial market, and markets 
and usage of reinforced plastics/composites are given. 2 
figs, 10 tables, 49 refs. 

1199. Kirchmayr R 

FLAME PROTECTION FOR PLASTICS AND CHEMI- 
CAL FIBERS 

Kunstst; 66(10): 679-682, 1976 (German) 

In principle, fire-resistant plastics can be obtained in 
the following ways: composition of inherently fire-re- 
sistant polymers; modification of combustible plastics by 
co-polymerization or co-condensation with fire-retardant 
monomers (reactive fire retardants); apphcation of a 
flame-retardant finishing to plastics (treatment with fire 
retardants); and working flame-retardant additives into the 
polymers or molding before processing (additive flame re- 
tardants). The discussion of results obtained to date and 
the present state of the art is supplemented by information 
on the operating mechanisms of classical flame retardants 
of the halogen- and phosphor-compound series, as well 
as on antimony/halogen synergism. 22 refs. (Fachdok 
13/0074) 

1200. Hopp A, Skilandat H-P, Taubert B and Kloetzscher 
I 

TESTS FOR THE COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF 
FLAME RETARDANTS 

Plaste Kautsch; 23(3):192-197, 1976 (German) 

In all the plastics investigated it was found that different 
test methods yield only roughly consistent information. 



Although on the basis of the above-mentioned limitations 
regarding consistency, particularly with respect to dripping 
materials and products of low thermal stability, the oxygen 
index cannot be recommended as the only test method, 
it nevertheless holds a special position as a method with 
good reproducibility and a broad range of apphcation for 
all kinds of materials and ways of using them. Classifica- 
tion of phosphate plasticizers with respect to flame re- 
sistance by the chosen test methods always yielded the 
series tris-(halogen alkyl)-phosphate, triacyl phosphate and 
trialkyl phosphate. In the case of inorganic retardants it 
was found that in general 50% of the antimony trioxide 
could be replaced by borates without an appreciable 
reduction in retardance; the differing effects on the ther- 
mal stability of PVC by Ba- and Zn-borate reveal certain 
reactions on the flame retardance. 14 figs, 10 tables, 8 
refs. (Author) 

1201. Anon 

ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE, AN EFFECTIVE FIRE 
FIGHTING AGENT 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(155):50-51, 1976 (French) 

Plastic materials and latex foams, both increasingly in- 
volved as fire causes can be made fire- and smoke-re- 
sistant by adding a chemically inert mineral known as 
hydrated aluminum or aluminum trihydrate. 

1202. Anon 
FLAME-RESISTANCE TREATMENT 

VDIZ; 30(39):17, 1976 (German) 

Poly sulf ones and polyester sulfones are amorphous, 
transparent thermoplastics that can be worked by conven- 
tional injection molding and extrusion techniques. They 
can be used in a temperature range of from -100°C to 
-l-200°C. These plastics can be made flame-resistant (UL- 
94 VO) and thus have self -extinguishing properties. 
Because of their favorable mechanical, thermal, and elec- 
trical properties, the polysulfones and polyester sulfones 
have found a broad range of application. (Fachdok 
12/1130) 

1203. Holmes CA 

THE EFFECT OF FIRE-RETARDANT TREATMENTS ON 
THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF WOOD; Paper 
No. 38 

American Chemical Society National Meeting, 1 72nd, Ab- 
stracts of Papers; 1976, Aug 29-Sep 3, San Francisco, CA 

The fire performance properties of untreated wood and 
the effects of fire-retardant treatment on these properties 
are reviewed according to present knowledge. Fire per- 
formance properties considered are ignition, pyrolysis and 
combustion, fire penetration or fire resistance, flame 
spread, combustion products, and heat contribution. The 
treatment-related properties of fire-retardant-treated wood 
are discussed: strength, hygroscopicity, gluabiUty, cor- 
rosivity, paintability, machinability, and durability. Areas 
of needed research are pointed out with special emphasis 
on those areas involving life safety. (Author) 

1204. Anon 

FIRE RETARDANCY IN THE INTERIOR FURNISHINGS 

INDUSTRY; Paper No. 1-15 

Fire Retardant Chemicals Assoc Meeting, Semi-Annual, 

Papers; 1976, Mar 13-17, Williamsburg, VA 

Sponsor: Fire Retardant Chemicals Assoc 



233 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
e. Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 

This volume contains the 15 papers presented at the 
semi-annual meeting of the Fire Retardant Chemicals As- 
sociation, Mar 13-17, 1976, devoted to the theme of "Fire 
Retardancy in the Interior Furnishings Industry". The 
papers are grouped in five general categories, as follows: 
Flammability Tesls, Testing and Test Method Develop- 
ments - 1) Carpets and Rugs, 2) Mattresses and Bedding; 
New Test Method Developments - 3) Flooring Radiant 
Panel Test, 4) The Mushroom Test/ An Update; User Fire 
Retardancy Requirements in Interior Furnishings - 5) 
Upholstered Furniture, 6) Contract Draperies, 7) Hotels 
and Motels, 8) Health Care Institutions, 9) Hospital Room 
Furnishings; Fire Retardancy in Cushioning for Interior 
Furnishings - 10) Flexible Urethane Foams, 11) Cellular 
Vinyl, 12) Fibrous Batting; Fire Retardancy in Face 
Fabrics, Fibers and Films for Interior Furnishings - 13) 
Glass Fabrics for Curtains and Draperies, 14) Woven 
Fabrics for Furniture, Curtains, and 15) Extruded Films 
and Coated Fabrics for Furniture and Wall Coverings. 

1205. Anon 

nRE-RETARDANT DEVICE, ESPECIALLY FOR 
METAL STRUCTURES 

French Patent No. 2,250,869; CI E04B 1/94, Appl 14 Nov 
1973, Disci. 6 Jun 1975, Assignee: GIPP 

The essential feature of the proposed method of increas- 
ing the fire resistance of metal structures consists in the 
fact that the structural component is surrounded by a 
hoUow shell made of perforated sheet material (e.g. card- 
board) to w^hich a layer of gypsum plastic is then applied. 
The plaster penetrates the holes in the shell, hardens, 
and forms lugs which solidly hold the entire fire-resistant 
layer. The sheU can be in one piece with a single longitu- 
dinal cut or can consist of individual segments (for struc- 
tures of complex configuration). An air layer remains 
between the shell and the surface of the structure, 
preventing corrosion of the metal. If the fire resistance 
needs to be increased, this space can be filled with a 
heat-insulating material. 6 drawing figs. 

1206. Schaar JL, Ellard J A and Butler JM 
INTUMESCENT COMPOSITIONS AND SUBSTRATES 
COATED THEREWITH 

US Patent No. 3,955,987; CI 106/15 FP, (C09D 5/18), 
Appl 19 Apr 1974, Disci. 11 May 1976, Assignee: Monsan- 
to Res Corp, St Louis, MO 

Intumescent compositions are described which, when 
deposited on a substrate, protect the substrate against 
heat and fire damage for an appreciable time, and these 
compositions are readily removed from the substrate by 
water washing or water scrubbing, both before and after 
intumescing. Another advantage of these compositions is 
that they give off very Httle smoke when exposed to 
heat and fire. The most effective of these compositions 
comprise monoammonium phosphate and/or diammonium 
phosphate as a heat- and fire-proofing agent, urea and/or 
cyanoguanidine (dicyandiamide) as a gas-forming or gas- 
generating agent to promote the intumescence, sucrose 
(sugar) together with the phosphate to promote initial intu- 
mescence at low temperature and titanium dioxide as a 
heat-reflecting agent. Certain possible alternatives to the 
compounds named above are also named. 10 claims, I 
drawing fig. (Author) 



1207. Matsuo M and Yamakita H 

PROCESS FOR PREPARING FIRE-RESISTING 
MOLDINGS 

US Patent No. 3,957,522; CI 106/109, (C04B 11/00), Appl 
10 Apr 1974, Disci. 18 May 1976, Priority: Japan, Pat 
No 48-135,040, 29 Nov 1973, Assignee: Nippon Gohsei 
Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Osaka, Japan 

A process for preparing fire-resisting moldings having 
an improved mechanical strength by admixing gypsum 
with crystalline calcium silicate in an amount of 5 to 
100% by weight to the gypsum and water to give a slurry, 
molding the slurry under pressure, and drying the raw 
articles. The water resistance of the moldings can be im- 
proved by the further addition of cement. 5 claims, no 
drawings. (Author) 

1208. Parts L and Thompson CA 

FLAME- AND SMOKE-RETARDANT POLYMER 
SYSTEMS. Monsanto Res Corp, Dayton OH Lab; AD- 
A030 094/7GA, 45 pages, Sep 1976 
Availabihty: NTIS 

The objective of the present program is to evaluate 
selected means for enhancing the fire performance of two 
polymeric materials that are widely used on board ship. 
These materials are molded polyvinyl chloride and 
Neoprene foam. The means of enhancing fire performance 
include: (1) catalyzing char formation, (2) reducing the 
rate of volatile, combustible pyrolyzate formation with 
intumescent coatings or with ingredients that form insulat- 
ing glass foams, and (3) catalyzing the oxidation of sohd 
particulate smoke in the vapor phase during flaming com- 
bustion. Ferric and cupric acetylacetonate, used together 
with magnesium carbonate in plasticized PVC, reduced 
smoke optical density in laboratory tests with a NBS- 
Aminco chamber 42% to 68% at selected time points. 
These additives had no adverse effect on the ignitability. 
The concentrations of the gaseous combustion products 
were monitored continuously and simultaneously with 
smoke. The concentrations of NO sub x HCl and 
hydrocarbons formed from the flame- and smoke-retardant 
polymer compositions were generally lower than those ob- 
served with the base polymer. The additives enhanced 
carbon monoxide formation, especially during the later 
stage of the tests. Means for reducing the extent of oxida- 
tion of chars to carbon monoxide will be explored. 
(Author) 

1209. Peck CE 

THE ENGINEERING OF PUBLIC SAFETY: THE ROLE 
OF MATERIALS PRODUCERS IN FIRE SAFETY 

American Assoc for the Advancement of Science Symp; 

1976, Feb 24, Boston, MA 

Sponsor: American Association for the Advancement of 

Science 

The vice president of the Construction Materials Group 
of the Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation addresses the 
problem of producing materials that will aid in engineering 
fire safety by appealing to the scientists and engineers 
for advice as to the materials and their properties needed 
to achieve fire safety and as to the new regulations that 
may come about as a result of increased scientific 
knowledge about fire problems. The producer is indecisive 
concerning materials to be produced because of the con- 



234 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

c. Facilities— Continued 

One of the critical services on an Air Force Base is 
fire protection. Currently the physical facilities at Wright- 
Patterson Air Force Base are outdated, physically 
separated, and marginally adequate. None of the current 
faciUties was designed to support a fire and rescue mis- 
sion. The fire and crash rescue equipment is stored at 
three different locations in Areas A and C of the base; 
the main fire station, the flight line station and a hangar. 
A new facility, designed as a fire station, has been pro- 
grammed for Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to con- 
soUdate the fire protection function under one roof. The 
new facility will reduce operational costs and manpower 
requirements, and will improve the operational efficiency 
of the fire department. The objective was to prepare a 
design for a fire station to be constructed at Wright-Patter- 
son Air Force Base. This design attempts to optimize 
functional efficiency at the least life-cycle structural cost. 
This station will house and provide repair facilities for 
14 vehicles ranging from small pickup trucks to large crash 
and structural fire trucks. The design will provide offices, 
training rooms, sleeping quarters, dining facilities, and 
recreational facilities for approximately 20 men per shift. 
See also Vol 1, GCE MC/76S-2-Vol 1, AD-A030 348. 
(Author) 

d. GENERAL EQUIPMENT 

13%. Steuck B 

SMALL BOATS FOR FIRE DEPARTMENT OPERA- 
TIONS 

BF Hamburg, FRG; 47 pages, 1976 (German) 

Types of boats and boat materials, operational possibili- 
ties, weight of boats and possibilities of transportation 
are studied for the principal purpose of finding a type 
of boat suitable for fire departments. Excluded from these 
considerations are fireboats, because completely different 
viewpoints apply to them. Two types of boats and boat 
materials are found — the smaller, light inflatable boat 
and the heavier, multipurpose plastic and aluminum boat. 
These boats should be fabricated so as to be stackable; 
that is, the frame of the boat is to be shaped in such 
a way that one boat fits into the other and that at least 
five boats, requiring minimum space, can be joined 
together. 19 figs, 5 tables. (Fachdok 12/1095) 

1397. Anon 

BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL-PURPOSE FIRE AP- 
PARATUS AND THEIR TACTICAL APPLICATIONS 

Brandhilfe; 23(10): 242-243, 1976 (German) 

The technical rescue service receives 63% of all calls 
compared to 37% for fire fighting. In view of these figures 
thought must be given to ways of using the conventional 
fire apparatus for technical rescue purposes. The author 
is of the opinion that, in addition to the normal firefighting 
equipment of an LF16 fire apparatus, an "all-purpose fire 
apparatus" must also have a generator, floodlight mast, 
cable winch, the equipment of an RWl (ambulance), 2500 
liters of extinguishant (water and foam). The vehicle 
should have a front-wheel drive on a 2-axle, 16-ton chas- 
sis. (Fachdok 13/0034) 

1398. Anon 

FIGHTING FIRE WITH DESIGN 

Consult Eng\ 40(5):27, 29, 1976 



A description is given of the prototype Chubb 
Pacesetter, a speciaUzed fire fighting vehicle with a 
modified cab design and other changes. The vehicle, fitted 
with either a Detroit Diesel 6V or Perkins V8 540 engine, 
driving through an AUison HT740D fully automatic gear- 
box has a maximum speed of 120 km/h. The front- 
mounted Godiva pump has a capacity of up to 4550 1/min 
and the standard vehicle carries a 1880 1 water tank. The 
kit consists of a trolley connected to the fire apphance 
by a 45 m hose. 2 photos. (Author) 

1399. Powell BD 

ALL-PURPOSE RESCUE UNIT FOR FIRE SERVICE 
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 

Fire Prot Rev; 39(428):307, 1976 

The operational requirements for an all-purpose rescue 
unit for the fire service, to replace the inadequate types 
of vehicles that have been used, are described. 

1400. Anon 

THE JETRANGER AIRFIELD RAPID APPROACH 
CRASH TENDER 

Fire Prot Rev; 39(430):410-411, 1976 

The Jetranger tenders are designed to carry water and 
foam liquid and are equipped with a roof-mounted monitor 
and side handlines. The crew is four men, including 
driver. A description is given of the mechanical, technical 
and tactical characteristics of the vehicle. 1 photo. 

1401. Maeda K 

MODERN FIRE APPARATUS 

Sangyo kikai; (305):49-51, 1976 (Japanese) 

The main categories of fires requiring the use of specific 
extinguishing methods or means are classified: fires- as 
a result of earthquakes; highrise building fires; petroleum 
storage-area fires; in underground facihties, including sub- 
ways; in high-speed trains; in tunnels; cars; electrical 
power plants; aircraft; ships; residences— in all, 12 catego- 
ries. It is emphasized that firefighting vehicles of various 
kinds remain the principal fire-extinguishing unit. 
Described are the design, operating principle, and also 
the chief tactical characterisitcs and specifications of four 
new types of firefighting vehicles shown at the commercial 
exhibition of mass-produced equipment in Tokyo (Oct- 
Nov 1975). Two of these vehicles are equipped with auto- 
matic aerial ladders with a reach of 41 m. The two other 
vehicles are specialized for the transportation of large 
volumes of highly effective extinguishing agents and are 
equipped with various auxiliary devices; in particular, one 
of them is equipped with a small-caliber cannon designed 
to fire bursting capsules containing a fire-extinguishing 
foam solution. 4 figs. (RZh) 

1402. Herterich O 

FIRE FIGHTING VEHICLES OF THE FUTURE AND 
THE FUTURE OF FIRE FIGHTING VEHICLES 

VFDB Z; 25(3):84-100, 1976 (German) 

This article, which is a paper read at the 1976 Annual 
Technical Meeting of the Association for the Advance- 
ment of Fire Protection in Germany, contains predictions 
for mobile apparatus. Since it is the view of the author 
that predictions can be made with some certainty only 
if the developments of the past and present are analyzed 



267 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
d. General Equipment— Continued 

in their essential features and if trends have been accu- 
rately ascertained, the article starts with a detailed presen- 
tation of the technical history of fire fighting apparatus. 
Special importance is attached to technology transfer in 
achieving optimal engineering solutions on the basis of 
economic viewpoints. Aircraft and rockets are included 
in the discussion. 48 figs, 60 refs. (Fachdok 12/0970) 

1403. Kozai T 

LADDER WORKING LIMIT BASED LADDER 

STOPPING DEVICE FOR AERIAL LADDER TRUCK 

US Patent No. 3,961,685; CI 182/19, (B66F 11/04), Appl 
23 Dec 1974, Disci. 8 Jun 1976, Assignee: Morita Pump 
Kabushiki Kaisha, Osaka, Japan 

There is provided a ladder working-limit-based ladder- 
stopping device for a vehicle equipped with a vertically 
and horizontally swingable and extensible ladder (or a 
fire engine truck), wherein a working limit of the ladder 
is preset on the basis of an extended length of the ladder 
corresponding to a particular vertical angle assumed by 
the ladder, so that when the combined situation of the 
vertical angle and extended length of the ladder reaches 
said preset condition, the operating mechanism for the 
ladder is automatically returned to its neutral position 
while actuating a warning device and turning on a marker 
lamp, the operating mechanism being then operated 
toward the safety side, whereupon the marker lamp is 
turned off to indicate that the ladder is now safe. 4 claims, 
8 drawing figs. (Author) 




to a linked parallel bar assembly having a ladder section 
as the outward longitudinal element thereof, wherein the 
linked parallel bar assembly is in turn pivotally connected 
to the uppermost end of the extension member of a verti- 
cally displaceable dual-membered main extension ladder 
assembly which at the lower end thereof is pivotally at- 
tached to a horizontally rotatable platform affixed to a 
supporting structure upon the vehicle, the entire combined 
aerial lift and ladder assembly heretofore described having 
displacement powering means entirely operable from a 
control panel within the platform member, whereby a per- 
son occupying the platform may accurately position and 
maintain himself in an extended aerial work location 
within the horizontally oriented platform member. Design 
features of the aerial lift and ladder assembly incorporate 
both automatic and motor-powered horizontal levelling 
provisions for the platform member. 3 claims, 7 drawing 
figs. (Author) 




1404. Hedges MR 

AUXILIARY EXTENSION PLATFORM ASSEMBLY SUP- 
PORT FRAME DRIVE MEANS FOR AN AERIAL 
LADDER ASSEMBLY 

US Patent No. 3,963,095; CI 182/2, (B66F 11/04), Appl 
11 Dec 1974, Disci. 15 Jun 1976, Assignee: Cam Indus- 
tries, Inc, Hanover, PA 

A vehicular-mounted, multiply-articulated aerial lift and 
ladder assembly comprised of a terminally affixed and 
partially enclosed platform member pivotally connected 



1405. Maeda K and Tomimoto T 

WORKING RANGE INDICATING DEVICE FOR AERIAL 

LADDER TRUCK 

US Patent No. 3,966,017; CI 182/18, (E06C 5/04), Appl 
12 Feb 1975, Disci. 29 Jun 1976, Assignee: Morita Pump 
Kabushiki Kaisha, Osaka, Japan 

A working range indicating device for an aerial ladder 
truck is arranged so that the variable length and vertical 
angle of the ladder are mechanically detected and the 
detected values are indicated on a working range indicat- 
ing board disposed at the operating stand by means of 
a single mechanically operable pointer. Merits and details 



268 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
d. General Equipment — Continued 

of the construction will be made clear. 2 claims, 7 drawing 
figs. (Author) 






31 "^^ i3\ 







JZ 



1406. Kozai T and Shiraki S 

WORKING PLATFORM LIFTING APPARATUS FOR 

AERIAL LADDER TRUCK 

US Patent No. 3,966,018; CI 182/103, (A62B 1/100), Appl 
12 Feb 1975, Disci. 29 Jun 1976, Assignee: Morita Pump 
Kabushiki Kaisha, Osaka, Japan 

A working platform lifting apparatus for an aerial ladder 
truck wherein the working platform, movable up and down 
along the ladder, is arranged so that it does not interfere 
with the extension and contraction of the ladder that, 
when it stopped at any desired position, it is automatically 
braked, that, when it reaches its uppermost position, it 
is automatically stopped, and that, in an emergency, it 
can be lowered manually. Other merits and details of 
the construction will be made clear. 5 claims, 10 drawing 
figs. (Author) 




1407. Corrie JG 

A 200 LITRE PER MINUTE STANDARD FOAM 
BRANCHPIPE. Fire Res Sta, Boreham Wood, UK; Fire 
Res Note 1056, 32 pages, 18 figs, 3 tables, 5 refs, Aug 
1976 

Constructional details of a 200 Uter per minute foam 
branchpipe are given. The foam properties using protein 
foam at various concentrations and pressures, together 
with the properties using a range of foam liquids in com- 
mon use, have been determined. The throw and dispersion 
have been measured. Comparisons with six commercial 
branchpipes have been made. (Author) 

e. INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

1408. Auerbach Assoc, Inc 

REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL 
FIRE DATA SYSTEM (NFDS). Auerbach Assoc, Inc; AAl 
FR-4318, 48 pages, 7 tables, 5 refs, Jun 1976 

The National Fire Loss Data System, now renamed Na- 
tional Fire Data System, was intended to meet an urgent 
need for more complete and comprehensive national fire 
data. The resultant system was to constitute a powerful 
tool for acquiring, organizing and presenting fire data. 
It was, for example, to enable the preparation of annual 
reports which indicate the material impact of fire in terms 
of deaths, injuries and dollar losses. It was to serve as 
a data reservoir from which those concerned with fire 
problems could obtain information regarding such matters 
as the direct and contributing causes of fire, the manner 
in which the fire hazard is distributed and the ways in 
which the victims of fire are affected. It was expected 
that with better identification of fire problems and better 
understanding of fire incidents, more effective programs 
could be established and appropriate decisions reached 
to help reduce the ever present danger of uncontrolled 
fire. This report describes the process through which the 
NFDS was developed. It discusses the thinking and 
planning through which the system evolved to its current 
state and indicates how the various design decisions were 
made. (Author) 

f. INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING 

g. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

1409. Peter F 

LEATHER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 

Berufsgenoss; (8):300-302, 1976 (German) 

Despite the predominant use of synthetics and chemical 
fibers, the old tried-and-true natural products, such as 
leather, are still resorted to on frequent occasions, and 
it is found that leather possesses, among many other 
things, the property of being fire retardant, so that it 
is eminently suitable as a material for protective clothing. 
Leather protective clothing was investigated for its re- 
sistance to burning solvents and aggressive chemicals. In 
every case leather proved to be superior to flarne-retarded 
textiles. Leather provided with an impregnating film ex- 
hibits even greater resistance. 6 figs. (Fachdok 12/1080) 



269 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
g. Personal Equipment — Continued 

1410. Anon 
BREATHING MASK 

FRG Patent No. 1,708,046; CI A62B 18/00, Appl 10 Jun 
1%7, Disci. 28 Aug 1975, Assignee: Draegerwerk AG 

Patented is the mask of a breathing apparatus with a 
connective sleeve to connect a filter or a hose with inhaled 
air. The destinctive feature of the device is the provision, 
during stamping, of special sockets in the housmg in the 
upper portion and on both sides. When fitting out the 
mask, the connective sleeve for the connection of the 
filter, outlet valve, etc. can be fitted into any of these 
sockets. 4 drawing figs. 

1411. Geissler R 

CLAMPING RING FOR THE WINDOW FRAME OF A 
BREATHING MASK 

VS Patent No. 3,968,793; CI 128/141 R, (A62B 9/04), 
Appl 27 Mar 1975, Disci. 13 Jul 1976, Priority: Germany, 
Pat No 2,415,492, 28 Mar 1974, Assignee: Auergesellschaft 
GmbH, Berlin, FRG 

The viewing window at the front of a breathing mask 
is held in a groove in a flexible frame that is clamped 
in a ring formed from two channel-shape half rings engag- 
ing each other at their ends and having on the outside 
of their end portions pairs of laterally projecting vertical 
flanges so that those end portions are H-shaped in cross 
section. Each pair of the engaging ends of the half rings 
is provided with a guide member projecting vertically from 
one of the half rings into the space between the flanges 
of the other half ring, and a boh is rotatably disposed 
in a cross member between the flanges of the other half 
ring. The bolt extends through the adjacent guide member 
and has a nut on its end so that the ends of each half 
ring can be drawn into contact with the ends of the other 
ha3 ring to hold the half rings together. The inner surfaces 
of the side walls of the half rings beside the bolts may 
diverge toward the ends of the rings. 9 claims, 8 drawing 
figs. (Author) 




1412. Andruk FS, Shampine JG and Reins DA 
ALUMINIZED FIREMEN'S (FIRE PROXIMITY) HAND- 
WARE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEXTERITY 
CHARACTERISTICS. Navy Clothing and Textile Res 
Facility, Natick, MA; DOD AGFSRS-76-17, 25 pages, Jul 
1976 

AvaUability: NTIS AD-A027 211/2GA 

A comparative study of the facihty and dexterity charac- 
teristics of several configurations of aluminized firemen's 
(fire proximity) handwear was conducted. The old stan- 
dard aluminized firemen's glove was compared with that 
of the recently adopted two-component (glove shell and 
glove insert) standard and a newly developed experimental 
prototype, which was prepared in three models (MOD- 
I, MOD-II and MOD-III) for this study. The manipulatory 
capabilities of all the gloves were measured against the 
ungloved or bare hand, and the results indicated that 
MOD-III of the new experimental prototype exceeded that 
of the old and new standard and came closest in per- 
formance to the ungloved hand. (Author) 

h. PERSONNEL AFFAIRS 

1413. GetzMand Vahaly J 

DETERMINANTS OF FIRE FIGHTER COMPENSATION 

Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN; 37 pages, 1976 

How does unionization affect the labor market for 

firefighters? PubUc-sector unions, including those of 

firefighters, have grown and become more aggressive. The 

militance of public-sector unions may be forcing changes 

in the local public sector. It therefore seems important 

to examine a local public-sector labor market in detail. 

This study of firefighter compensation is detailed with 

respect to the muhifaceted character of unionization, rank 

differentials, total compensation, monopsony and parity, 
and human capital considerations. (Author) 

1414. Wittmann E 

RESPONSES TO CALLS FOR FIREMEN WITH CAR- 
DIAC PROBLEMS PROHIBITED 

Brandhilfe; 23(9):231, 1976 (German) 

Two unfortunate recent cases of death of Bavarian 
firefighters gave rise to an urgent request to all those 
responsible, especially fire department commanders, to 
release firefighters with cardiac problems from responses 
and exercises; that is, not to use them any longer in 
active service. It may turn out that, on the basis of a 
medical opinion, causal relationship between the occur- 
rence of cardiac death and the activity being performed 
at the time cannot be estabhshed in the sense of legal 

accident insurance; that is, that insurance benefits may 
be denied. (Fachdok 12/1099) 



270 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION 
AND SUPPRESSION 

a. COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALLING 

1415. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR AUXILIARY FIRE 
RADIO COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):310-313, 1976 (Japanese) 

The technical specifications governing a number of 
parameters of emergency fire radio-communication 
systems are presented. According to the fire legislation 
presently in effect in Japan, several types of particularly 
fire-hazardous premises must be equipped with such 
systems, especially multi-story underground warehouses 
for dangerously explosive materials, regardless of whether 
they have wire telephone communications or not. These 
standards relate primarily to the design and numerical 
parameters of components of coaxial cable connections 
used in different portions of radio-communication systems 
from fire detectors and peripheral emergency radio- 
telephone sets to radio transmitters and their feeder-anten- 
na devices. The proposed coaxial cable components are 
designed for a 140-160 MHz operating frequency range, 
which is the range used in many countries for emergency 
radio-telephone communications systems. These specifica- 
tions are recommended as a preUminary draft for a new 
standard to replace the existing one. 6 figs. (RZh) 

b. EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND ADDITIVES 

1416. Anon 

FOAM AGENT COMBATS POLAR-SOLVENT FIRES 

Chem Eng\ 83(8):81-82, 1976 

Light water brand alcohol-type concentrate (ATC) aque- 
ous film-forming-agents, which are effective against both 
fires fueled by polar solvents, such as alcohols, esters, 
ethers, ketones and amines, and fires involving nonpolar 
flammable liquids, such as gasoUne, heptane, toluene and 
benzene, as well as class A materials fires, such as wood, 
paper, cloth, etc, are described. 1 fig, 1 table. 



FIGHTING IN 



1417. Haylock M 

USE OF WATER FOR FIRE 
PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 

Fire Prot Rev; 39(432):506-508, 1976 

A survey is made of the ways in which water can be 
used to extinguish oil and fuel fires by applying a fine 
misty water spray. Extinguishment of medium and heavy 
oil fires by emulsion, water sprays applied to LPG con- 
tainer fires, nozzle selection, fog versus droplets, water 
pressure and supply, sprinkler systems, and care and 
maintenance are the topics discussed in the article. 

1418. Morikawa T 

AN IMPROVED SODIUM-CARBONATE BASED EXTIN- 
GUISHANT FOR SODIUM FIRES 

Fire Technol; 12(2):124-132, 1976 



Sodium carbonate was found to be a most suitable 
material for use as a noncorrosive, sodium fire extin- 
guishant except for its tendency to become wet and sink 
in molten sodium. A mixture of 90% sodium carbonate, 
6% polyacrylonitrile, and 4% magnesium stearate was 
found to be a satisfactory extinguishant. Under test condi- 
tions, the sodium was maintained at 550°C for 30 minutes 
with an extinguishant thickness of only 1.5 cm. The burn- 
ing characteristics of sodium are not as dependent on 
the depth of the extinguishant as is the case with oil 
fires. 3 figs, 3 tables, 6 refs. (Author) 

1419. Elliott DE and Chiesa PJ, Jr 

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FIRE FIGHTING 
FOAMS 

Fire Technoi, 12(2):141-150, 1976 

Foam rheology, which measures the flow characteristics 
and stiffness of foams, was studied by a newly developed 
method. The yield stress point of various foams was deter- 
mined to characterize the fluidity of the foams under in- 
vestigation. Protein foams had higher yield stress points 
than AFF foams, while the fluoroprotein stress points 
were intermediate. Foam expansion did not influence yield 
stress values of protein foams, but there was a slight 
correlation for the AFF foams. The equipment used had 
a significant effect on the quality and yield stress values 
of the foam produced. No simple correlation was found 
to exist between foam yield stress points and fire per- 
formance. 6 figs, 4 tables, 6 refs. (Author) 

1420. Wiersma SJ and Alvares NJ 

EXTINGUISHMENT OF TURBULENT POOL AND 
SPRAY FIRES BY CFsBr AND CFzCIBr; Paper No. 46 

American Chemical Society National Meeting, 1 72nd, Ab- 
stracts of Papers; 1976, Aug 29-Sep 3, San Francisco, CA 

We have investigated the extinguishment of turbulent, 
Class B fuel fires with CFsBr (Halon 1301) and with 
CF2ClBr (Halon 1211). Our objectives were to design a 
test method to measure the critical concentration of Halon 
agents for extinguishment (CCE) of burning liquid fuels 
at various burning and ventilation rates and to observe 
the effect of sub-CCE concentrations on the burning 
characteristics of the fuel. We also observed changes in 
fuel burning rate for Halon concentrations lower than the 
CCE. This effort was initiated because previous investiga- 
tions of Halon extinguishment reported in the literature 
generally gave quantitative data only for laminar fires with 
no attempt to extrapolate these data to large turbulent 
fires. They usually tested only one set of environmental 
conditions, which was then used to estabhsh a single value 
for the CCE, and ignored critical parameters such as ox- 
ygen depletion, ventilation, agent distribution, and fuel 
burning rate. (Author) 

1421. Clements HG 

DRY POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHER MATERIAL 

UK Patent No. 1,410,469; CI A5A, (A62D 1/00, COIB 
25/28), Appl 4 Nov 1971, Disci. 15 Oct 1975, Assignee: 
John Kerr and Co (Manchester), Ltd 

The patent relates to a method of treating various kinds 
of mass-produced fire-extinguishing powders (e.g. on a 
base of bicarbonates of alkali metals) designed to obtain 
powders with a composition having a specific size of com- 



271 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Additives— Continued 



ponent particles and percentage of content. The powder 
obtained from industry is broken down into 2 fractions, 
small- and large-grained; the large -grained fraction is then 
crushed or ground until the required particle grain size 
is obtained (usually not greater than 30 microns in diame- 
ter) and is combined with the small-grained fraction. For 
example, powder based on bicarbonate of sodium obtained 
commercially usually consists of particles with 20% up 
to 20 microns, 70% up to 30 microns and 10% greater 
than 35 microns. After treatment the grain size is not 
greater than 22-30 microns. This method makes it possible 
to increase the effectiveness of fire-extinguishing powders 
by choosing the optimum average grain size for their com- 
ponent particles. 

1422. Schmitt CR 

nRE EXTINGUISHANT FOR FISSIONABLE MATERIAL 

US Patent No. 3,963,626; CI 252/2, (A62D 1/00), Appl 
22 Mar 1974, Disci. 15 Jun 1976, Assignee: USA, ERDA, 
Washington, DC 

Carbon microspheres impregnated with a neutron poison 
are used as an extinguishant for radioactive and fissiona- 
ble metal fires. 9 claims, no drawings. (Author) 

1423. Salyer 10, Schwendeman JL and Sun S 
AQUEOUS FOAM COMPOSITIONS TO SUPPRESS 
COAL DUST 

US Patent No. 3,954,662; CI 252/382, (C09K 3/22), Appl 
2 Jan 1974, Disci. 4 May 1976, Assignee: Monsanto Res 
Corp, St Louis, MO 

Aqueous foamable compositions can be used to suppress 
coal dust, especially respirable coal dust, i.e., coal dust 
having particle size less than about 10 microns. These 
compositions are composed principally of water with a 
minor amount of an interpolymer of: a) a polymerizable 
vinyl ester and b) a partial ester compound inter- 
polymerizable therewith selected from the group consisting 
of partial esters of ethylenically unsaturated ahphatic 
dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides containing from 4-8 car- 
bon atoms and mixtures thereof; said dicarboxyUc acid 
or anhydride having up to half of its acidic hydrogen 
atoms replaced by lower alkyl groups of 1-8 carbon atoms 
and mixtures thereof to bind the coal dust and give body 
to the foam, and a minor amount of a detergent wetting 
agent to promote foaming and the wetting of the coal 
by water. These interpolymers bind the coal dust and 
reduce or prevent reacrosolation after the foam has col- 
lapsed. These interpolymers also serve to give body to 
the foam, i.e., to promote the desired degree of stability 
of the foam, which in most cases should be of hmited 
duration. Especially good interpolymers are those which 
are soluble in water at room temperature (25°C) in the 
amount required in the composition, e.g., vinyl 
acetate/maleic anhydride copolymer esters. Nonionic de- 
tergents, which are water-soluble at room temperature in 
the amounts needed in the compositions, are suitable 
wetting agents for promoting foaming and wetting the coal 
dust. The foams should be of limited duration so as not 
to interfere with mining operations. 13 claims, no 
drawings. (Author) 



1424. Crockett FB 

COMPOSITIONS OF FIRE-EXTINGUISHING FOAM 
CONCENTRATES AND METHOD OF USING THE SAME 

US Patent No. 3,956,138; CI 252/3, (A62D 1/00), Appl 
24 Sep 1973, Disci. 11 May 1976, Assignee: Fred Benton 
Crockett, Orlando, FL 

A foam concentrate comprising from about 7.5 to about 
12% by weight of an anionic surfactant, from about 4 
to about 9% by weight of an ammonium sah surfactant, 
from about 1 to about 8% of a nonionic surfactant, up 
to about 5% by weight of a lipophilic agent, up to about 
9% by weight of an alkoxylated ammonium alkyl sulfate, 
the balance being substantially water or other suitable 
non-flammable carrier diluent, when diluted with from 
about 33 to about 99 times its weight of water, is useful 
for extinguishing fires of Class A combustibles. Those 
concentrates that contain at least 1% by weight of a lipo- 
philic agent, when diluted similarly, yield foams that are 
useful for extinguishing Class B fires and mixed Class 
A and Class B fires. Concentrates containing at least 1% 
by weight of alkoxylated ammonium alkyl sulfate, when 
diluted with brackish, saline or hard water, yield foams 
which extinguish such fires. Optimum and preferred 
ranges for the various components are given. (Author) 

1425. Chiesa PJ, Jr 
FIRE FIGHTING 

US Patent No. 3,957,657; CI 252/3, (A62D 1/00), Appl 
13 Jun 1973, Disci. 18 May 1976, Assignee: Philadelphia 
Suburban Corp, Bryn Mawr, PA 

Certain fluorocarbon surfactants combined with certain 
silicone surfactants provide mixtures that reduce the sur- 
face tension of water to 19 dynes or less per centimeter, 
and, when foamed, are particularly effective in fighting 
fires involving lighter-than-water hydrophobic Uquids. 
Mixtures are further improved with certain other surfac- 
tants and use less of the fluorocarbon surfactants to pro- 
vide fire fighting effectiveness of prior-art compositions 
which do not contain sihcone surfactants. Hydrophilic 
resins and sequestering agents can also be contained in 
the mixtures. 7 claims, no drawings. (Author) 

1426. Chiesa PJ, Jr and DiMaio LR 
FIRE FIGHTING 

US Patent No. 3,957,658; CI 252/3, (A62D 1/00), Appl 
13 Jun 1973, Disci. 18 May 1976, Assignee: Philadelphia 
Suburban Corp, Bryn Mawr, PA 

Certain fluorocarbon surfactants combined with certain 
silicone surfactants provide mixtures that reduce the sur- 
face tension of water to 19 dynes or less per centimeter, 
and when foamed are particularly effective in fighting 
fires involving lighter-than-water hydrophobic liquids. 
Mixtures are further improved with certain other surfac- 
tants to provide fire fighting effectiveness of prior-art 
compositions which do not contain silicone surfactants. 
Hydrophilic resins and sequestering agents can also be 
contained in the mixtures. 16 claims, no drawings. 
(Author) 

1427. Schatz H and Brein D 

DEVELOPMENT OF A LABORATORY-SCALE MEA- 
SUREMENT METHOD TO DETERMINE THE EXTIN- 
GUISHING EFFICIENCY OF ABC POWDERS IN FIRES 



272 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Additives— Continued 



OF SOLIDS. Univ Karlsruhe, FRG, Fire Prot Eng Res 
Center; AGF 28, 45 pages, 16 figs, 12 tables, 5 refs, 1975 
Availabihty: Fachdok 

A report is made on an attempt to develop a measure- 
ment method for the study of the extinguishing efficiency 
of Class ABC extinguishants in glowing fires. The mea- 
surement method consists essentially of a model represent- 
ing the surface of a glowing solid material to which mea- 
sured quantities of extinguishing powder are applied under 
certain glowing conditions. With this method it is possible 
to study the degree of melting and the melt consistency 
of ABC powders as well as to determine the quantities 
which participate in the mehing process. 

Seven commercial Class ABC extinguishing powders 
were tested during the experimental work, in several test 
series, and the melted quantities were compared with each 
other. In comparison with the melting behavior of powders 
in a furnace, it was found that the highly fluid meUs 
do penetrate further into the porous surface of the solid, 
but that on the whole smaller quantities of the meh remain 
on the surface than in the case of powders that form 
a highly fluid melt under the same conditions and thus 
close off the surface of the solid as a continuous layer, 
though not gasproof, as was determined by pressure mea- 
surements. 

Even by measuring the temperatures and radiation inten- 
sity it was not possible to determine the extent to which 
this variable melting behavior of the Class ABC extin- 
guishing powders influences the extinguishability. On the 
basis of this measurement technique, therefore, it was 
not possible to establish unambiguously which extinguish- 
ing powder was better suited to extinguish a glowing fire. 
(Author) 

1428. Corrie JG 

MEASURING THE SHEAR STRESS OF FIRE-FIGHTING 
FOAMS. Fire Res Sta, Boreham Wood, UK; Fire Res Note 
1055, 48 pages, 36 figs, 10 refs, Aug 1976 

Experiments to define the characteristics of torsional 
vane viscometers when used for measuring the shear 
stress of foam are described so that replacement instru- 
ments can incorporate improved features. It is shown that 
shear stress determined by this method is not a fundamen- 
tal property of the foam, but depends upon the instrument 
dimensions and the method of operation as well as upon 
the characteristics of the foam. The significant dimensions 
and operational procedures are identified, and recommen- 
dations are made for their adoption. For the convenience 
of those who wish to construct and use a foam viscome- 
ter, a companion Fire Research Note No. 1059 provides 
constructional details and a recommended standard 
procedure for its use. (Author) 

c. HYDRAULICS AND WATER SUPPLIES 

1429. Stapelfeldt JP 

WALL HYDRANTS SUCCESSFUL AS SELF-HELP AP- 
PLIANCES 

Brandschulz; 30(8):212, 1976 (German) 

For about five years wall hydrants connected to wet 
fire fighting lines have been considered and promoted as 
"self-help appliances" in highrises, hotels, stores, and the 
like. In order to make it easier for the unskilled to use 



these wall hydrants, they are installed with noncollapsible 
hose on a swivel with a detachable D-nozzle, so that 
the hose can be used even if not fully unrolled. The 
wall hydrants were successfully used recently in two fires 
by the personnel of Hamburg's tallest highrise hotel (126 
m, about 1000 beds) as the first means of fighting the 
fires. 1 fig. (Fachdok 12/1028) 

1430. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR HYDRAULIC 
SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):60-118, 1976 (Japanese) 

Given are the specifications regulating the principal 
technical and installation parameters of emergency water 
supply systems located in buildings to supply water in 
case of fire. These systems are classified in two categories 
as a function of the nature of the main source of supply, 
central water pipe or fixed, large-volume, water-filled con- 
tainers in basement or foundation compartments. 
Minimum operating pressure limits in the emergency 
water-supply system are given as a function of the nature 
and numerical parameters of the fire-protected premise: 
type, number of stories, total length of the distribution 
lines on one floor connecting the vertical main line with 
peripheral sprinkler heads, etc. The design of several 
types of electromechanical and pneumatic emergency 
water supply systems is considered. The specifications 
were worked out by the Standardization Group of the 
Ministry of Construction of Japan and are recommended 
for use as standards in the development of the new 
Japanese fire legislation, which was approved in 1974. 
43 figs, 16 tables. (RZh) 

1431. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE HYDRANTS 

Ohm: denki zasshi\ 63(3):204-207, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications, regulated by the new Japanese 
fire legislation, are presented for hydrants of low and 
medium capacity. The design and operating principles of 
some standard fire hydrants mass-produced by Japanese 
industry are considered. It is noied that hydrants installed 
within the boundaries of large cities must be designed 
for an operating pressure not less than 2.5 kg/cm^. Also 
given are the optimal dimensions of auxiUary underground 
fire wells in which are located components of the water 
distribution lines associated with fire hydrants. The techni- 
cal requirements for electric pumps used in conjunction 
with fire hydrants are also presented. 2 figs. (RZh) 

1432. Water CA de 

FIRE FIGHTING AND WATER SUPPLIES 

Tijdschr watervoor en afvalwaterbehandel: 9(9): 180-182, 
1976 (Dutch; Enghsh Summary) 

The technical and economic problems of supplying the 
water required to extinguish fires in the Netherlands, 
where the water mains belong to different companies and 
are of varying dimensions and pressure, are considered. 
2 figs. 

1433. Schneider K 

RUBBER COUPLING FLANGE ON RUBBER HOSES 

FRG Patent No. 2,310,729; CI F16L 33/00, Appl 3 Mar 
1973, Disci. 21 Aug 1975, Assignee: Eddelbuettel und 
Schneider 



273 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 
c. Hydraulics and Water Supplies — Continued 



A rubber-fabric hose made in one piece with a connect- 
ing collar made of the same material, designed for connec- 
tion to suction and pressure lines of piping systems with 
a specific conduit of up to 600 mm and above, is 
proposed. To increase the strength of the hose and collar, 
they are reinforced with textile or metal fibers. The hose 
is equipped with a covering collar. The hose is connected 
to the pipeline by bolts inserted into openings in a 
detachable, rubber, pipe flange. In order to prevent exces- 
sive compression and undesirable deformation of the 
flange, the bolts are inserted into the openings along a 
liner consisting of two sleeves of different outer diameters 
made of plastic (e.g. polyamide). Th« smaller-diameter 
sleeve is conical in shape. When the bolts are tightened, 
the smaller sleeve shps into the larger sleeve. At the 
end surface of the rubber flange below the bolt openings 
there are annular rubber projections which form an airtight 
connection between the rubber pipe and hose flanges. 
The outer side of the plastic sleeves is equipped with 
flanges. Annular projections which ensure a reliable seal 
between the rubber and plastic flanges are placed on the 
inside end surfaces of the sleeves to prevent the fluid 
being pumped from penetrating the bolt openings. In order 
to keep the dimensions of the rubber flange constant while 
pumping, a thrust collar is placed between the outer annu- 
lar projections and the reinforcement. The proposed 
design of a rubber-fabric hose makes it easier to connect 
the hose to a pipe, producing a reliable hermetic connec- 
tion between them. 1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

1434. Gachot J 
FIRE HYDRANT 

French Patent No. 2,235,317; C\ F16K 5/00, A62C 35/10 
26 Jun 1973, 24 Jan 1975, Assignee: Gachot SA 

In order to get water from hydrants of existing designs 
it is necessary to turn the valve-regulated rod 10 to 15 
turns. With this invention the rod is opened and closed 
by turning it 90°. 2 drawing figs. 

1435. Thomas DF and Berglund HA 

nRE HYDRANT VALVE ROD COUPLING 

US Patent No. 3,961,642; CI 137/272, (E03B 9/14), Appl 
10 Mar 1975, Disci. 8 Jan 1976, Assignee: Waterous Co, 
South St Paul, MN 

A fire hydrant is designed to break away at the point 
of the coupling between the upper and lower standpipes 
when hit by a moving vehicle or the like, to reduce the 
chance for damage to the hydrant, the vehicle, and 
possibly to the occupants of the vehicle. A valve push 
rod extends from a valve operating nut at the top of 
the hydrant down to operable connection with a hydrant 
valve so that the valve can be opened when water is 
to be delivered through the hydrant. To provide a 
breakaway connection for the push rod, a semi-cylindrical 
frangible coupUng sleeve connects an upper valve rod sec- 
tion to a lower valve rod section in about the same 
horizontal plane as the upper and lower standpipes are 
coupled to each other. Then, when the upper standpipe 
is broken away from the lower standpipe, the frangible 
couphng sleeve will also break, allowing separation of 
the upper valve rod section from the lower valve rod 
section without substantial danger of damage to the 
hydrant. To prevent misalignment of the upper rod section 
with the lower rod section in the event of the accidental 



rupture of the frangible coupling sleeve, a semi-cylindrical 
coupling sleeve is bolted to the bottom portion of the 
upper rod section opposite the frangible coupling sleeve 
and is provided with a downwardly opening slot to ride 
on a stud extending outwardly through the upper portion 
of the lower valve rod section from its position where 
it holds the frangible coupling sleeve in fixed relationship 
to that upper portion of the lower valve rod section. 4 
claims, 6 drawing figs. (Author) 




d. INSPECTION 

1436. Miller DM and Fyffe DE 

ALLOCATING BUILDING INSPECTION MANPOWER 

FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

Manage Sci; 22(1 2): 1310-1 319, 1976 

This paper concerns the analysis of two basic planning 
problems inherent in the building inspection operations 
of municipal fire prevention bureaus. These problems are 
(1) how often to inspect each type of occupancy in each 
area of the city, and (2) how to divide the city into 
"area-of-responsibility" districts, with one district for 
each inspector. The problems are interrelated and are 
represented in one model. Formulation of the model is 
based on the operations of the Atlanta, Georgia, Fire 
Prevention Bureau. The model constitutes a 
"controllable" analog to the poUtical redistricting problem. 



274 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

d. Inspection— Continued 



A solution procedure is presented which is a modification 
of the Hess and Weaver redistricting algorithm. AppUca- 
tion of the model and solution procedure to Atlanta is 
given. Prehminary results indicate an improvement in dis- 
tricting over current practices. 3 figs, 1 table, 5 refs. 
(Author) 

e. OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS 

f. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS 

1437. Mann E 

POSSIBILITIES FOR CULTIVATING A SENSE OF FIRE 

PROTECTION IN CHILDREN AND YOUTHS 

BF Hamburg (FRG); 83 pages, 1975 (German) 



In treating this theme the author is initiating a complete- 
ly new hne of research for the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many. As he expresses it in the foreword, it was not 
the intention to cover all the possibiUties, but only the 
principal aspects. Initiatives were pursued which, at the 
present time, seem feasible. At the start of the monograph 
the author reviews the two single German-language articles 
worthy of mentioning, namely, those of M Baumann on 
the subject of fire protection education of children, which 
were published in Unser Brandschutz. Practical game and 
work proposals are advanced for the pre-school children. 
The pertinent youth literature is subjected to a critical 
review, as are fire protection films and school TV pro- 
grams. An investigation is made of the possibilities of 
introducing the "fire protection education" plan into the 
schools (elementary, secondary, and advanced). 7 figs, 
25 refs. (Fachdok 12/1047) 

1438. Patzke H 

PROMOTING A SENSE OF FIRE PROTECTION IN 
CHILDREN - DIDACTIC AND METHODOLOGICAL 
CONSIDERATIONS 

BF Hamburg (FRG); 102 pages, 1976 (German) 

The combinations of concepts "sense of preventive fire 
protection" and "sense of active fire protection" are 
defined in accordance with the draft of German standard 
DIN 14011, page 9. In a preliminary theoretical section 
the fire hazards to which children are exposed are 
analyzed and evaluated and what they consist of is 
defined. A teaching program using didactic aids aimed 
at clarifying the nature of the risks is developed and tested 
on a group of children. The experiences gained in this 
test are reported. 25 figs, 7 tables, 10 refs. (Fachdok 
12/1071) 

1439. Heywang R 

nRE PREVENTION. THAT UNKNOWN QUANTITY 

Prot Civ Secur Ind\ (250):27-29, 1976 (French) 

Architects and builders must provide for fire safety mea- 
sures in designing and building occupancies, especially 
in selecting safe construction materials, ensuring reliable 
isolation of hazardous sections, etc. But all the efforts 
of firemen, architects, builders and installers can be nul- 
lified if the people involved in operating the buildings 
are ignorant of the elementary fire-safety aspects. The 
most frequently encountered examples of neglect of fire- 
safety rules that lead to fires are cited. The necessity 
of using mass information media (movies, radio, TV, 



press) to popularize fire safety is emphasized. Fire-safety 
topics must be included in the teaching schedules of the 
schools; in architectural and construction institutes special 
courses in the fire safety of buildings and facilities must 
be set up. 

1440. Block JH, Block J and Folkman WS 

FIRE AND CHILDREN: LEARNING SURVIVAL SKILLS. 

USDA Forest Serv, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range 
Exp Stn; PSW-1 19, 14 pages, 9 refs, 1976 
Availability: Forest Service, USDA 

A number of essentially healthy 5- and 6-year old chil- 
dren were studied to determine their interest in, anxieties 
about, attitudes toward, and reactions to fire. The relation- 
ships of particular personaUty characteristics of the chil- 
dren and the socialization techniques and teaching strate- 
gies of the mothers to the children's perceived attitudes 
about and observed performances with fire materials were 
determined. The findings suggest that fire play in very 
young children is common - more a function of curious, 
exploratory play than a function of psychologically driven, 
psychopathological behavior, as might be true of fire- 
setting by older children. Similarities were found between 
personality characteristics of children with high accident 
rates and those showing a keen interest in fire. Educa- 
tional programs emphasizing cautious use of fire materials 
need to be instituted early in a child's life as interest 
in fire frequently develops by the time he or she is 5 
years old. (Author) 

g. RESCUE OPERATIONS 

1441. Anon 

THE RESCUE TUBE. A NEW RESCUE DEVICE IN CASE 
OF FIRE 

Schweiz Feuerwehr Z; 102(3):99-100, 1976 (German and 
French) 

In October 1975 the technical bureau of the Swiss 
Firemens' Federation tested tubular rescue devices (Super 
Ace S-5) made in Japan and recommended that they be 
be made part of the equipment. The tubes are made in 
two layers: a strong outer layer of nylon and an inner 
layer of soft synthetic fabric. A spiral of synthetic cord 
is placed between the layers. The rate of descent of a 
human being is 2-4 m/sec. It is recommended that office 
and commercial buildings, schools and hospitals with more 
than 4 stories be equipped with this kind of rescue device. 
At the present time more than 65,000 devices of this 
model have been introduced in Japan, the US, Brazil, 
Australia and Austria. 1 fig. (RZh) 

1442. Breitkopf G 

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE DISCUSSION OF THE 
ENDLESS-CHAIN BAR-SEAT TYPE PASSENGER 
ELEVATOR 

ZS Magazin; (9):36-38, 1976 (German) 

In general, a number of technical devices is available 
for the rescue of people from great heights. But cases 
may occur when bringing up these devices is delayed 
for some reason or other or an insufficient number of 
these devices is available. In this case the means of the 
recovery service can be used. One of these is the 
"Paternoster", an advanced development of the "seat bar 



275 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

g. Rescue Operations— Continued 



with safety loop". The manufacture of such an endless- 
chain, bar-seat type passenger elevator is described and 
illustrated and, in the author's opinion, should be in- 
troduced into the training program of the rescue and 
recovery service. 7 figs. (Fachdok 13/0032) 

1443. Prickman LE 

REDUCING THE WORRY OF NURSING HOME FIRES 

Nursing Homes, 25(1): 11 -13, 19, 1976 

The author outlines a plan of instruction and memory 
aids for nursing home staff personnel to ensure that they 
know the fire plan, the location of extinguishers and their 
operation, the location of emergency exits and doors 
released, arousal and evacuating of patients, location of 
bed-ridden patients and those needing wheelchairs, and 
how to help such patients out of the hospital. 2 photos. 

1444. Flanagan SF 

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO FIRE ESCAPE 
MEANS OR APPARATUS 

Irish Patent No. 34,757; CI E06C 9/14, Appl 23 Nov 1970, 
Disci. 6 Aug 1975, Assignee: Stephen Francis Flanagan 

A rescue device for evacuation of upper floors in case 
of a fire is patented. It consists of a metal container 
attached to the floor beneath the window sill and of a 
chain ladder stored in folded form in this container. The 
ladder consists of two chains equal in length to the height 
of the window above the ground. Rungs, i.e. steps made 
of metal or wood, are affixed to the chains. One end 
of the ladder is permanently fixed to the container; the 
other end is made in the form of a grip protruding from 
the container. Beneath the window outside the building 
is mounted a horizontal bracket at a distance of 25-30 
cm from the wall. The ladder rests on this bracket, thus 
lying this distance away from the wall, making descent 
by the ladder easier. 5 figs. 

1445. Gehring A 

ESCAPE DEVICE, ESPECIALLY FOR ROPING DOWN 
FROM BUILDINGS 

Swiss Patent No. 570,173; CI A62B 1/10, Appl 28 Nov 
1974, Disci. 15 Dec 1974, Assignee: Gehring AG 

A patent is disclosed for a device used to rescue people 
primarily from the upper floors of highrise buildings dur- 
mg a fire. The main component of the device is a rotating 
drum with a cable wound into it. The drum is affixed 
to a frame or a housing. Inside the drum are mounted 
a toothed planetary transfer gear and a centrifugal brake, 
which regulate the rate of rotation of the drum as people 
descend. 

1446. Fisher R 
nRE LADDER 

US Patent No. 3,963,097; CI 182/76, (E06C 9/14), Appl 
26 Mar 1975, Disci. 15 Jun 1976, Assignee: Lawrence 
Peska Associates, Inc, NY, NY 

A flexible fire ladder is stowed in a housing mounted 
between a pair of projecting beams within a decorative 
overhang over a window of a building. The housing is 
either underside a pivotly mounted hopper, or is formed 
by a soffit below the roof overhang and includes a pivotly 
mounted door. In either event, the hopper or door is 
retained in place by a catch. A cable for articulating the 



catch passes within the buUding wall to a handle mounted 
near the window. The cable may be puUed either manually 
by the handle or by a solenoid responsive to a fire detec- 
tor. 4 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 




1447. Keen WL and Spector G 
SPIRAL SLIDE FIRE ESCAPE 

US Patent No. 3,968,856; CI 182/48, (A62B 1/20), Appl 
7 Aug 1974, Disci. 13 Jul 1976 

A new type of building fire escape consisting of an 
upright tube containing a spiral slide extending throughout 




276 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

g. Rescue Operations — Continued 



Its length, access doors along the sides of the tube so 
to allow persons on each floor of a building to enter, 
and an exit door at a lower end of the tube; the device 
providing an escape that encloses the people from flames, 
smoke and choking gases while escaping burning building. 
1 claim, 6 drawing figs. (Author) 



1448. Nikolaev VN and Vasil'ev MS 
RESCUE BELT 

USSR Patent No. 487,633; CI A44B 11/06, Appl 16 Dec 
1973, Disci. 21 Jan 1976, Assignee: VNII protivopozhar 
oborony 

A rescue belt which prevents a man from falling from 
a height is proposed. To make the belt convenient to 
use, the locking device is made in the form of a plate 
with a flange affixed to the end of the belt together with 
a hook; the plate has a hole oriented opposite the hook 
and at the point where the plate bends there is a slot 
into which a catch is inserted. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 

h. TACTICS 

1449. Peige JD 

FIRE PROBLEMS IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS 

Oklahoma State Univ, Stillwater, OK; 130 pages, 1976 

Fire-fighting problems encountered in tall buildings, 
from access to salvage and overhaul, are defined and 
solutions are offered in this new IFSTA book. How fire 
gases travel and stratify in highrise buildings is explained 
in one chapter, and another discusses fire flows and 
built-in fire protection systems. The use of elevators and 
communications difficulties are among the other topics 
covered. From the many specific problems discussed, the 
reader can get a general knowledge of the specific difficul- 
ties that face firefighters in highrise buildings. 

1450. Aksentsev ES and Karataev AK 
SUPPRESSING ENDOGENOUS FIRES IN WORKED-OUT 
MINE SPACES 

Bezop tr prom-sti: (6):8-10, 1976 (Russian) 

In the Donets coal basin 45% of all mine fires occur 
in worked-out mine areas. For this reason special methods 
have been developed to fight such fires, which are started 
by spontaneous ignition. The author describes a method 
in which a mine fire in a worked-out field was extin- 
guished using nozzles, water, foam extinguishants and fire 
barriers. 3 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

1451. Korte W 

FIRE IN AN UNDERGROUND GARAGE 

Brandhilfe; 23(9):229-231, 1976 (German) 

In the introduction the author reviews the experience 
that has been gained with regard to fire protection since 
formulation of the model for a garage ordinance, which 
was passed in 1961 and which led to the presently valid 
garage ordinance of 1973. Garage fires are not very 
frequent, but when an underground garage fire call does 
come, fire-fighting difficulties occur which are typical for 
such premises. Underground garage fire tactics are 



described and a list of experiences is compiled, relating 
primarily to structural measures for medium- and large- 
size garages and to regulation of user behavior. 1 fig. 
(Fachdok 12/1075) 

1452. Blumhagen HF 

FIGHTING FIRES IN ELECTRICAL FACILITIES 

Elektrotech Z; B28(2):M8, 1976 (German) 

The German Electricians Association (ERG) has issued 
a memorandum VDE 0132 based on information contained 
in standard VDE 0022/1.64. The memorandum aims at 
obligatory familiarization of personnel in premises contain- 
ing electrical equipment and fire-extinguishing systems 
with fire-extinguishing regulations and with the sequence 
of actions required in accident situations. The operating 
voltages of electrical systems are divided into two catego- 
ries: low voltages of up to 100 kV and high voltages 
from 100 kV to 380 kV. In accordance with the data 
of investigations, standards have been adopted in Austria 
and the ERG on increasing the distance between a nozzle 
and a faulty electrical system by 0.25-0.75 m for each 
millimeter of nozzle diameter in the range of 12 to 24 
mm. According to the data of the ERG standard DIN 
14365, the distances between a spray nozzle and an electri- 
cal system when extinguishing fires must be not less than 
1 m for low voltages and 5 m for high voltages, and 
between a nozzle discharging a solid stream and an electri- 
cal system not less than 5 m for low voltages and 10 
m for high voltages. (RZh) 

1453. Mueller R 

FIGHTING A MASKED MINE FIRE BY NITROGEN IN- 
ERTING 

Glueckauf; 112(14):810-816, 1976 (German) 

The masked mine fire on September 12, 1975, in the 
Alsbach field of the Luisenthal mine (Saarbergwerke AG) 
threatened traverses 3A and 2B with a material loss of 
about 12 miUion DM. It was possible to prevent traverse 
2B from being engulfed by the fire using conventional 
fire fighting techniques, whereas traverse 3 A would have 
had to be blocked off with the loss of all the traverse 
and gallery equipment if nitrogen inerting had not been 
used. After a detailed description of the conditions which 
had to be met in planning and carrying out the inerting 
technique and the problems which had to be solved, the 
effects of the method in the course of the fire are 
presented on the basis of gas analysis. The costs of the 
method are cited. 13 figs, 1 table, 6 refs. (Fachdok 
12/0929) 

1454. Mahley HS 

FIGHT TANK FIRES, SUBSURFACE 

Hydrocarbon Process; 54(8):72-75, 1975 

For fire protection of bulk storage tanks containing 
flammable liquid, foam is generally accepted as the only 
agent for effective fire control and extinguishment. It may 
be applied by fixed foam generating chambers at the top 
angle of the tank, portable nozzles or monitors or by 
injection of foam at the base of a tank — called the subsur- 
face method. The development and application of this 
method is discussed. 5 photos, 10 refs. (Author) 

1455. Voropay V 

FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS 

Pozhar delo; (5):19-21, 1976 (Russian) 



277 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

h. Tactics— Continued 



The Deputy Chief of the Fire Protection Administration 
of the Moscow Municipal Executive Committee discusses 
the particular difficulties encountered in combating 
highrise fires, in particular the safe evacuation of occu- 
pants. Various aspects of fighting highrise fires are ex- 
amined. 2 figs, 1 table. 

1456. Anon 

NEW FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AND RESCUE TRAINS 

SBB Nachrichtenbi, 53(2);26-27, 1976 (German) 

A new fire and rescue train, intended primarily for 
extinguishing fires and performing rescue work in railroad 
tunnels, has been set in operation. The train consists of 
a locomotive, a fire-fighting and a rescue car. The equip- 
ment of the fire-fighting car is mounted on a four-axle 
platform and includes a 44-m^ water tank, a 1000-1 foam 
extinguishant container, a diesel motor, a high-pressure 
centrifugal pump, a monitor, an air compressor, and 16 
compressed-air cylinders. The rescue car is an ordinary 
two-axle service car. It contains 12 sets of gas-protection 
equipment, 60 gas masks connected to a central air-supply 
system, various medical equipment for first aid, and pro- 
tective clothing. (RZh) 

1457. Anon 

HELICOPTERS IN FIRE SERVICE OPERATIONS 

Steir Feuerwehrbl- 25(10):213-214, 1976 (German) 

The increasing demands on the performance of the fire 
service, especially for highrise building fires or forest fires 
in roadless terrain, are being met by the use of the most 
modem technical tools. Two heUcopters from the Aircraft 
Co are on call day and night for the Innsbruck fire depart- 
ment. Forest fires have been successfully suppressed with 
them. The water containers are made of fiberglass with 
a controllable content of 180-530 liters and can be filled 
while the helicopter hovers. The tactical operations 
sequence of a helicopter mission is described. (Fachdok 
13/0078) 

1458. Sobolev GG 

INERT GASES -A RELIABLE MEANS OF PREVENTING 
EXPLOSIONS IN THE CASE OF UNDERGROUND FIRES 

Ugol\ (3):65-70, 1976 (Russian) 

A general review is given of the experience gained in 
using nitrogen, a vapor-gas mixture and carbon dioxide 
to extinguish underground fires. 6 figs. (RZh) 

1459. Karataev AK and Rodimova NA 

FIRE SUPPRESSION BEHIND A CONCRETE BUTTRESS 
IN MINE WORKINGS USING MECHANICAL FOAM 

Ugol Ukraina; (l):34-35, 1976 (Russian) 

The advantages of a fire-extinguishing method for mine 
workings using mechanical foam are compared with a 
method which uses water. 1 fig, 1 ref. (RZh) 

1460. Motz R 

FIGHTING TRUNK-LINE GAS FIRES 

Unser Brandschutz; 26(8):28-29, 1976 (German) 

Even when all the regulations are observed, gas trunk- 
hne accidents (natural gas, ethylene) still occur, leading 
to explosions and fires. For such cases, tactical study 
of operations is a method of determining the manpower 



and equipment required, that is, the overall and particular 
situation is analyzed. Operational plans and tactical 
procedures, optimum extinguishants and extinguishing 
devices are provided for in advance. The principles 
developed for gas trunk lines can also be applied for 
ethylene, taking into account the particular features of 
the latter. (Fachdok 12/070) 



9. PLANNING 

a. BUDGETING 

b. LOGISTICS 

c. OPERATIONS ANALYSIS 

10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND 
MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

[For more complete coverage of the behavioral and 
medical literature see: Psychological Abstracts and 
Index Medicus.] 

a. ARSON 

1461 . Conaway CW 

INCENDIARY FIRES IN INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 

Fire J\ 70(2):28-33, 1976 

A detailed study of the incendiary fire loss experience 
of the Factory Insurance Association from 1968-1974 is 
reported. Total losses were $55 million from 684 individual 
fires. Attribute analysis was used to explain where incen- 
diarism occurs, to whom it occurs, and how and when 
it occurs, multiplicity of losses, factors contributing to 
the size of losses, and factors in loss control. Recom- 
mended actions to be taken after a known or suspected 
incendiary fire as well as for the prevention and control 
of incendiary fires are given. Adequate internal and exter- 
nal security should be established for the entire facility 
or plant. Access to storage areas should be limited to 
authorized personnel. (NFPA) 

1462. Levin B 

PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRESET- 
TERS 

Fire J: 70(2):36-41, 1976 

Arsonists may be grouped into arson-for-profit fire set- 
ters, solitary fire setters, and group fire setters. Most 
arsonists can be characterized as psychopaths, and as 
such, often appear normal and lead reasonably normal 
lives, appear to lack feelings of concern for others 
(especially for the physical harm caused by their acts), 
and often do not respond to punishment. There is a ten- 
dency for arsonists to be young, to have low intelligence, 
to have a stronger than average interest in fires, and 
to have physical deformities. The crime can be committed 
in secret and does not require a confrontation, so it is 
often the act of the physically weak and the coward. 
(NFPA). 



278 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

a. Arson — Continued 



1463. Jackson RJ 

THE INSURER'S ROLE IN ARSON PREVENTION 

Fire J; 70(2):45-47, 1976 

Insurance companies can help prevent fraud arson by 
removing the incentive and increasing the risk of ap- 
prehension. The insurance agent should know the appli- 
cant personally and be familiar with the prospective risk. 
The agent should have special training in giving insurance 
to value and not over-insuring. Underwriters should con- 
sider other insurance, building inspection reports, and 
available experience of other carriers. A credit check may 
be indicated. Underwriters should be trained to recognize 
potential frauds. Arson and exaggerated claims go hand 
in hand. Trained claim adjusters should check fire depart- 
ment reports and talk to the fire fighters for indications 
of arson, suspicious origin, or unknown cause. (NFPA) 

b. COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

1464. Herpol C, Minne R and Outryre van E 
BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF 
GASES PRODUCED UNDER FIRE CONDITIONS BY 
SYNTHETIC MATERIALS. PART I. METHODS AND 
PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS CONCERNING THE 
RELATION OF ANIMALS TO SIMPLE MIXTURES OF 
AIR AND CARBON DIOXIDE OR CARBON MONOXIDE 
Combust Sci Technoi. 12(4-5-6):217-228, 1976 

This first part of a two-part article concerns only the 
methods and preUminary experiments with known mix- 
tures of air and carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide. It 
was necessary to know the exact reaction of Wistar rats, 
which were chosen as the laboratory animals, to such 
atmospheres, since it is a well-known fact that different 
breeds of animals may react differently. The rats were 
subjected for 30 minutes to simple mixtures to determine 
the effect of the CO2 in respiration. The aim with regard 
to carbon monoxide was to establish the relationship 
between the given concentration and the amount of 
hemoglobin bound by CO. as well as between the given 
amount and the moment when death occurs. The actual 
results for materials are given in the second part of the 
paper. 6 figs, 8 tables, 12 refs. (Author) 

1465. Herpol C and Minne R 

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF 
GASES PRODUCED UNDER FIRE CONDITIONS BY 
SYNTHETIC MATERIALS. PART 2. BEHAVIOR OF 
SYNTHETIC MATERIALS IN DEFINITE COMBUSTION 
CONDITIONS AS COMPARED TO THE BEHAVIOR OF 
TRADITIONAL MATERIALS IN SAME CONDITION 
Combust Sci Technoi; 12(4-5-6):229-244, 1976 

The aim of the present research is to find out if 
synthetic materials are really more dangerous from a pure- 
ly toxicological viewpoint than so-called traditional materi- 
als. In the first part of the article, a description was 
given of how mixtures of air and known concentrations 
of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were given to 
rats to inhale in order to ascertain the effect of these 
two major components found in all combustion gases. 
This second part of the article contains a series of results 
obtained from various synthetic materials and some tradi- 
tional materials in a specific combustion condition and 
also the results of experiments which were performed 



on some of these materials under differing combustion 
conditions. 6 figs, 6 tables, 9 refs. (Author) 

1466. Axford AT, McKerrow CB, Jones AP and Lequesne 
PM 

ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO ISOCYANATE FUMES IN 
A GROUP OF FIREMEN 

Brit J Ind Med: 33(2):65-71, 1976 

A total of 35 firemen involved in fighting a fire in 
a factory in which polyurethane foam was made were 
exposed to fumes of toluene di-isocyanate from two large 
storage tanks which were damaged during the fire, result- 
ing in massive spillage. Most of the men experienced 
symptoms during the fire or during the three weeks after 
it. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal, respirato- 
ry, or neurological. Altogether 15 men described gastroin- 
testinal symptoms which subsided within two days of 
onset. Respiratory symptoms were described by 31 men 
and were most pronounced during the three days after 
the fire, thereafter tending to improve. The neurological 
findings are described separately. When the men were 
reviewed at six months there was a suggestion that some 
of them might have sustained long-term damage to the 
respiratory tract, and almost four years later 20 men had 
persistent respiratory symptoms. Serial measurements of 
ventilatory capacity revealed a marked decline in the first 
six months although this was not sustained. 2 figs, 10 
tables, 11 refs. (Author) 

1467. Lequesne PM, Axford AT, McKerrow CB and Jones 
AP 

NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS AFTER A SINGLE 
SEVERE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DI-ISOCYANATE 

Brit J Ind Med; 33(2):72-78, 1976 

A total of 23 men complained of neurological symptoms 
after a single severe exposure to toluene di-isocyanate. 
Effects of exposure were immediate in five men and con- 
sisted of euphoria, ataxia, and loss of consciousness. 
These men and nine others complained of headache, dif- 
ficulty in concentration, poor memory, and confusion dur- 
ing the next three weeks. Four years later it was found 
that nine further men had experienced symptoms that they 
had not been aware of at three weeks. In all, 13 men 
still complained of poor memory, personality change, ir- 
ritabihty, or depression after four years. Psychometric 
testing showed a selective defect for relatively long-term 
recall in those with persistent symptoms at four years. 
3 tables, 9 refs. (Author) 

1468. Hilado CJ and Furst A 
ESTIMATING SHORT-TERM LC^" -VALUES 

Fire Technoi; 12(2): 109-1 12, 1976 

LC^° values (concentrations at which 509^ of test 
animals die) of the most widely recognized potentially 
toxic products of combustion, such as carbon monoxide, 
hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, and nitrogen diox- 
ide, decrease with increased exposure time and decreased 
body weight. A method is given for the estimation of 
LC^*' values for exposure periods of 5 to 60 minutes. 
For such periods, hydrogen cyanide is twenty-nine times 
as toxic as carbon monoxide to 250-g rats and 2.8 times 
as toxic as hydrogen chloride to 30-g mice. Such correla- 
tions are of value in the design of toxicity test procedures. 
1 fig, 12 refs. (Author) 



279 



FIRE TECHNDLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology — Continued 



1469. Hilado CJ and LaBossiere LA 

EVALUATION OF THE SMOKE DENSITY CHAMBER 
AS AN APPARATUS FOR FIRE TOXICITY SCREENING 
TESTS 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2): 103-116, 1976 

The smoke density chamber is perhaps the most widely 
used apparatus for smoke measurements. Because of its 
availability, it has been proposed as an apparatus for 
evaluating fire toxicity. The authors did not find the stan- 
dard apparatus and procedure suitable for» toxicity screen- 
ing tests using Laboratory animals, because not enough 
materials of interest to them produced animal mortahty 
or even incapacitation under standard test conditions. 
With modifications, the chamber offers greater promise 
as a screening tool, but other tests specifically designed 
to measure relative toxicity may be more cost-effective. 
Where one-dimensional heat flux is a requirement, the 
chamber is the most suitable apparatus available. It should 
be improved in regard to visibility of animals and ease 
of cleaning. 3 figs, 19 refs. (Author) 

1470. Nunez LJ and Autian J 

FIRE TOXICOLOGY STUDIES AT THE MATERIALS 
SCIENCE TOXICOLOGY LABORATORIES, UNIVERSI- 
TY OF TENNESSEE CENTER FOR THE HEALTH 
SCIENCES 
J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):1 17-124, 1976 

Three experimental approaches used in fire toxicology 
research at MST Laboratories are discussed. These in- 
clude combustion studies where fabrics are burned with 
a flame under an infrared burner, slow pyrolysis studies, 
and rapid pyrolysis studies in conjunction with a hyperbar- 
ic chamber. The three pieces of apparatus are described, 
along with some of the analytical tests. A baseline set 
of histopathological observations is also presented for lung 
tissue of rats used in the experiments. Some of the 
techniques used to treat and interpret the data are also 
described. 6 figs, 4 refs. (Author) 

1471. Hilado CJ, Marcussen WH, Furst A and Leon HA 
EFFECT OF SPECIES ON RELATIVE TOXICITY OF 
PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):125-134, 1976 

One of the principal factors in animal toxicity studies 
is the choice of animal species. A limited study of the 
relative toxicity of the pyrolysis products from cotton 
and wool indicated that LD^" and LC^° values obtained 
with Swiss albino mice were approximately one-half of 
the values obtained with Sprague-Dawley rats. The toxici- 
ty of cotton relative to that of wool was the same using 
Swiss albino mice or Sprague-Dawley rats. Rankings of 
relative toxicity appear to be more sensitive to differences 
in apparatus and procedure than to interspecies dif- 
ferences. 4 tables, 20 refs. (Author) 

1472. Hilado CJ 

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS OF 
SOME LOOSE FIBER MATERIALS: A PRELIMINARY 
STUDY 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):151-156, 1976 

A limited number of cotton and polyester loose fiber 
materials was evaluated in the course of developing 
procedures for toxic materials characterization. Under the 



test conditions used, there was no significant difference 
in relative toxicity between the materials evaluated. 1 fig, 
1 table, 3 refs. (Author) 

1473. Young W, Hilado CJ, Kourtides DA and Parker 
JA 

A STUDY OF THE TOXICOLOGY OF PYROLYSIS 
GASES FROM SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):157-165, 1976 

An apparatus and procedure for evaluating the toxicity 
of pyrolysis gases from synthetic polymers are described. 
In each test, four Swiss albino mice are exposed in a 
5-liter chamber to the gases from materials pyrolyzed at 
700°C. The apparatus is simple in design, easy to clean, 
and low cost, and gives reproducible results. Data on 
several fluorine-containing and polyamide polymers are 
presented. 4 figs, 2 tables, 6 refs. (Author) 

1474. Hilado CJ and Johnson AC 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLISHED INFORMATION ON 
COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):189-195, 1976 

One of the goals of the Journal of Combustion Toxicolo- 
gy is to so guide its content that within five years a 
complete collection of issues would be the basic literature 
source in this field. Until this literature source comes 
into being, the researchers of today, working in a field 
relevant to human life, must build on the information 
available to them now. To assist them in their important 
task, this bibliography of published information (63 items) 
was prepared, to continue the bibliographies published in 
earlier issues, which contained a total 656 references from 
a wide variety of journals. The material dates mostly from 
1975 and 1976; two entries date from 1974. (Author) 

1475. Rich AH 

TOXIC GAS CONTROL FOR RADIO-FREQUENCY AB- 
SORBER FIRES. Dept of Navy; AD-D002 746/6, 12 pages, 

Availability: NTIS PAT APPL-689 692/GA 

This patent application pertains to a method of con- 
trolling toxic outgassing of carbon impregnated polyu- 
rethane and other radio-frequency-absorbing materials 
when burning or smouldering. Ammonia gas and water 
or steam are sprayed onto smouldering material to com- 
bine with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen chloride 
(HCl) formed during burning to yield ammonium cyanide 
plus ammonium chloride which yield relatively harmless 
precipitates when cooled. (Author) 

1476. Horvath SM 

INFLUENCE OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON CARDIAC 
DYNAMICS IN NORMAL AND CARDIOVASCULAR 
STRESSED ANIMALS. Univ of California, Santa Barbara, 
Inst Environ Stress; ARB R-2096-75-51, 151 pages, 1975 
Availability: NTIS PB-254 821/2GA 

Carbon monoxide inhalation by normal animals resulting 
in increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin (6 to 35%) in- 
creased coronary blood flow, decreased availability of ox- 
ygen to the myocardium (heart muscle), and decreased 
the oxygen tensions of both arterial and coronary sinus 
blood. Animals with myocardial disturbances, acquired 
complete arterioventricular block, failed to respond to a 



280 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology— Continued 



low level of COHb (6 to 7%), as had normal animals. 
Disappearance of carbon monoxide from blood was 
biphasic, with an initial rapid rate followed by a slower 
rate which was partially dependent upon the absolute level 
of carboxy hemoglobin. Animals performing submaximal 
levels of work showed minor impairments in cardiovascu- 
lar function. Animals chronically exposed to ambient air 
having 100 ppm of carbon monoxide responded to an 
acute exposure of CO which raised the level of COHb 
to the same degree (10%) as was present at the end of 
each daily exposure and had cardiorespiratory responses 
similar to those observed in non-exposed animals. 
(Author) 

1477. Sumi K and Tsuchiya Y 

ASSESSMENT OF RELATIVE TOXICITY OF MATERI- 
ALS - TOXICITY INDEX. Nat Res Council Canada, Div 
Bidg Res; DBR Paper 685, Mar 1976 

The fire toxicity concept that has been proposed as 
a method to assess the toxicity of decomposition products 
from quantitative analytical data and the known toxicities 
of the products is explained. The assessment gives indica- 
tions of the relative importance of toxic species produced 
from a given material, and the relative propensity of 
materials in generating harmful gases and vapors. Merits 
and limitations of the concept and directions for further 
development are discussed. Some experimental data 
developed under a standardized method of decomposition 
are presented. (Presented at the International Symposium 
on Toxicity and Physiology of Combustion Products, 
University of Utah, March 1976.) (Author) 

1478. Edgington JAG and Lynch RD 

THE ACUTE INHALATION TOXICITY OF CARBON 
MONOXIDE FROM BURNING WOOD. Fire Res Sta, 
Boreham Wood, UK; Fire Res Note 1040, 23 pages, 2 
plates, 9 refs, Aug 1975 

The acute inhalation toxicity to rats and guinea pigs 
of carbon monoxide as a pure gas, or as evolved during 
the controlled burning of two different plywoods, has been 
measured. There were significant, though very slight, dif- 
ferences. The slightly greater toxicity with the plywood 
exposures was probably due to changes in the respiratory 
minute volume produced by the irritants in the wood 
pyrolysis products, although this is unproven. (Author) 

1479. Hilado CJ and Furst A 

FIRE SAFETY IN THE HOME: RELATIVE TOXICITY 
OF THE PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS FROM SOME 
MATERIALS USED IN HOME FURNISHINGS AND THE 
IMPACT OF CALIFORNIA REGULATIONS. State of 
California Dept of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Home 
Furnishings; SP-76-5, 46 pages, 2 figs, 23 tables, 29 refs, 
Oct 1976 

Seventy samples of cushioning and upholstery materials 
used in home furnishings were evaluated for relative tox- 
icity of pyrolysis products, using the USF/NASA toxicity 
screening test method. The materials exhibited varying 
degrees of toxicity under pyrolysis conditions, and this 
relatively simple test method, exposing four mice in a 
4.2 liter chamber to the pyrolysis effluents, appeared 
suitable for discriminating between these materials on the 
basis of time to incapacitation and time to death. 



The addition of fire retardants to these materals, in 
order to comply with flammability regulations, either had 
no significant effect on toxicity, or resulted in a reduction 
in relative toxicity under these test conditions. 

The modification of materials to comply with California 
upholstered furniture flammability regulations appears to 
have resulted in desirable limitations on toxicity. The 
materials in compliance exhibited longer times before in- 
capacitation than half of the materials in this study. 
(Author) 

1480. Birky MM 

REVIEW OF SMOKE AND TOXIC GAS HAZARDS IN 
FIRE ENVIRONMENT 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc: 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 231- 

252 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Fire statistics show that at least 50% of the fire related 
deaths can be attributed to "smoke inhalation." Detailed 
investigations of fire fatalities and autopsies of fire victims 
show that the interaction of carbon monoxide, pulmonary 
injury, alcohol and cardiovascular disease plays a role 
in many of these deaths. The research efforts designed 
to assess the toxicological effects of products of thermal 
degradation can be divided into three broad categories: 
a) assessment based on extensive chemical analysis, b) 
assessment based on analyzing for specific toxicants and 
c) assessment based on bioassay techniques frequently 
combined with analysis for a few selected toxicants. As- 
sessment categories 1 and 2 have mainly addressed the 
problem of the gaseous phase of the degradation products, 
with little consideration given to the particulate phase 
(smoke). These methodologies illustrate the limitation of 
basing a hazard assessment on the assumption that the 
toxicity of the fire environment is due solely to a few 
known toxicants. In addition, the particulate phase may 
play a predominant role in the inhalation toxicity that 
cannot be assessed with chemical analysis. One concludes 
that due to the complexity of the fire environment, an 
assessment of this hazard will require the combined ef- 
forts of toxicologists, chemists and combustion scientists. 
3 tables, 48 refs. (Author) 

1481. WooUey WD and Raftery MM 

SMOKE AND TOXICITY HAZARDS OF PLASTICS IN 
FIRES 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 258- 

265 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Plastics are now used widely in a variety of applications, 
both within the general structure of buildings and in 
furnishings and fittings, and there is concern that the 
widespread use of these materials may increase the fire 
hazard because of the possible production of large 
amounts of smoke and toxic gases. Smoke and toxic gases 
are generated in a number of different ways in fires, 
involving particularly the thermal and thermal oxidative 
decomposition of the polymeric material and the gas-phase 
pyrolysis or combustion of volatiles. In some instances 
these routes can also lead to destruction of smoke and 



281 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology — Continued 



gases. The problem of smoke and toxicity hazards are 
being studied at the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood, 
using laboratory decomposition techniques with gas chro- 
matography and mass spectrometry, and fire tests in a 
full-scale compartment-corridor facility. Animal experi- 
ments carried out under contract provide the link between 
the analytical results and the physiological response of 
fire gases. 2 figs, 23 refs. (Author) 

c. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES AND 

FACILITIES 

d. INJURIES AND FATALITIES 

1482. Bartlett RH, Niccole M, Tavis MJ, Allyn PA and 
Furnas DW 

ACUTE MANAGEMENT OF THE UPPER AIRWAY IN 
FACIAL BURNS AND SMOKE INHALATION 

Arch Surg; 11 1(7):744-749, 1976 

Among 740 patients with acute burns who were admitted 
to our burn center from 1972 through 1975, thirty-six 
required upper airway access within the first 24 hours 
after burn for oral and facial bums or smoke inhalation. 
Nasotracheal intubation was initally used. Twelve sur- 
vived; 11 were successfully extubated and one required 
a tracheotomy. If the patient had not sustained major 
smoke inhalation, extubation was usually possible without 
tracheotomy when edema subsided between one and six 
days after the bum. It is concluded that endotracheal 
intubation is a satisfactory method of gaining airway con- 
trol in severe oral and facial burns and in smoke inhala- 
tion. The mortality associated with orofacial burns or 
smoke inhalation is related to the degree of lung damage, 
patient's age, and the extent of the burn; it is not related 
to the method of upper airway control. 2 figs, 4 tables, 
9 refs. (Author) 

e. PHYSIOLOGY 



1483. Schneider A 
RESPIRATION 

Brand aus; 84(8): 304-305, 
(German) 



1976; 84(9):361-362, 1976 



Brief information is given on the respiratory organs, 
the heart and the respiration processes. The data are 
primarily quantitative. Man in his environment (place of 
work, fire fighting) can be exposed to many respiratory 
toxicants. A three-page table by E Rotter lists the respira- 
tory toxicants, the toxic phenomena in man, and first- 
aid measures. (Fachdok 13/0061) 

1484. Bellet H and Hertzog G 

HUMAN TOLERANCE TO HEAT FLUXES 

Face au risque; (123):22-25, 1976 (French) 

Reference is made to values obtained by tests, experi- 
ments and experience. The radiation intensity, dry, wet 
and moving heat (air speed), sex, age, and habits are 
the factors which have the greatest influence in gaining 
information. Comparisons are made and the test equip- 
ment and experiments are described. The abundant results 
are shown graphically in diagrams, while a table indicates 
the period of time that a human can withstand heat radia- 
tion without danger as a function of the heat flux in 



W/cm^. This result can also be calculated by a formula 
given at the end of the article. 2 figs, 1 table. (Fachdok 
12/1078) 

1485. Paetzel P 

RHEUMATIC DISEASES IN THE BERLIN FIRE DE- 
PARTMENT 

Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz; 25(9):275-277, 1976 
(German) 

Investigations by the consulting physician of the Beriin 
Fire Department established that complaints about joints 
and spinal column followed heart and circulation com- 
plaints as an important cause of disability. The therapeutic 
effect of local protection against dampness, cold and 
drafts, by wearing segments of cloth made of mixtures 
of angora wool and synthetic fibers around the shoulders, 
knees, and other parts of the body is reported. 17 refs. 

1486. Bixler EG 

EMERGENCIES: AROUSAL FROM SLEEP 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc. 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 23-37 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

Approximately one-third of our hves is spent in sleep, 
a behavioral state in which critical awareness of our exter- 
nal environment is greatly decreased. This lessened exter- 
nal awareness makes us potentially vulnerable to various 
types of hazards over which we have little or no control 
should they occur while we sleep. Although an expectation 
of impending danger would interfere with our ability to 
fall asleep readily, once we have fallen asleep the question 
of arousal from sleep and our performance capabilities 
following arousal have many practical imphcations, even 
survival implications. The phenomenon of arousal has 
been considered both from the standpoint of responses 
to external stimuli alone and more recently by information 
provided by the extensive findings yielded from modern 
sleep research studies. This paper summarizes some of 
the more important observations relevant to the question 
of arousal from sleep and how arousal is altered in a 
number of sleep disorders. Information pertaining to nor- 
mal sleep and dream patterns, as well as the interaction 
or influence of these patterns with an individual's arousa- 
bility from sleep, is provided first. 53 refs. (Author) 

f. PSYCHOLOGY 

1487. Bentley RC 

MALICIOUS FALSE ALARMS, THEIR INCIDENCE AND 
CAUSATION 

F/re; 69(854): 142-143, 1976 

The author discusses the frequency and nature of mali- 
cious false alarms occurring in the UK and their perpetra- 
tors, categorized into six groups: a) mentally deficient; 
b) children; c) youths (rebelUon and immaturity); d) in- 
ebriated; e) jokes; and f) the malicious. The problems 
of detection and prosecution of offenders, both difficult 
and time consuming, are buttressed by statistics. Several 
detection schemes are described. Finally, the author 
decries the negligible convictions and the disproportion 
between the fines and the turnout costs. 3 photos. 



282 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

f. Psychology — Continued 



1488. Lerup L. Greenwood D and Burke JG 
MAPPING OF RECURRENT BEHAVIOR PATTERNS IN 
INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING UNDER FIRE: TEN CASE 
STUDIES OF NURSING FACILITIES. Univ of California 
(Berkeley), Architecture Life Safety Group; NBS GCR- 
76-73, 164 pages, Jul 1976 

AvailabUity: NTIS PB-257 424/2GA 

The report provides a graphical and narrative mapping 
of the fire and people behavior patterns in 10 institutional 
buildings under fire conditions. The case studies concen- 
trate on nursing home type facilities. The report maps 
out the progress of the fire by realms of fire development 
and critical events separating these realms. A parallel 
mapping is included for human behavior covering the 
episodes and decisions involved. A conceptual framework 
and analysis of the basic concepts and approaches are 
included. (Author) 

1489. Bryan JL 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR: A CRITICAL VARIABLE IN FIRE 
DETECTION SYSTEMS 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 3 1 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 15-22 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

Human behavior is an essential critical variable of the 
response phase of every fire detection system, with the 
exception of the systems that serve as an initiating medi- 
um for a suppression system. Thus, it appears to be im- 
portant to develop a shared concept of a fire detection 
system. A fire detection system could be described as 
a system that responds to stimuli produced by a fire oc- 
currence with audio or visual signals to alert personnel 
about the fire. Thus, it is apparent that a fire detection 
system usually depends on personnel to initiate a response 
to the signals. The variables to be considered in selecting 
and installing a system and the response to a system, 
consisting of recognition, vaUdation, definition of the 
situation, evaluation and commitment, are discussed. 15 
refs. (Author) 

1490. Petajan JH 

WARNING AND SURVIVAL IN FIRE 

Fire Defection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 38-41 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

A review of fire injury statistics reveals that the majori- 
ty of fire victims are not capable of responding to a 
warning, even if that warning were delivered in time to 
prevent injury. A number of factors are responsible for 
this inability of the fire victim to respond, many of which 
may be impossible to control. Another very important 
observation is that approximately 87% of hves lost in 
fire result from fires that occur in residences. Thus, a 
typical situation can be constructed that consists of a 
helpless individual residing in his own home who is seri- 
ously injured or burned to death before any help arrives. 
Fire warnings may not be effective when delivered to 
the fire victim himself. It is proposed that fire warning 
systems be developed that will alert individuals in the 
immediate environment of the fire. 5 refs. (Author) 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE 
HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF 
HAZARDS 

a. CODES 

1491. Anon 

CIRCULARS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CURRENTLY 
IN EFFECT 

Medd fran Statens brandnamnd; (1):1-11, 1976 (Swedish; 
Enghsh Summary) 

All the circular letters and recommendations issued from 
1959 through 1975 by the Swedish State Fire Inspectorate 
(since 1974 the State Fire-Rescue Service) that are still 
effective as of 1976 are listed. (RZh) 

b. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 

C. SAFE HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS 
MATERIALS 

1492. Stevens AM 

YOU CAN CONTROL THE FIRE TRIANGLE 

Ind Res\ 18(9):68-70, 1976 

Adequate measures for the safe containment of flamma- 
ble and often corrosive fluids found in laboratories must 
be taken from the time they are received until they are 
disposed of. Equipment and methods for safe use are 
designed for each handling stage. Safety equipment for 
use in handhng flammable liquids is designed to control 
one or more of the "legs" of the fire triangle. The equip- 
ment and methods available for safe handling of these 
liquids are presented. 2 photos. 

1493. Fulford BB 

SAFETY ASPECTS IN HANDLING ALUMINUM AND 
MAGNESIUM POWDERS 

Powder Metall; 19(2):73-74, 1976 

This paper describes particular safety aspects concerned 
with the handling of aluminum and magnesium powders. 
These are two of the more reactive metal powders which 
are finding a place in the P/M field. In discussing them 
together there is some risk of giving the impression that 
they are equally hazardous. This is not the case. Alu- 
minum powder in fact is not easily ignited because the 
oxide forms a protective film. Magnesium powder on the 
other hand is easily ignited and for this reason carries 
a much greater fire risk. Both aluminum and magnesium 
powders, if suspended in air to form a dust cloud, will 
give an explosive mixture. (Author) 

1494. Krause G 

MIXING OF COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WHILE FILLING 
FROM TANK TRUCKS 

Tech Ueberwach; 17(4):115-118, 1976 (German) 

When drawing off the three kinds of combustible fluids 
that are most frequently transported in large quantities, 
namely, gasoline, diesel fuel and heating oil, hazardous 
mixing between the gasoline and diesel fuel or between 
gasoline and heating oil owing to a drop in the flash 
point can occur. Flash point investigations and accidents 



283 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

c. Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials— Continued 



demonstrate that it is necessary to define the existing 
regulations more precisely, to expand them and to make 
them more restrictive. In order to prevent hazardous mix- 
ing substantially, some of the safety measures listed here 
should be required. 6 figs. (Fachdok 12/0597) 

d. STANDARDS 

1495. Redzic D 

STANDARDS FOR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS AND 
GASES 

Protivpozarna zastita; 16(6):33-34, 1976 (Serbocroatian) 

Standards for combustible liquids and gases should be 
issued in Jugoslavia by the end of 1976. Up to the present 
the handling and storage of combustible Uquids and gases 
had been governed by regulations on the transportation 
and storage of hazardous materials. The standards com- 
mission, which is responsible for developing the standards, 
will make use of the German Industrial Standards (DIN) 
and those of the other European countries. (Fachdok 
12/1084) 

1496. Kempe K 

GERMAN STANDARD DIN 4102 — FIRE BEHAVIOR OF 
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS — 
THE 1976 DRAFT 

Schadenprisma; 5(2):21-25, 1976 (German) 

Following a brief historical review of the development 
of standard DIN 4102, the 1976 draft of the standard 
is introduced. The principal changes are discussed, as well 
as the eight sections which were added after corrections. 
Details of specific stipulations with regard to testing, car- 
rying out experiments and test reports are not presented 
in this article. (Fachdok 12/0810) 

1497. Eagles AE and Scott KA 

THE INTERNATIONAL POSITION OF TESTS FOR FIRE 
SAFETY 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, Isl, 

Proc: 1 975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 131- 

140 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The paper reviews the international situation with 
respect to fire tests for use both in the assessment of 
fire hazard and for the quality control of materials as 
used in material specifications. The progressing of interna- 
tional standards is an important aid to improved fire safety 
and to the promotion of international trade. An outline 
is presented of the comphcated pattern of international 
organizations that have interests in fire testing. The major 
development in test methods has been with the Interna- 
tional Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the In- 
ternational Electro-technical Commission (lEC). The 
details of current developments are described. Mention 
is made of the progress towards the adoption of an inter- 
national philosophy for fire tests. Finally, descriptions are 
given of the principles involved in some established or 
draft test procedures emanating mainly from the ISO and 
lEC organizations. 1 fig, 21 refs. (Author) 



1498. Malhotra HL 

THE PHILOSOPHY AND DESIGN OF FIRE TESTS 

Fire Safely of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, Isl, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 149- 

155 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Safety 

Fire tests have been used for many years, but over 
the last decade their numbers have increased considerably 
and there is concern over the confusion caused by the 
multiplicity of tests of unconfirmed validity. It has there- 
fore become necessary to scrutinize the existing fire tests 
and examine their functions and design criteria. 

This paper considers the basic functions of fire tests, 
the philosophy to be used in their development, the dif- 
ferent uses to which tests are put and ends with an ex- 
amination of the important design features. This type of 
study is essential for discussions which are taking place 
nationally and internationally by committees responsible 
for standards on fire tests. A coordination of this activity 
will permit a common approach between nations and 
between the different interests of manufacturers, users, 
controllers and research workers. 3 figs, 12 refs. (Author) 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS 
AND PREVENTION 

a. INSURANCE 

1499. Strulovici C 

FIRE INSURANCE OF INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS 

Rev ind; 29(241 ):5-14, 1976 (French) 

The nature of the activity of the Plenary Assembly of 
Insurance Companies, which was founded in 1906 and 
unites almost all the insurance organizations in France, 
is described. Statistical data on major fires in industrial 
establishments from 1956 to 1973 indicate a continuous 
growth in the number of fires. The types of insurance 
of industrial undertakings and the formula u»ed to calcu- 
late insurance premiums are described. (RZh) 

1500. Mehring J 

HEAVY STORM CLOUDS IN THE FIRE INSURANCE 
INDUSTRY 

Versicherungswirtsch; 31(15):833-838, 1976 (German) 

The German industrial fire insurance market has been 
characterized for more than a century by cycles of in- 
creases and decreases in premiums, completely in contrast 
to other important insurance markets, which have Umited 
competition in this area, with the result that the premium 
rates have remained relatively stable. The present drop 
in premium rates is being investigated and ideas are being 
circulated on putting a stop to this steep descent. The 
influence of the Federal Cartel Bureau on this set of 
problems is discussed. Another section is devoted to the 
upcoming freedom in providing services within the Eu- 
ropean Community and the pertinent work of the profes- 
sional committee on industrial fire insurance and on plant 
fire shutdown insurance (FFI) as well as extended 
coverage. In conclusion, a few words are said about the 
activities of the FFI commissions. 2 tables. (Fachdok 
12/0952) 



284 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



13. STATISTICS 

a. Insurance — Continued 

1501. Taylor HG and Temple CJ 

THE RELATION BETWEEN INSURANCE AND FIRE 
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS OF COMBUSTIBLE 
MATERIALS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 122- 

130 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

One cause of the recent growth in fire losses is the 
increasing fire-load in buildings from the use of combusti- 
ble materials in their construction and contents. While 
it is not possible to build a fireproof building, control 
over the materials and methods of construction can in- 
crease a building's fire safety. Such control is exercised 
by building regulations, while insurance standards also 
exert a certain influence. Misunderstandings have arisen 
over the apparent stringency and traditional aspects of 
the insurance standards that are specified in Fire Offices' 
Committee (F.O.C.) Rules of Construction. This paper 
deals both with the background to the rules, the new 
classes of construction and the problems of relating these 
to building regulations. There can be Uttle doubt that com- 
pliance with insurance standards would lead to a higher 
standard of fire safety than solely meeting building regula- 
tions, but only at increased cost to the builder. Savings 
in insurance premiums considered by themselves are un- 
likely to provide sufficient incentive for higher standards 
to become more widely adopted. 2 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 

b. LOSSES 

c. RESTORATION 

1502. Green JK 

SOME AIDS TO THE ASSESSMENT OF FIRE DAMAGE 

Concrete; 10(1):14-17. 1976 

Assessment of structural concrete for potential re-use 
following a fire must include consideration of the course 
of temperature development during the fire; the duration 
of the fire; the temperatures reached within the interior 
of the member; the effect of the estimated temperatures 
while hot and after cooling on the engineering properties 
of the concrete and steel; the significance which any per- 
manent change in material characteristics may have on 
the future structural performance of the member; the 
feasibility of repairs to compensate for any unacceptable 
reduction in structural performance or durability; and the 
influence which fire exposure of individual members may 
have on the performance of the entire structure. Structural 
concrete which has suffered fire damage short of total 
collapse or severe distortion can most often be satisfac- 
torily reinstated at considerable economic benefit when 
compared to the cost and disruption resulting from 
complete demoUtion and replacement. The reinstatement 
must, however, be preceded by a careful and painstaking 
appraisal of the fire characteristics and the effect of fire 
exposure on the materials and components forming the 
structure. (Author) 



d. RISK MANAGEMENT 

1503. Sennett WF 
RISK FINANCING 

Fire; 69(853):85-86, 1976 

Two sides of risk financing are examined, the potential 
and continuing costs, which must be balanced off against 
each other. Direct and indirect potential costs, including 
direct costs of the incident and indirect costs including 
business interruption, loss of market, product recall, and 
the Uke are described. Some of the factors making up 
the continuing cost, divided into risk control and financial 
provisions, with risk control spUt into hardware and per- 
sonnel or time expenses, are given in a figure. Some 
approaches to the problem are suggested and financial 
provisions for risk are considered briefly with the overall 
objective of reducing the variabiUty in results. (This article 
is the abridged version of a paper presented at an interna- 
tional symposium and conference on approaches to risk 
management held at Queen's College, Oxford (UK) in 
early 1976.) 1 fig. 

e. SALVAGE 



13. STATISTICS 

1504. Vervalin CH 

FIRE LOSSES REPORTED BY API/NFPA 

Hydrocarbon Process; 55(5):291 ,295,297-298, 1976 

The National Fire Protection Association fire statistics 
for the US hydrocarbon processing industry for 1974 
reveal a sharp increase in fires and in fire losses over 
1974. Tank fires alone showed a six-fold increase in dollar 
losses, while the case of process-unit fires almost doubled. 
The statistics are displayed and analyzed on the basis 
of three tables, along with comparisons for 1973. 3 tables. 

1505. Chandler SE 

FIRES IN RESIDENTIAL SOCIAL SERVICES 
BUILDINGS. Building Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Sta; ORE 
CP-62/76, 11 pages, 11 refs, Sep 1976 

This report is an analysis of fires in residential personal 
social services buildings, e.g., old people's homes, reha- 
biUtation centers, and children's homes. Data for the five 
years 1969-1973 have been analyzed. The greatest risk 
to life was in bedrooms, where nearly a third of the 
night fires occurred. The most common cause of fires 
was matches and smokers' materials (22 percent). About 
half the fires resulted from careless disposal of hot sub- 
stances, overheating, equipment left unattended, or spil- 
lage. About half the fires were out on arrival of the fire 
brigade. Over two-thirds of the fires were tackled by staff 
or occupants. Furthermore, half the fires were confined 
to the equipment or the item in which it started. Six 
percent of the fires involved casualties, rescues, escapes 
or evacuation — there being on average one such fire 
every three weeks. Seventy-eight injuries and 25 deaths 
were recorded, of which 62 and 22 respectively were in 
old people's homes. The report shows that elderly people 
are safer from fire in these homes than in ordinary 
dweUings. (Author) 



285 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 

12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 

13. STATISTICS-Continued 



1506. Chandler SE 

SOME TRENDS IN FURNITURE FIRES IN DOMESTIC 
PREMISES. Building Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Sta; BRE 
CP-66/76, 1 1 pages, 6 figs, 1 1 tables, 5 refs, Oct 1976 

Statistical data of fires in the United Kingdom resulting 
from the ignition of furniture in domestic premises are 
presented in this paper, which examines trends in these 
lires, with particular reference to four special survey 
years, 1962, 1%7, 1970 and 1972. The paper shows that 
most of the conclusions obtained from a survey of 1970 
data hold for the other years, but there have been some 
changes. As examples, the number of fires resulting from 
children or suspected arsonists and the numbers of deaths 
due to exposure, to smoke or toxic fumes have both 
increased faster than furniture fires. The percentage of 
furniture fires resulting in death is increasing, but the 
proportion of house fires in which furniture was ignited 
has remained constant. Fires resulting from direct clothing 
ignition have decreased. The paper confirms that a small 
number of clearly defined situations accounted for most 
of the fires throughout the period. Monetary values are 
assigned to the fires according to their extent of spread 
and the number of injuries and deaths. The values as- 
signed were the same in all four years. The results show 
that both the total cost of fires involving ignition of furni- 
ture in dwellings and the average cost per fire have risen. 
(Author) 



1507. Baldwin R, Ramachandran G and Chandler SE 
FURNITURE AND FURNISHINGS IN THE HOME IN 
THE UNITED KINGDOM -SOME FIRE STATISTICS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 179- 

186 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Statistics of fires in the UK attended by the brigade 
are presented in this paper and used to study the circum- 
stances surrounding fires involving furniture and 
furnishings. The analysis shows that the chance of a fataU- 
ty in fires involving furniture and furnishings is twice 
that in other fires in houses. The majority of fires involve 
upholstery and bedding, and over 90 per cent are caused 
by smokers materials, electric blankets, space heating or 
the activities of children and suspected arsonists. Eighty- 
five per cent of fatalities were found in the room of 
origin of the fire, a similar proportion having been over- 
come by smoke or toxic gases. Sixty per cent of the 
fatahties were 5 or less, or over 65 years of age, although 
these age groups only account for 21 per cent of the 
population of the UK. Losses are analyzed by assigning 
monetary values to damage, nonfatal casualties and deaths 
in fire, as an aid to assessing the value of remedial action. 
With the values used, the losses amount to about 19 mil- 
Uon pounds per annum, and are dominated by life loss; 
losses due to nonfatal casualties contribute very Httle to 
the overall figure. The expected loss per dwelling is then 
only about 1 pound per annum, and this low figure sug- 
gests selective spending on those most at risk (the elderly), 
or by central (government) activity, possibly by publicity 
and education. 7 tables, 5 refs. (Author) 



286 



ABBOTT C 



HAPMATHY TZ 



AUTHOR INDEX 



ABBOTT C 1163 

ABRAHS MS 1228, 1230 

ADACHI Y 1267 

ADAMS GH 1103, 1104 

AFFENS WA 1183 

AHEENSEACH F 1380 

AKSENTSEV ES 1450 

ALEKSANDFOV AA 1180 

ALLYN PA 1482 

ALPEROVICH VYU 1249 

ALVAEES NJ 1147, 1279, 

1420 

ANDEOK FS 1412 

ANNAMALAI K 1160 

AUEEBACH ASSOC, INC. ..1408 

AUTIAN J 1470 

AXFORD AT 1466, 1467 



B 



BADACK P 1094 

BALDWIN R 1507 

BANKSTON CP 1189 

BARD S 1137 

BARKER RH 1212 

BARE LG 1265, 1285 

BAETLETT EH 1482 

BAYON E 1243 

BEALL FC 1133 

BECKER WHK 1241, 1303 

BEITHIEN H-P 1328 

BELLET H 1484 

BENBOW AW 1 186 

BENJAMIN lA 1240 

BENTLEY EC 1487 

BERGIUND HA 1435 

BEENHARDT S 1378 

BEVEELEY EV 1296 

BILLBEEG A 1346 

BIPKY MM 1480 

BIXLER EO 1486 

BLOCK J 1440 

BLOCK JH 1440 

BLUMHAGEN H-J 1181 

BLUMHAGEN HF 1452 

BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE 

CO 1382 

BOON J 1218 

BEEDEN LH 1127 

BEEIN D 1157, 1427 

BREITKOPF G 1442 

BPEU R 1312 

BEIGHT RG 1271, 1273 

BROWN JR 1395 

BROWN LE 1351 , 1391 

BRYAN JL 1489 

BUCHBINDER B 1185 

BUCHBINDEE LB 1185 

BODNICK EK 1118 



BDECHEE H 1370 

BUKOWSKI EW 1270, 1275 

BUEKE JG 1488 

BUERY PE 1274, 1280 

BUSHEV VP 1215 

BUTLEE JM 1206 



CALCEAFT AM 1194 

CAMAS, BM 1212 

CASSANOVA EA 1189 

CHALABI R 1163 

CHANDLER SE....15G5, 1506, 

1507 

CHELNOKOVA VN 1174 

CHIESA PJ, JE..1419, 1425, 

1426 

CHIN PS 1211 

CHRISTOPHER AJ 1188 

CHUAN RL 1265 

CLARK EC 1354 

CLEMENTS HG 1421 

CLOW KH 1137 

CLUZEL D 1316 

COBB A 1 384 

CONAWAY CW 1461 

CONTINI P 1220 

CORRIE JG 1407, 1428 

CORRY J 1376 

CRIST EA 1106 

CEOCKETT FB 1424 

CEOSSEN JG 1395 

CULLIS CF 1186 

CULVEE CG 1106, 1290 



DAVIS JN 1395 

DAVIS S 1117 

DEGENKOLB JG 1373 

DEGEOOT WF 1211 

DEMIDENKO LN 1353 

DEMIDENKO NN 1353 

DEMIDENKO NS 1353 

DEHINOV NN 1231 

DIMAIO LS 1426 

DOBBS AJ 1 1 35 

DOLLINGEE FNU 1091 

DORIAS H 1110 

DRAEMEL R 1237 

DREISSIG G 1321 

DREWS MJ 1212 

DUBASOVA LM 1231 



E 

EAGLES AE 1497 

EDGINGTON JAG 1478 

ELLARD JA 1206 

ELLINGWOOD B 1222 



ELLIOTT DE 1419 

ENOMOTO K 1341 

ENSTEOEM A 1182 

ERIKSSON L 1387 

EVDOKIMENKO AM 1313 



FAVAND M 1151 

FIRE CHECK CONSULTANTS 

1122 

FISHBEIN J 1210 

FISHER F 1237 

FISHEE E 1446 

FISHER RW 1227 

FLANAGAN SF 1444 

FOLKMAN WS 1440 

FOWLER DW 1197 

FEEDRIKSSON E 1178 

FUCHS P 1233 

FULFOED BB 1493 

FUNEDA K 1263 

FDRNAS DW 1482 

FUEST A. ..1468, 1U71, 1479 

FUSILIER E 1093 

FYFFE DE 1436 



GACHOT J 1434 

GAIGNOU A 1316 

GALBEEATH M 1223 

GAELOFF R 1272 

GAUME JG 1235 

GEHRING A 1445 

GEISSLEE R 1411 

GERSTBACH H 1288 

GETZ M 1413 

GILWEE WJ, JR 1390 

GOL'TSOV NKH 1231 

GOLDSTONE BM 1124 

GRABIEC K 1221 

GRABOWSKI GH 1281 

GRAND AF 1 190 

GRANT C 1135 

GRANT RJ. . 1395 

GRAUF E 1378 

GREEN JK 1502 

GREEN RJS 1194 

GREENWOOD D 1488 

GREGEESEN H 1380 

GEIMM CT 1197 

GEUBITS SJ 1325, 1326 



H 



HALL GS 1143 

HALL EC 1340 

HANDA T 1144 

HARKEG JF 1265 

HARMATHY TZ 1216, 1244, 



I-l 



HARMATHY TZ PAETZEL P 

AUTHOR INDEX 

HARMATHY TZ (cont'd) KHRAHOVA EI 1174 MANN E 1437 

1323 KIRCHMAYE R 1199 MARCOSSEN WH 1237, 1471 

HARTMANN FE 1371 KISHITANI K 1131, 1219 MARIES K 1136 

HASEGAHA H ,..1237 KLEIN CF 1248 MARSHALL NR 1124 

HAYLOCK M 1417 KLINGELHOEFER GH 1314 MARTIN R 1179 

HAYMAN A 1095 KLOETZSCHER I 1200 MARTIN SB 1128 

HEDGES MR 1404 KONICEK L 1223 MARTINSEN WE 1391 

HEFFNER G 1137 KONISHI M 1341 MASSOODI MS 1114 

HEIBEL JT 1141 KORTE H 1451 MATSUO M 1207 

HERMAN PR 1148 KOURTIDES DA. ..1237, 1390, MCCAFFREY BJ 1125 

HEFPOL C 1464, 1465 , 1473 MCCARTER RJ 1139 

HERTERICH 1402 KOZAI T 1403, 1406 MCGILL PF 1245 

HERTZOG G 1484 KOZAK H 1307 MCKEE RJ 1279 

HERTZOG H 1272 KRAMER U 1172 HCKERROW CB 1466, 1467 

HESKESTAD G 1276 KRASIL 'NIKO V A OM 1215 MCROBERTS TS 1194 

HEYHANG R 1439 KRADS FJ 1278 HEDLOCK LE 1309 

HIGGS DA 1142 KRAUSE G 1494 MEHRING J 1500 

HILADO CJ 1132, 1236, KROEHNE H 1357 MEISTERS M 1127 

1237, 1390, 1468, 1469, KUNG H-C 1381 MIFFRE H 1320 

1471, 1472, 1473, 1474, MILES LB 1159, 1164 

1479 MILLER DM 1436 

HILDEBRAND C 1226 L MILLER DP 1191, 1192 

HIROSHIGE I 1225 BING-TA SH 1390 

HOLLAND K 1300 LABOSSTERE LA... 1390, 1469 MINNE R 1464, 1465 

HOLMES CA 1203 LABUTIN AL 1170 MODAK AT 1232 

HOLMES FH 1167 LANDSBERG E 1348 MONNIER TH 1218 

HOPP A 1200 LANGE EA 1183 MORGAN HP 1124 

HOREFF TG 1108 LARSEN ER 1191 MORI M 1131, 1219 

HORII K 1341 LEBOTLAN Y 1229 MORIKAWA T 1187, 1418 

HORVATH SM 1476 LEE BT 1234 MOROZOV NS 1231 

HOUSTON M 1385 LEHMANN EJ 1103, 1104, MOTZ R 1460 

1377 MODLEN AH ,.1325, 1326 

LEIN H 1250 MUELLER R., ...1453 

I LEON HA 1237, 1471 MURCH RM 1168 

LEONARD JT... 1354 

ICE JN 1391 LEQUESNE PM 1466, 1467 

ISHIKAWA M 1338 LERNERNR 1390 |\| 

ISOBE M 1349 LERUP L 1488 

ITO S 1366 LEVIN B 1462 NAGAI I - 1341 

LIE TT 1138 NAIDUS ES 1324 

LIEBMAN 1 1376 NASH P , 1269 

J LIN TD 1228 NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 

LIPMAN J 1253 1101 

JACH W 1355 LITTLEFIELD R, JR 1365 NELSON GL 1150 

JACKSON RJ 1463 LITTON CD 1272 NEUHAEUSSER R 1251 

JAECKEL SM 1153 LIU BYH 1277 NICCOLE M 1482 

JANUSZEWSKI A 1307 LOPEZ E 1389 NIEMCZYCKI J 1307 

JIROMARU S 1112 LUDEWIG FA 1286 NIKOLAEV VN 1448 

JOHNSON AC 1474 LUSK GE 1358 NUNEZ LJ 1470 

JOLIOT AA 1262 LYNCH RD 1478 

JONCA J 1372 LYONS JW 1301 

JONES AP 1466, 1467 O 

JONES DL 1392 

M OLAJOSSY A 1123 

OLIVER SM 1268 

K MAEDA K 1401, 1405 ORESICK A 1367 

MAHLEY HS 1454 OSBORNE WB 1347 

KANEKO M 1350 MAK ST 1358 OSTEN KF 1217 

KANURY AM 1128, 1162 MAKEIN A 1129 OUTRYRE VAN E 1464 

KARATAEV AK 1450, 1459 MALHOTRA HL 1498 

KEEN WL 1447 MALINOVSKY RA 1395 

KELLY KM 1149 HALSY H 1289 P 

KEMPE K 1496 MANCA A 1191, 1192 

KHAZANSKAYA LV 1174 MANLEY TR 1142 PAETZEL P 1485 

1-2 



PAGNI PJ 



ZWINGMANN R 



AOTHOR INDEX 



PAGNI PJ 1137 

PARKER JA 1237, 1390, 

1U73 

PARKER WJ 1231 

PARSONS SJ 1268 

PARTS L 1208 

PATOROEV VV 1215 

PATZKE H m38 

PEARS ALL DD 1284 

PECK CE 1209 

PEiGE JD iaa9 

PEKHOTIKOV VA 1180 

PETAJAN JH 1490 

PETER F 1409 

PETERSEN HC 1327 

PETRELLA RV 1191, 1192 

PFEIFFER, PL 1259 

PIKE CH 131C 

POLIG F 1217 

POPOV PS 1231 

POWELL BD 1399 

POWELL EA 1189 

PRAGER F 1173 

PRAHL JM 1140 

PRICKMAN LE 1443 

PROOD RA, JR 1268 

PSHAENICH A 1254 

POCKETT GL 1351 



Q 



QDINTIERE JG. 



1125, 1169 



RAFTERY MM 1481 

RAMACHANDRAN G 1507 

RAMSAY GC 1304 

RASKIDKIN VK 1171 

RASKIDKINA AP 1171 

REAL H 1344 

REDZIC D 1495 

REINS DA 1412 

RICH AH 1475 

RICHARDSON EG 1264 

ROCKETT JA 1121 

RODIHOVA NA 1459 

RODRIQUEZ G 1291 

ROGOWSKI BFW...1134, 1227, 

1242 

ROHLFS FND 1318 

ROSZCZYMALSKI H 1123 

ROD J 1316 

ROUSEY DL 1293 

RDBINSHTEYN AB 1231 

RODAKOV IP 1174 

ROST H 1393 



SAITO F 1306 



SALYER 10 1423 

SARANCHOK VI 1171 

SAOER GE 1292 

SADERS DG 1 1 52 

SCHAAR JL 1206 

SCHATZ H 1157, 1427 

SCHEIDWEILER A.. 1126, 1283 

SCHINKMANN M 1251 

SCHMITT CR 1422 

SCHNEIDER A 1483 

SCHNEIDER K 1433 

SCHOBER J 1195 

SCHWENDEMAN JL 1423 

SCOTT KA 1497 

SENNETT WF 1503 

SHAFIZADEH F 1211 

SHAMPINE JG 1412 

SHAVER JR 1222 

SHIMA T 1342 

SHIRAKI S 1406 

SHIRAYAMA K 1306 

SIBUE FNO 1369 

SIBULKIN n 1160 

SILVERMAN J 1389 

SKILANDAT H-P 1200 

SMELKOV GI 1180 

SMITH A 1158 

SMITH EE 1141, 1238 

SNYDER RG 1388 

SOBOLEV GG 1458 

SPECTOR G 1447 

STAPELFELDT JP 1429 

STARETT PS 1389 

STADFFER RC 1191 

STEFANOWSKI A 1368 

STEPNICZKA HE... 1198, 1213 

STEOCK B 1396 

STEVENS AH 1492 

STRATTON AK 1239 

STRDLOVICI C 1499 

SUCHOMEL M 1266 

SUGAWARA S 1155 

SUMI K.. .11 19, 1193, 1305, 

1477 

SON S 1423 

SUZUKI H 1166 

SYLVIA RP 1098 



T'lEN JS 1140 

TAKAHASHI A 1144 

TARAN JZ 1266 

TATEM PA 1145 

TAUBERT B 1200 

TAVIS MJ 1482 

TAYLOR HG 1501 

TAYLOR W 1146 

TEMPLE CJ 1501 

THEOBALD CR 1269 

THOMAS DF 1435 

THOMAS PH 1161 

THOMPSON CA 1208 



THORPE A 1363 

TIPTON WC 1266 

TOMIMOTO T 1405 

TSUCHIYA Y 1119, 1193, 

1477 

TSURU H 1267 

TU K-M 1117 

TORRI L 1302 



VAHALY J 1413 

VaSIL'EV MS 1448 

VERVALIN CH 1504 

VIERKE R 1214 

VIGER R 1107 

VOIGTSBERGER P 1299 

VOROPAY V 1455 



w 



HACLAWIK J 1123 

WAGNER U 1255 

WAKABAYASHI K...1297, 1298 

HARD CD 1153 

WATANABE H 1295 

WATER CA DE 1432 

WEISE J 1214 

WELKER JR 1391 

WELLS AC 1394 

HENDT AC 1322 

WERTHENBACH HG 1116 

WESSON HR 1351 

WEST HH 1391 

WIERSMA SJ 1420 

WILDE DG 1165, 1224 

WILLIAMS FW 1145 

WILLIAMSON RB 1237 

WITTMANN E 1414 

WOOLISCROFT MJ 1374 

WOOLLEY WD 1481 



YAMAKITA H 1207 

YEH K 1212 

YOUNG W 1473 



ZAYPOL'D VV 1231 

ZENINA MN 1171 

ZENKER KR 1352 

ZHEMCHENKOVA GI 1215 

ZIEMELIS MJ 1156 

ZIMMERMAN CE 1282 

ZIMMERMANN AW 1343 

ZINN BT 1189 

ZWINGMANN R 1109 



1-3 



ACCIDENTS APPABATDS 

SUBJECT INDEX 

AIECEAFT (cont'd) AIR-HANDLING SYSTEMS 

J\ ' ' ''- fire hazards highrise buildings 

statistics 1108 smolce control 1326 

fire protection stairwell pressurization 

ACCIDENTS emergency egress. ... 1 388 1325 

(also see: aircraft ac- impact protection 

cidents; explosions; emergency egress .... 1 388 AIRPORTS 

ship accidents; traffic statistics firehouses 

accidents) 196a- 1974 1108 design 1395 

ACETYLENE AIRCRAFT COMPARTMENTS AIR - SUPPORTED STEOCTORES 

detection combustion products fire tests 

mine fires 1249 smoke detector response. OSSR 1231 

1279 

ACRYLONITRILE-BOTADIENE- opaque materials ALUMINUM POWDERS 

STYRENE toxic gas tests 1151 ignition hazards 

decomposition products panels safe handling 1493 

fire toxicity 1193 fire containment tests.. paint coatings 

12 37 flammability 1170 

ADDITIVES SEE: SLIPPERY plastic materials varnish coatings 

WATER; SURFACTANTS; burning characteristics. flammability 1170 

WETTING AGENTS 1385 

polymeric composites ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE 

AERATED CONCRETE fire resistance 1390 fire retardants 

building structures pyrolysis products modification of materi- 

fire resistance 1214 smoke detector response. als 1201 

1279 smoke retardants 

AERIAL LADDERS transparent materials modification of materi- 

ladder-stop device smoke tests 1151 als 1201 

patent 1403 

platform drive AIRCRAFT CRASHES SEE: ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS 

patent 1404 AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS coronary diseases 

range indicator carbon monoxide 1476 

patent 1405 AIRCRAFT CRASH FIRES exposure systems 

working limit (also see: aircraft fires; large-scale fire tests.. 

stopping device 1403 aircraft ground fires) 1235 

working platform fire gas toxicity 

patent 1406 AIRCRAFT CRASH TENDERS biological evaluation... 

Jetranger 1464, 1465 

AERIAL PLATFORMS SEE: description 1400 physiological response 

ELEVATING PLATFORMS fire gases 1481 

AIRCRAFT FIRES toxicity measurement 

AEROSOL DETECTORS aircraft fuselages combustion products 

review fire safety 1389 1468 

fire research 1277 (also see: aircraft crash toxicity tests 

fires; aircraft ground pyrolysis products .. 1 471 
AEROSOLS fires) 

detection ANIMAL SPECIES 

fire research 1277 AIRCRAFT FUEL FIRES pyrolysis products 

(also see: fuel fires) relative toxicity tests. 

AFFF 1471 

Theological properties AIRCRAFT FUSELAGES 

yield stress 1419 fire safety APPARATUS 

feasibility studies all-purpose 

AIRCRAFT 1389 tactical applications... 

jet 1397 

crash information. .. 1 382 AIR CYLINDERS SEE: GAS future developments 

fire information. ... 1382 CYLINDERS survey 1402 

rescue information. . 1 382 historical development 

AIR DUCTS survey 1402 

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS (also see: ventilation rescue/fire-fighting 

(also see: accidents) systems) tactical applications... 

emergency egress 1397 



impact protection. .. 1 388 



1-5 



APPARATUS 



BOILDINGS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



APPARATUS (cont'd) 
special applications 

development lUOl 

fire categories 1101 

specialized 

Chubb Pacesetter. ... 1398 
description 1398 

APPAREL SEE: CLOTHING 

APPLIANCES (VEHICLES) SEE: 
APPARATUS 

APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY 

/JHU 
fire research 

programs 1115 

ARAMID FIBERS 
fire-resistant fabrics 
projective clothing. 



1196 



ARCHITECTS 
education 

fire protection 1109 

ARSON 

(also see: incendiarism; 
pyromania) 

insurance 

prevention 11*63 

prosecution ....1463 

seminars 

SFPE. 1098 

ARSONISTS 

physiological characteris- 
tics 
classification 1462 

ATC FOAMS 

fire extinguishants 
polar-solvent fires. 



iai6 



B 



BATTERIES 

emergency power sources 
f ir e-extinguishing 

systems 1338 

BEAMS 

reinforced concrete 

thermal analysis. ... 1222 

BEDDING 

(also see: blankets; mat- 
tresses) 
urethane mattresses 

fire tests 1137 



BEDROOM FIRES 
full-scale tests 

analysis 1232 

BEHAVIOR SEE: HUMAN BE- 
HAVIOR; FIRE BEHAVIOR 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES 
combustion toxicology 

published literature. . . . 

MilH 

mine explosions 

196a-1 976 1377 

mine fires 

196a-1 976 1377 

structural fires 

1964-1974 1103 

1975-1976 1104 

BLANKETS 
(also see: bedding) 

BODY TOLERANCE 
heat fluxes 

measurements 1484 

BREATHING APPARATUS 
(also see: respirators) 
window frame 

clamping ring 1411 

patent 1411 

BREATHING MASKS 

connective sleeve 

filter 1410 

inhalation hose 1410 

patent 1410 

BREEDER REACTORS 
sodium fires 

extinguishing agent 



1418 



BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 
firebreaks 

safety regulations. . 1 31 6 

BUILDING DESIGN 
fire prevention 

book (French) 1243 

fire safety 

compart men tat ion. . . .1244 

BUILDING ELEMENTS 
fire behavior 

standards (FRG) 1496 

BUILDING EXTERIORS 
flame deflectors 

patent 1323 

BUILDING FIRES SEE: STRUC- 
TURAL FIRES 



BUILDING INDUSTRIES 
fire research 

future impact 1114 

BUILDING INSPECTION 
fire protection 

manpower allocation 

1436 

BUILDING MATERIALS 
cellulosic 

flame retardancy. . . . 1 143 
combustibility 

fire extinguishers. . 1 176 
concrete 

fire resistance 1219 

s palling 1219 

fire behavior 

bibliography. . 1103, 1104 

standards (FRG) 1496 

fire exposure 

deformation 1291 

effects 1291 

fire propagation 

tests 1227 

fire resistance 

cladding 1291 

combustibility tests.... 

1155 

fire-retarded 

endurance 1166 

fire testing 

procedures evaluation... 

1226 

heat-release rate 

flame retardancy. ... 1 143 
ignitability 

classification 1 173 

plastics 

fire hazards 1294 

fire performance. ... 1 134 

smoke formation 1194 

polymer-cement 

thermal properties. . 1 1 31 
producers 

fire safety 1209 

thermochemical properties 

heat -re lease -rate 

calorimeter 1128 

toxicity 

fire extinguishment 

1176 

BUILDINGS 
fire behavior 

bibliography. . 1103, 1104 
fire hazards 

classification 1 287 

protection means. ... 1 287 
fire loads 

surveys 1290 

fire prevention 

public education. ... 1 439 



1-6 



BUILDINGS 



CODES 



BUILDINGS (cont'd) 
fire safety 

design principles. .. 1 246 
fire-suppression systems 

technical specifications 
1333 

water 1333 

live loads 

surveys 1290 

water supplies 

firefighting operations. 
1U30 

BUILDING STRUCTURES 
aerated concrete 

fire resistance 121U 

fire resistance 

analysis 1 1 06 

seminar 1100 

polymer concrete 

fire resistance 1215 

BUOYANT CONVECTION 
fire flows 

corridors 1125 

BUS ACCIDENTS SEE: TRAFFIC 
ACCIDENTS 

BUSES 
fire loads 

reduction measures. . ISSt 

c 

CABARETS SEE: NIGHTCLUBS 

CABLE DUCTS SEE: ELECTRI- 
CAL DUCTS 

CABLES SEE: ELECTRICAL 
CABLES 

CALCIUM SILICATE 
fire-resistant moldings 
patent 1207 

CALORIMETERS 
heat-release rate 

thermochemical measure- 
ments 1128 

CARBON DIOXIDE 
fire-extinguishing systems 

technical specifications 

1331 

toxicity 

animal experiments. . 146U 

CARBON MONOXIDE 
coronary diseases 

animal experiments. • 1U76 



SUBJECT INDEX 

CARBON MONOXIDE (cont'd) 
stress physiology 

cardiovascular system... 

1476 

toxicity 

animal experiments. .1 U6U 
wood fires 

inhalation toxicity 

1478 

CARDIAC DISEASES 
firefighters 

restrictions 1414 

CARPETS SEE: FLOOR COVER- 
INGS 

CEILING PANELS 
removable 

sprinkler head openings. 

1245 

sprinkler head openings 

patent 124 5 

CEILINGS 
suspended 

fire-rated grid 129 3 

CELLULAR PLASTICS 

chemical analysis 1139 

diffusion flame spread 

extinction mechanism.... 

1140 

fire performance 

experimental instrumen- 
tation 1 1 41 

fire systems 

performance evaluation.. 

1141 

ignition tests 

flame spread 1160 

polyurethane foams 

smoldering 1139 

CELLULOSIC MATERIALS 
flame retardants 

analytical instruments.. 
1211 

CELLULOSIC RESINS 
combustion products 

toxic gas control. .. 1 475 

CEMENT 

polymer composites 

thermal properties .. 1 1 31 

CEMENT PLANTS 
fire alarms 

review 12 59 

CHAIN LADDERS 
rescue means 

patent 1444 



CHAIN LADDERS (cont'd) 
rescue means (conf d) 

structural f ires. ... 1 444 

CHEMICAL FIBERS 
fire resistance 

flame retardants. ... 1 199 

CHEMICAL FIRES 
extinguishers 

patent 1351 

CHEMICAL PLANTS 
fire sensors 

sprinklers 1 269 

CHEMICALS 
electrical hazards 

classification 1184 

fire hazards 

classification 1 184 

CHLORINE IONS 
detection 

electrochemical tech- 
nigues 1251 

CHUBB PACESETTER 
specialized apparatus 

description 1 39 8 

CLASS ABC FIRES 
powder extinguishants 

performance 1427 

CLASS A FIRES 

foam extinguishants 

concentrate compositions 
1424 

patent 1424 

CLOTHING 

(also see: protective 

clothing; sleepwear) 
fabrics 

flammability measure- 
ments 1153 

flammability tests 

burning rates 1159, 

1164 

flame spread 1167 

CLOUD CHAMBERS 
fire detectors 

system features 1286 

COAL DUST 

foam suppressants 

patent 1423 

CODES 

(also see: building cedes; 
fire codes) 



1-7 



CODES 



CORRIDOR FIRES 



SUBJECT INDEX 



CODES (cont'd) 

Sweden 

1959-1975 1491 

toxicity ratings 

California 1479 

furnishings 1479 

COMBUSTIBILITY 
building materials 

fire resistance 1155 

metal particles 

short circuits 1180 

COMBUSTIBLE GASES 
standards 

Jugoslavia 149 5 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 
hazardous mixing 

tank trucks 1494 

standards 

Jugoslavia 1495 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 

fire behavior 

ignition f actors. ... 1 161 

fire/explosion prevention 
industry 1298 

fire hazards 

food industry 1175 

fire safety 

Australia 130 4 

Canada 1305 

FRG 1303 

industry requirements. . . 

1210 

insurance 1501 

international symposia.. 

1300, 1301, 1302, 

1303, 1304, 1305, 

1306 

Italy 1302 

UK 1300 

US 1301 

fire testing 

procedures evaluation... 
1226 

fire tests 

modeling 1241 

industrial occupancies 

classification 1177 

properties 1177 

spontaneous ignition 

kinetic constants. .. 1 1 1 9 

COMBUSTION 

physicochemical principles 
ignition limits 1297 

COMBUSTION GASES 
animal exposure 

fire modeling 1235 



COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 
cellulosic resins 

toxic gas control. .. 1 475 
irritants 

smoldering 1 1 87 

polyurethane resins 

toxic gas control. .. 1 475 
pyrolysis 

toxicity 1468 

smoke 

test conditions 1 189 

wood preservatives 

environmental implica- 
tions 1135 

COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 
(also see: toxicity) 
experimental approaches 
University of Tennessee. 

1470 

firefighter exposure 

toluene di-isocyanate . . . 

1466 

published literature 

bibliographies 1474 

pyrolysis gases 

synthetic polymers. . 1 473 
toluene di-isocyanate 
exposure 
neurological complica- 
tions 1467 

COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 

emergency 

Japan 1415 

technical specifications 
1415 

COMPARTMENTATION 
building design 

fire safety 1244 

hospital wards 

fire tests .1242 

COMPARTMENT FIRES 
fire gases 

flow characteristics. . . . 

1121 

ships 

risk criteria 1234 

COMPOSITE MATERIALS 
polymer- cement 

thermal properties. . 1 1 31 

COMPUTERS 

fire protection 

sprinkler systems. .. 1 340 

COMPUTER SIMULATION 
fire behavior 

cellular plastics. .. 1 1 41 



CONCRETE 

fire resistance 

s palling 1219 

CONCRETE BEAMS 
fire resistance 

failure 1218 

poststressed 

fire resistance 1221 

prestressed 

fire r esistance. . . . 1218, 
1221 

CONCRETE PANELS 
fire endurance 

computer simulation 

1228 

structural analyses 

1228 

CONCRETE STRUCTURES 
aerated 

fire resistance 1214 

beams 

fire resistance 1222 

prestressed 

fire resistance 1220 

reinforced 

fire resistance 1220 

CONFERENCES 
Fire Research 

NSF/RANN - 1976 1096 

Fire Service 

UK - 1976 1099 

Ship Fire Fighting 

UK - May 1 976 1097 

Society of Plastics 
Engineers 

1976 1149 

CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL DU 
BATIMENT SEE: CI E 

CONSOLIDATION 
fire/police 

urban planning 1095 

CONTROL CIRCUITS 
fire extinguishing 

patent 1347 

CONVEYOR BELTS 
fire resistance 

test methods 1165 

CORRIDOR FIRES 
count ercurrent flows 

buoyancy- driven 1125 

fire spread 

floor coverings 1169 

residential buildings 

fire spread 1118 



1-8 



COTTON BATTING 



ELECTRICAL HAZARDS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



COTTON BATTING 
pyrolysis products 

relative toxicity. .. 1 472 

COUPLING FLANGES 
hoses 

rubber- fa brie 1433 

CREEP DEFLECTION 
metal beams 

transient heating. .. 1 21 6 

CRITICAL OXYGEN CONCEN- 
TRATIONS 
materials 

flammability tests.. 1154 

CRUDE OIL 

refineries 

fire fighting 1371 

fire protection 1371 

CURRENT LEAKAGE 
indicators 

testing 1359 

CURTAINS SEE: SMOKE CUR- 
TAINS; WATER CURTAINS 

CYLINDERS SEE: GAS CYLIN- 
DERS 



DANCE HALLS 

(also see: nightclubs) 

DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS 
aery lonitrile-b uta die ne- 
st yrene 

fire toxicity 1193 

nylon 

fire toxicity 1193 

polyacrylonitrile 

fire toxicity 1193 

DETECTING ELEMENTS 
smoke/gas detectors 

Taguchi gas sensor.. 1254 

DETECTION SYSTEMS 
codes 

France 12 58 

USA 1258 

hydrocarbons 

electrochemical tech- 
niques 1251 

production 

USSR 1313 

safety aspects 

review 1258 

DETECTORS SEE: FIRE DETEC- 



TORS; FLAME DETECTORS; 
INFRARED DETECTORS; 
IONIZATION DETECTORS; 
SMOKE DETECTORS; 
ULTRAVIOLET DETECTORS 

DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE 
intumescent coatings 

fire retardants 1206 

DIBROMONEOPENTYL GLYCOL 
smoke evolution 

unsaturated polyesters.. 
1191 

DIESEL ENGINES 
vehicles 

fire safety 1309 

DIFFUSION FLAMES 
extinction mechanism 

cellular plastics. .. 1 1 40 

DISCHARGE HEADS 
fire-extinguishing systems 

patent 1352 

pressure -responsive 

fire-extinguishing 

systems 1352 

DISCOTHEQUES SEE: DANCE 
HALLS 

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATORS 
fire protection management 
UK 1392 

DOORS 
hospitals 

life safety 1373 

nursing homes 

life safety 1373 

smokeproofing 

elastic strips 1312 

intumescent strips.. 1312 
smoke stops 

patent 1322 

DRAPES SEE: WINDOW COVER- 
INGS 

DRYING OVENS 
explosion hazard 

identification 1 2 89 

DRY POWDERS 
grain sizing 

fire extinguishants 

1421 

DUCTS SEE: AIR DUCTS; 
ELECTRICAL DUCTS; 
VENTILATION SYSTEMS 



DUST HAZARDS 

soft-coal industry .... 1 372 

DUSTS 
characteristics 

explosion hazards. .. 1 179 



EDUCATION 

(also see: correspondence 
courses; fire safety 
education; fire safety 
training; fire science 
education; fire service 
instructors; National 
Fire Academy; public 
education; training) 

children 

fire safety/prevention.. 
1440 

ELDERLY PERSONS 
hazard prevention 

physical disability 

1296 

hazard reduction 

physical disability 

1296 

ELECTRICAL CABLES 
(also see: electrical 

circuits; electrical 

wiring) 
vehicles 

fire hazards 1181 

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 
(also see: electrical 
cables; electrical 
wiring) 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

fire-fighting tactics 

personnel training .. 1 452 

high-voltage 

current-leakage indica- 
tors 1359 

installation 

f iref ighting 1357 

fire protection 1357 

operation 

f iref ighting 1 3 57 

fire protection 1357 

ELECTRICAL FIRES 

wooden HV poles 

Joule losses 1358 

potential cures 1358 

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS 
chemicals 

classification 1184 



1-9 



ELECTRICAL WIRING FABRICS 

SUBJECT INDEX 

ELECTRICAL WIRING EVACUATION METHODS EXTINGUI SHANTS 

(also see: electrical (also see: escape routes) (also see: dry powder; 

cables; electrical foam extinguishants; 

circuits) EVACUATION PROBLEMS halons) 

nursing homes dry powders 

ELECTRIC LAMPS fire safety .^U^3 grain sizing 1U21 

explosion hazards patent 1121 

industrial occupancies.. EXHAUST SYSTEMS fissionable materials 

1288 fire detectors patent 1422 

patent 1262 f luorocarbon/silicone 

ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES surfactants 

hazard reduction EXPLOSION BARRIERS patent 1425, 1426 

carbon dioxide exting- mines 

uishers 1354 patent 1376 EXTINGUISHERS 

carbon dioxide 

ELEVATING PLATFORMS EXPLOSION HAZARDS electrostatic hazard 

drive systems dusts reduction 1354 

patent 1404 characteristics 1179 chemical fires 

electric lamps operating method. ... 1 351 

ELEVATORS industrial occupancies.. patent 1351 

endless chain 1288 electrostatic hazard 

rescue operations. .. 1442 identification reduction 

drying ovens 1289 patent 1354 

EMERGENCY LIGHTING metal powders foam 

reliability characteristics. .... 1 179 portable ....1339 

requirements (UK)... 1310 paints gas cylinders 

classification 1174 self-closing valves 

EMERGENCY POWER SOURCES plastic coatings 1344 

batteries powder application. . 1 1 30 portable 

fire-extinguishing soft-coal industry. ... 1 372 foam 1339 

systems .1338 wood dust industrial occupancies.. 

precautions 1172 1367 

ENCLOSURE FIRES inspection 1367 

upholstery EXPLOSION PREVENTION maintenance 1367 

flashovers 1147 construction self-closing valves 

fire-hazardous materials patent 1344 

ENCLOSURE FIRES SEE: COM- 1298 solid-state circuits 

PARTMENT FIRES industry technical description... 

fire-hazardous materials 1252 

ESCAPE MEANS 1298 vehicles 

(also see: evacuation inert gases patent 1350 

devices) underground fires... 1458 

highrise buildings EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

rappelling 1445 EXPLOSION PROTECTION production 

nursing homes guidelines USSR 1313 

fire protection 1375 FRG 1299 

rappelling safety-engineering princi- P 

patent 1445 pies ^ 

rescue tubes guidelines 1299 

description ...1441 FABRICS 

EXPLOSIONS clothing 

ESCAPE ROUTES combustion processes flammability measure- 

(also see: evacuation preventive measures ments 1153 

methods) 1297 cotton/polyester 

emergency lighting physicochemical principles flame retardant 1212 

requirements (UK)... 1310 preventive measures flammability testing 

12 97 equipment 1239 

ETHYLENE venting systems flammability tests 

detection patent 1324 burning rates 1159, 

mine fires 1249 1164 

EXTINCTION LIMITS vertical flame spread 

EVACUATION DEVICES diffusion flame spread measurements 1138 

(also see: escape means) cellular plastics. .. 1 1 40 

I-IO 



FACIAL BDPNS 



FIFE EXPOSDRE 



FACIAL BDRNS 
upper airways " ^ 
access management. 



.ia82 



FALSE ALARMS 

malicious 

causes 1487 

incidence 1 U87 

OK 1187 

FATALITIES SEE: FATAL 

FIRES; FIRE FATALITIES 

FADLT TREE ANALYSIS 
risk calculation 

hospitals 137a 

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GER- 
MANY 
legislation 

tran'sportation of hazar- 
dous goods 1110 

FIRE ALARMS 
automatic 

review 1255 

cement plants 

review 12 59 

computer components 

system design 1340 

heat detectors 

metal oxide 1253 

highrise buildings 

life safety 1247 

ionization detectors 

patent 1267 

solid-state circuits 

technical description. . . 

1252 

specifications 

Japan 1257 

FIRE BEHAVIOR 
building materials 

standards (FRG) 1496 

cellular plastics 

performance evaluation.. 

1141 

combustible materials 

ignition factors. ... 1 1 61 
non-metallic materials.... 

1132 

organic materials 

furnace tests 1144 

plastics 

data sheets 1129 

structural elements 

standards (FRG) 1496 

FIREBOATS 
portable 

design criteria 1396 



SUBJECT INDEX 

FIREBREAKS 

building construction 

safety regulations. . 131 6 

FIRE CATEGORIES 
special extinguishment 
measures 
apparatus 1401 

FIRE CHARACTERISTICS 
test methods 

multicharacteristic 

measurement 12 36 

FIRE CODES 

(also see: building codes) 

FIRE CONTAINMENT 
aircraft compartments 

tests 1237 

FIRE CONTROL 
ventilation systems 

throughput 1327 

FIFE CURTAINS 
wetted cloth 

patent 1349 

FIRE DAMAGE 
furniture fires 

statistics 1506 

structural concrete 

assessment 1502 

FIRE DATA 

information systems 
National Fire Data 

Center 1408 



FIRE DEATHS SEE: 
FATALITIES 



FIRE 



FIRE DEPARTMENTS 
local 

operations 1093 

volunteer 

training (FRG) 1393 

FIRE DETECTION 
human response 

critical variables . .1 489 
life safety 

symposium 1101, 1273 

FIRE DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 

ambient conditions 

survey 1280 

automatic 

test methods 1271 

cloud chambers 

system features 1286 



FIRE DETECTORS (cont'd) 
exhaust systems 

patent 1262 

highrise buildings 

life safety 1247 

incipient fires 

patent 1265 

ionization 

wind-protected .1 266 

life safety 

survey 1 273 

optical sensors 

buildings 1248 

quartz crystal 

incipient f ires. .... 1 285 
specifications 

Japan 1256 

sprinklers 

chemical plants 1269 

state-of-the-art 

review 1250 

thermistors 

patent 1260 

FIRE ENDURANCE 
(also see: fire resis- 
tance) 
building materials 

fire-retarded 1 166 

concrete panels 

structural analyses 

1228 

wallboards 

gypsum/mineral wool 

1223 

FIRE ENDURANCE RATING 
grids 

suspended ceilings .. 1 293 

FIRE ENDURANCE RATINGS 
grid members 

controlled expansion.... 
129 2 

FIRE ENVIRONMENTS 
detector response 

survey 1280 

smoke hazards 

review 1480 

toxic gas hazards 

review 1 480 

FIRE ESCAPES 
buildings 

patent 1446 

flexible ladders 

building- mounted. ... 1446 

FIRE EXPOSURE 
physiological effects 

detection methods. .. 1 248 
polyurethane foams 

carbon-impregnated. .1145 



I-ll 



FIEE EXPOSURE 



FIRE HAZARDS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



FIRE EXPOSURE (cont'd) 
toxicological effects 

detection methods. .. 1 2U8 

FIEE EXTINGUISHANTS SEE: 
EXTINGUISHANTS 

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS SEE: 
EXTINGUISHERS 

FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 
carbon dioxide 

technical specifications 

1331 

container valve 

patent ......13^5 

control circuits systems 

patents. 1347 

discharge head 

patent. 1352 

emergency power 

batteries 133 8 

extinguishant container 

valve.. 13U5 

foam 

components specificati- 
ons 1334 

technical specifications 

1334 

pneumatic components 

development 1342 

pumps 

specifications 13 36 

smoke detectors 

patent .....1264 

standards 

Japan 1331 

technical specifications 

Japan 1329 

valve actuators 

patent 1353 

water 

technical specifications 

water flow rates 

technical specifications 

1330 

water-pipe fixtures 

technical specifications 
. 1337 

FIRE FATALITIES 
nightclub fire 

Fr an ce 110 7 

FIREFIGHTERS 
cardiac diseases 

insurance problems. . 1 41 4 

restrictions 1414 

compensation 

unions 1413 

exposure 

toluene di-isocyanate. . . 
1466 



FIREFIGHTERS (cont'd) 
professional training 

OK 1394 

protective clothing 

aluminized gloves. .. 1 41 2 

fire-resistant fabrics,. 

1196 

rheumatic diseases 

treatment .....1485 

toluene di-isocyanate 
exposure 

neurological complica- 
tions 1467 

unions 

labor market ..1413 

FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 
(also see: physical train- 
ing) 

FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT 
portable fireboats 

design criteria 1396 

FIRE-FIGHTING OPERATIONS 
port installations 

conference 1097 

ships 

conference 1 097 

FIRE-FIGHTING TACTICS 
electric eguipment 

personnel training. . 1 452 
endogenous mine fires 

USSR.. 1450 

forest fires 

helicopter applications. 

1457 

garage fires 

underground 1451 

gas mains 

preplanning. 1460 

highrise buildings 

books 1449 

helicopter applications. 
1457 

USSR 1455 

mechanical foam 

mine workings 1459 

tank fires 

base foam injection 

1454 

FIRE-FIGHTING TRAINS 
railroad tunnel fires 

Switzerland 14 56 

FIRE-FIGHTING VEHICLES 
SEE: APPARATUS; AUX- 
ILIARY VEHICLES 

FIRE FLOWS 

(also see: water supplies) 



FIRE FLOWS (cont'd) 
water supplies 

Netherlands 1432 

FIRE GASES 
countercurrent flows 

buoyancy-driven 1125 

flow characteristics 

calculations 1121 

compartment fires... 1121 
mines 

flow model 1123 

pla sties 

animal experiments. . 1 481 
synthetic materials 

toxicity evaluation 

1464, 1465 

wood preservatives 

environmental implica- 
tions 1135 



FIEE GROWTH 
bedroom fires 

full-scale tests. 



1232 



FIRE HAZARDS 
aircraft accidents 

statistics 1 108 

analysis procedures 

National Bureau of 

Standards 1185 

buildings 

classification 1 2 87 

protection means. ... 1 287 
chemicals 

classification 1184 

combustible liquids 

tank trucks 1494 

combustible materials 

food industry 1175 

electrical cables 

vehicles 1181 

electrical equipment 

current-leakage indica- 
tors 1359 

fabrics 

flame spread 1138 

metal particles 

short circuits 1180 

ore wastes 

parameters 1 171 

paints 

classification 1174 

plastic coatings 

powder application. . 1 130 
pla sties 

building materials. . 1 294 

polyvinylchloride ... 1 178 
polystyrene 

fabrication hazards 

1362 

polyvinylchloride 

fire incidents 1178 



1-12 



PIPE HAZAPDS 



FIRE RESISTANCE 



SUBJECT INDEX 



FIFE HAZARDS (cont'd) 
siloxanes 

properties 1156 

soft-coal industry. ... 1 372 
urethane foams 

insulation 1182 

wood dust 

precautions 1 1 72 

FIEEHODSES 
engineering design 

Wright-Patterson AFB, 



1395 



FIFE INCIDENTS 
buses 

fire load reduction 

1384 

institutional occupancies 

human behavior 1488 

nightclubs 

France 1107 

nursing homes 

case studies 1488 

structural fires 

cellar explosions. .. 1 105 

FIFE INJURIES 
alarm efficiency 

human response 1490 

FIFE INSURANCE 
market decline 

Federal Republic of 

Germany 1500 

shutdown 

European Community. . 1 500 
supranational 

European Community. . 1 500 

FIRE LEGISLATION 
Japan 

revisions 1112 

FIRE LOADS 
buildings 

surveys 1290 

buses 

reduction measures. . 1384 

FIFE LOSSES 

(also see: large loss 

fires; property losses) 
hydrocarbon processing 

industry 
1974 1504 

FIREMEN SEE: FIREFIGHTERS 

FIRE MODELING 
animal experiments 

exposure systems. ... 1235 



FIRE PARAMETERS 
fuel tanks 

calculation method.. 1116 

FIRE PARTITIONS 
industry 

classification 130 7 

materials 

classification 1307 

FIRE PERFORMANCE 
horizontal smoke measure- 
ment 
smoke density chambers.. 

1127 

tests 

correlation 1238 

vertical smoke measurement 

smoke density chambers.. 

1127 

FIRE PREVENTION 
building design 

book (French) 1243 

building inspection 

manpower allocation 

1436 

buildings 

public education. ... 1 439 
children 

personality characteris- 
tics 1440 

construction 

fire-hazardous materials 

1298 

educational programs 

children 1440 

health and rescue commit- 
tees 

France 1092 

industrial occupancies 

fire-hazardous materials 

1298 

public education 

youths 1437 

public education (FRG) 

children 1437, 1438 

feasibility study. ..1437 

program design 1438 

teaching methods. ... 1 438 
railroad cars 

Japan 1295 

self-ignition 

hay 1355 



FIRE PROPAGATION 
building materials 
tests 



FIRE PROTECTION 
architects 

seminar 

cement plants 

detection systems. 



1227 

1109 
.1259 



FIRE PROTECTION (cont'd) 
curtains 

wetted cloth 1349 

education 

architects 1109 

food industry 

Poland 1368 

gypsum boards 

advances 1308 

health and rescue commit- 
tees 

France 1092 

hospi tals 

risk calculation. ... 1374 
industrial occupancies 

industrial brigade. . 1 370 
management 

UK 1392 

nursing homes 

escape means 1375 

petrochemical industry 

preventive measures 

1364 

power plants 

nuclear reactors. ... 1 378 
residential occupancies 

low cost sprinklers 

1381 

ships 

USSR 1383 

underground premises. . 1 317 
wall hydrants 

public access buildings. 
1429 

FIRE-PROTECTION SYSTEMS 
detectors/extinguishers 
patent 1264 

FIRE RESEARCH 
aerosols 

detection 1 277 

future impact 

building industries 

1114 

fire service 1114 

programs 

APL/JHU.. 1115 

FIRE RESISTANCE 

(also see: fire endurance) 

building materials 

cladding 1291 

building structures 

aerated concrete. ... 1 214 

analysis 1106 

seminar 1100 

combustibility tests 

building materials. . 1 1 55 
concrete 

spalling. 1219 

concrete beams 

mathematical prediction. 
1222 



1-13 



FIEE RESISTANCE 



FIRE TESTS 



SDBJECT INDEX 



FIEE RESISTANCE (cont'd) 
concrete beams (cont'd) 

poststressed 1 221 

prestressed. . . 1218, 1221 

thermal analysis. ... 1222 
concrete structures 

prestressed 1220 

conveyor belts 

test methods 1165 

hydraulic fluids 

state-of-the-art. ... 1195 
polyester pipes 

gas connections 1217 

polymer concrete 

structures 1215 

walls 

masonry 11U8 

timber- framed 1 1 US 

FIEE BETARDANCY 
interior furnishings 

meeting papers 120U 

polyester resins 

smoke evolution 1192 

toxic gas evolution 

1192 

FIEE EETAEDANTS 
aluminum trihydrate 

modification of materi- 
als 1201 

intumescent coatings 

patent.. 1206 

wood treatment 

performance 1203 

FIEE RISKS 

(also see: risk manage- 
ment) 

FIEE SAFETY 

aircraft compartments 

polymeric composites,... 

1390 

aircraft fuselages 

feasibility studies 

.1389 

building design 

compartmentation . . . . 12U 4 

ventilation 1214 

building materials 

producers 1209 

buildings 

design principles. .. 12U6 
building structures 

seminar 1100 

children 

personality characteris- 
tics 1440 

combustible materials 

insurance 1501 

international symposia.. 

1300, 1301, 1302, 

1303, 1304, 1305 



FIRE SAFETY (cont'd) 
combustible (cont'd) 

polyurethane foam 

industry 1210 

research (Japan) .... 1 306 
educational programs 

children 1440 

industrial occupancies 

equipment 1360 

flammable liquids. .. 1 365 

safety manager 1361 

legislation 

Japan 1111 

nursing homes 

evacuation problems 

1443 

petrochemical industry 

protection measures 

1366 

tanker ships 

liquefied natural gas... 

1391 

testing 

international situation. 

1497 

vehicles 

diesel-engined 13 09 

FIEE SERVICE 
fire research 

future impact 1114 

modernization 

France 1091 

operations 

France 1093 

organization 

France 1091 

professional training 

OK 1394 

rescue vehicles 

operational requirements 

1399 

UK 

conference report ... 1 099 

FIRE SERVICE TRAINING SEE: 
FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 

FIHESETTING SEE: ARSON; 

INCENDIARISM; PYROMANIA 

FIRE SPREAD 

corridor fires 

floor coverings 1169 

residential buildings... 
1118 

FIRE STATIONS SEE: FIRE- 
HOOSES 

FIRE STOPS 
penetration seals 

silicone foams 1149 



FIRESTOPS 
wetted cloth 
patent . . . . . 



1349 



FIRE SUPPRESSION 
apparatus 

future development .. 1402 

historical survey ... 1402 
extinguishants 

water damage 1233 

extinguishing systems 

production (USSR) ... 1 313 
heat removal 

insurance guidelines.... 
1318 

literature sur vey . . . 1314 
highrise buildings 

book 1449 

tactics (USSR) 1455 

mine fires 

nitrogen inerting . . . 1453 
smoke removal 

insurance guidelines.... 
1318 

literature survey ... 1 314 
sprinkler systems 

water delivery rates.... 

1328 

water curtains 

development 1341 

FIRE TESTS 

aircraft compartments 

panels 1 237 

air-supported structures 

USSR 1231 

(also see: testing; test- 
ing facilities) 
bedding 

urethane mattresses 

1137 

building materials 

fire-retarded 1166 

burning process 

fires of solids 1157 

combustible materials 

modeling 1241 

procedures evaluation... 

1226 

conveyor belts 

fire resistance 1165 

design criteria 

international standards. 

1498 

extinguishants 

water damage 1233 

fire performance 

correlation 1238 

fire-resistant glass 

performance criteria.... 

1197 

fire-response characteris- 
tics 

mul tic haracteri Stic 



1-14 



FIBE TESTS 



FOAM EXTINGDISHANTS 



SOEJECT INDEX 



FIRE TESTS (cont'd) 
fire- response (cont'd) 

measurement 1236 

floor coverings 

corridor fires 1169 

flame spread 1117 

hospital wards 

cubicles 12 42 

philosophy 

international standards. 

1498 

polymers 

theoretical analysis.... 

1162 

polyurethanes 

foams/protective coat- 
ings 1158 

residential fires 

heat detectors 1270 

smoke detectors 1270 

safety standards 

international situation. 

1497 

ship compartments 

flame spread 1234 

sleeper cars 

interiors 1225 

smoke control 

pressurization systems. . 

1311 

shaft pressurization.... 

1122 

smoke detectors 

large-scale 1275 

solids 

burning process 1 1 57 

structural elements 

procedures evaluation... 
1226 

FIEE TOXICITY 
decomposition products 

materials 1193 

toxic species 

rating method 1477 

FLAME DEFLECTORS 
building exteriors 

patent 1323 

FLAME DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 

fire alarm systems 

review 1255 

fire detection 

applications 1281 

reviews 1281 

light-responsive 

patent 1268 

smoke detectors 

combinations 126 1 

patent 1261 



FLAME RESISTANCE 
polyester sulfones 

treatment 120 2 

FLAME RETARDANCY 
building materials 

wood -based 1143 

FLAME RETARDANTS 
analytical instruments 

cellulosics 1211 

chemical fibers 

state-of-the-art 1199 

flammability tests 

calorimetric measurement 

1212 

neoprene 

foam 1208 

plastics 

comparative evaluation.. 
1200 

state-of-the-art. . . .1 199 
polyester resins 

commercial developments. 

1198 

polyviny Ichloride 

molded 1208 

FLAME SPREAD 
cellular plastics 

testing 1 160 

fabrics 

flammability tests. .1167 

measurements 1138 

ship compartments 

fire tests 1234 

FLAMMABILITY 
clothing fabrics 

measurement 1153 

forced air flow 

test effects 1152 

hydrocarbon polymers 

flame retardants. . . .1 1 86 
oxygen concentration 

test effects 1152 

siloxanes 

test data 1 156 

FLAMMABILITY TESTING 
equipment 

design parameters. .. 1 239 
mushroom apparel flamma- 
bility tester 

design parameters. .. 1239 

FLAMMABILITY TESTS 
cellular plastics 

small- scale 1168 

clothing fabrics 

burning rates 1159, 

1164 

fabrics 

flame spread 1 167 



FLAMMABILITY (cont'd) 
flame retardants 

calorimetric measurement 

1212 

materials 

critical oxygen concen- 
trates 1154 

plastics 

full-scale f ires. ... 1 150 

variances 1150 

polyester resins 

flame- retar da nt 1213 

unsaturated 1213 

polymers 

theoretical analysis.... 

1162 

polyurethanes 

foams/protective coat- 
ings 1 158 

FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACCIDENT 
CASE AND TESTING SYSTEM 
SEE: FFACTS 



FLAMMABLE GASES 
ignitability 

crude oil tankers. 



.1183 



FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS 
industrial occupancies 
fire safety procedures.. 

1365 

safe handling 

equipment 149 2 

methods 1492 



FLASHOVERS 
compartment fires 
u pholstery 



1147 



FLOOR COVERINGS 

building corridors 

fire spread 1169 

flame spread 

fire tests 1 117 

pill test 1117 



FLOW MODELS 
fire gases 
mines 



1123 



FLOOROCARBON SURFACTANTS 
extinguishants 

hydrophobic liquids 

1425, 1426 

FOAMED MATERIALS 
(also see: polyurethane 
foams) 

FOAM EXTINGUISHANTS 
alcohol-type concentrate 

polar-solvent fires 

1416 



1-15 



FOAM EXTINGDISHANTS 



HAY 



FOAM (cont'd) 
aqueous films 

rheological properties.. 
1419 

tanker ship fire protec- 
tion 1387 

Class A fires 

patent 142i» 

concentrate compositions 

patent 1U2a 

fire-fighting tactics 

mine fires 1459 

fluoroprotein 

rheological properties. . 
1419 

tanker ship fire protec- 
tion 1387 

shear stress measurement 

viscometers 1428 

sprinklers 

standards 1335 

sprinkler systems 

specifications 1335 

FOAM INSOLATION 
urethane 

fire hazards 1182 

FOAM SDPPRESSANTS 
coal dust 

patent 1423 

FOOD INDUSTRY 
fire hazards 

combustible materials... 

1175 

fire protection 

Poland 1368 

FOREST FIRES 
fire-fighting tactics 

helicopter applications. 
1457 

FUEL FIRES 

(also see: aircraft fuel 

fires) 
petrochemical industry 
water extinguishment.... 
1417 

FUELS 
(also see: aviation fuels) 

FUEL SPILLS 

(also see: spills) 

FUEL STORAGE TANKS 
(also see: tank fires; 
fuel tanks) 

FUEL TANKS 

(also see: fuel storage 
tanks; tank fires) 

1-16 



SUBJECT INDEX 

FUEL TANKS (cont'd) 
fire parameters 

calculation method.. 11 16 
plastic 

fire testing 1229 

FUME EMISSION 
non-metallic materials 
assessment 1188 

FURNACE TESTS 
organic materials 

fire behavior 1144 

FURNISHINGS 
pyrolysis products 

relative toxicity. .. 1 479 

FURNITURE 
plastics 

fire performance. ... 1 1 46 

FURNITURE FIFES 

statistics 

OK 1507 

UK (1962-1972) 1506 

G 

GARAGES 
underground 

fire-fighting tactics. . . 
1451 

GARMENTS SEE: CLOTHING 

GAS BOTTLES SEE: GAS 
CYLINDERS 

GAS CONNECTIONS 

polyester pipes 

fire resistance 1217 

heat resistance 1217 

GAS CYLINDERS 
extinguishers 

self-closing valves 

1344 

GAS DETECTION 
ethylene/acetylene 

mine fires 1249 

GAS DETECTORS 
detecting element 

Taguchi gas sensor.. 1254 

GAS MAINS 
fires 

fire-fighting tactics... 
1460 



GAS HELLS 
fires 

safety caps 1320 

fire-safety caps 

patent 1320 

GIRDERS 

fire-rated 

patent 1293 

suspended ceilings. . 1 293 

GLASS 

fire resistant 

performance criteria.... 
1197 

GLOVES 
aluminized 

protective clothing 

1412 

GLOWING FIRES 

powder extinguishants 

performance 1 427 

GRID MEMBERS 
fire-rated 

patent 1293 

GRIDS 

controlled expansion 

fire-rated 1292 

fire-rated 

patent 1292 

GYPSUM 

fire-resistant moldings 
patent 1207 

GYPSUM BOARDS 
fire protection 

advances 1308 

gypsum/mineral wool 

fire endurance 1223 

mineral wool topping. . 1 223 

GYPSUM PLASTER 
fire protection shells 
metal structures. ... 1 205 

H 

HALONS 

(also see: extinguishants) 

fire extinguishment 

turbulent pool fires.... 

1420 

turbulent spray fires... 
1420 

HAY 

self -ignition 

investigations 1355 



HAY 



INCENDIARISM 



HAY (cont'd) 

self- ignition (cont'd) 

prevention 1355 

HAZABDOUS GOODS 
transportation law 

FRG 1110 

HAZAFDOOS MIXING 
combustible liquids 

tank trucks 1 494 

HAZARD PREVENTION 
elderly persons 

physical disability 

1296 

HAZARD REDUCTION 
elderly persons 

physical disability 

1296 

electrostatic charges 
carton dioxide exting- 
uishers 1354 

railroad cars 

preventive measures 

1295 

HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 
drying ovens 

explosions 1289 

HEAT DETECTORS 
fire alarm systems 

rev iew 1255 

fire detection 

applications 1281 

metal oxide 

fire alarms 1253 

residential fires 

tests 1270 

HEAT FLUXES 
human tolerance 

measurements 14 84 

HEAT REMOVAL 
carbon dioxide pads 

patent 1321 

roof structures 1321 

fire suppression 

insurance guidelines.... 
1318 

literature survey. .. 1 314 

HELICOPTERS 
applications 

fire-fighting tactics. . . 
1457 

HIGHRISE BUILDINGS 
escape means 

rap pel ling 144 5 



SUBJECT INDEX 

HIGHRISE (cont'd) 
fire detectors/alarms 

life safety 1247 

fire-fighting tactics 

helicopter applications. 

1457 

USSR 1455 

fire problems 

book 1449 

rescue equipment 

endless chain elevators. 

1442 

smoke control 

air-handling systems.... 

1326 

stairwells 

pressurization systems.. 
1325 

HOLLOW-CORE UNITS 
prestressing steels 

fire tests 1230 

roof insulation 

fire tests 1230 

HOSES 

coupling flanges 

patent 1433 

rubber-fabric 

coupling flange 1433 

HOSPITALS 

(also see: operating 

rooms) 
cubicles 

fire development. ... 1 242 
fire protection 

risk calculation. ... 1 374 
room doors 

life safety 1373 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR 
alarm efficiency 

fire injuries 1490 

fire detection 

critical variables. .1 489 
fire incidents 

institutional buildings. 

1488 

sleep 

emergency arousal. .. 1 486 

HYDRANTS 
breakaway means 

patent 1435 

vehicle impact 1435 

specifications 

Japan 1431 

stem regulation 

patent 1434 

valve-rod coupling 

patent 1435 



HYDRANT STEMS 
regulation methods 

patent 1434 

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS 
fire-resistant 

state-of-the-art. ... 1 195 

HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS 
specifications 

Japan 1430 

HYDROCARBON POLYMERS 
flame retardants 

synergism 1186 

HYDROCARBON PROCESSING 

INDUSTRY 
fire losses 

1 974 1504 

HYDROCARBONS 
detection 

electrochemical tech- 
niques 1251 

HYDROPHOBIC LIQUIDS 
fire extinguishants 
f luorocarbon/silicone 

surfactants 14 25, 

1426 

I 

IGNITION CLASSIFICATION 
building materials 

FRG 1 173 

IGNITION HAZARDS 
aluminum powders 

safe handling 1 493 

magnesium powders 

safe handling 149 3 

IGNITION LIMITS 
building materials 

classification 117 3 

combustion processes 

physicochemical parame- 
ters 1297 

IGNITIONS 
combustible materials 

fire behavior 1161 

IGNITION TESTS 
cellular plastics 

flame spread 1160 

INCENDIARISM 

(also see: arson; pyroman- 
ia) 



1-17 



INCENDIARY FIRES 



LEGISLATION 



SOBJECT INDEX 



INCENDIARY FIRES 
industrial occupancies 
attribute analysis. . 1U61 
DS 1968 - 197a luei 

INCIPIENT FIRES 
fire detectors 

quartz crystal 1285 

particulates 

detectors 1265 

INDUSTRIAL BRIGADES 
legislation 

Berlin (FRG) ,..1094 

responsibilities 

legislation 1370 

INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 
combustible materials 

classification 1 177 

explosion hazards 

electric lamps 1288 

fire insurance 

France 1499 

fire partitions 

classification 1307 

fire protection 

portable extinguishers.. 

1367 

fire safety 

combustible materials... 
1210 

equipment 1 360 

human factors 1361 

safety manager 1361 

flammable liquids 

fire safety procedures. . 

1365 

food industry 

fire protection 1368 

incendiary fires 

attribute analysis. . 1 461 

US 1968 - 1974 1461 

ventilation systems 

principles 1315 

INERT GASES 
explosion prevention 

underground fires... 1458 

INERT-GAS EXTINGUISHANTS 
emergency supply system 
tanker ships 1346 

INFORMATION SYSTEMS 
fire data 

National Fire Data 

Center 1408 

INFRARED DETECTORS 
(also see: detectors) 



INHALATION TOXICITY 
carbon monoxide 

wood fires 1478 

INSPECTIONS 
buildings 

fire prevention 1436 

INSTITUTIONAL OCCUPANCIES 
fire incidents 

human behavior 1488 

fire statistics 

UK (1969-1973) 1505 

INSTRUMENTS 

flame retardant analyzers 
cellulosics 1211 

INSURANCE 

arson 

prevention 1463 

prosecution 1463 

fire safety 

combustible materials. . . 
1501 

industrial occupancies 

France 149 9 

rate calculations. .. 1 499 

INSURANCE COMPANIES 

guidelines 

heat removal 1318 

smoke removal 1318 

INTERIOR FURNISHINGS 
fire behavior 

bibliography.. 1103, 1104 
fire retardancy 

meeting papers 1204 

plastics 

fire perf ormance . . . . 1 1 46 
statistics 

UK 1507 

INTUMESCENT COATINGS 
fire retardants 

patent 1206 

INVESTIGATION SEE: ARSON 
INVESTIGATION; FIRE 
INVESTIGATION 



IONIZATION DETECTORS 
(also see: detectors) 
fire alarms 

patent 1 267 

measuring techniques 

physical aspects. ... 1 283 
response 

smoke entry 1276 

unipolar chambers 

physical aspects. ... 1 283 
Hind-protected 

patent 1266 

IRRITANTS 
combustion products 

smoldering 1 187 

ISFSI SEE: INTERNATIONAL 
SOCIETY OF FIRE SCIENCE 
INSTRUCTORS 



JAPAN 

fire protection 

legislation 1112 

fire safety 

legislation 1111 

legislation 

definitions 1113 

JET AIRCRAFT 

transports 

crash information ... 1 382 
fire inf ormation. . . . 1 382 
rescue information. . 1 382 

JET FUELS SEE: AVIATION 
FUELS 

JETRANGER 

aircraft crash tender 

description 1 400 



LABOR MARKET 
firefighters 
unions 



1413 



IONIZATION CHAMBERS LEATHER 

separated chemical resistance 

measurement standards... protective clothing 

1274 1409 

smoke detectors 1274 fire resistance 

smoke detectors protective clothing 

mathematical models 1409 

1126 

patent application cham- LEGISLATION 

ber 1272 definition of terms 

Japan 1113 



l-H 



LEGISLATION 



MOLDINGS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



LEGISLATION (cont'd) 
fire-hazard premises 

Japan 1113 

fire practice 

definitions 1113 

fire protection 

Japan.. 1112, 1256, 1257, 

1329, 1331, 11*31 

fire safety 

Japan 1111 

industrial brigades 

Berlin (FRG) 109a 

responsibilities 

industrial brigades 

1370 

transportation of hazar- 
dous goods 

FRG 1110 

LEISURE BUILDINGS SEE: 
RECREATION BUILDINGS 

LIFE SAFETY 
fire detection 

symposium 1101, 1273 

highrise buildings 

fire detectors 1247 

residential fires 

ionization smoke detec- 
tors 1284 

LIFTING APPARATUS 
aerial ladders 

working platf orm . . . . 1406 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS 
tanker ships 

fire safety 1391 

LIQUID HYDROCARBONS 
tank farms 

fire protection 1369 

LIVE LOADS 
buildings 

surveys 1290 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
fire/police 

consolidation 1095 

LOSS ECONOMICS 
(also see: fire losses) 
risk management 

financial aspects. .. 1 50 3 

LOSSES SEE: FIRE LOSSES 



M 

MAGNESIUM POWDERS 
ignition hazards 
safe handling. . . 



MANUFACTURERS 
building materials 
fire safet y 



1209 



MATERIALS 

critical oxygen concen- 
trates 

flammability tests.. 1154 
fire-resistant 

patent 1319 

structural panels. .. 1 319 
radio-frequency absorbing 

combustion products 

1475 



MATERIALS HANDLING 
aluminum powders 

ignition hazards., 
flammable liquids 

equipment 

methods 

magnesium powders 

ignition hazards.. 

MATHEMATICAL MODELS 
ionization chambers 
smoke detectors... 



1493 

,1492 
1492 



.1493 



,1126 



MATTRESSES 

(also see: bedding) 

MEETINGS 

American Chemical Society 

172nd - 1976 1132, 

1133, 1156, 1203, 

1238, 1420 

Fire Retardant Chemicals 
Assoc 
semi-annual 1204 



METAL BEAMS 
creep deflection 

transient heating, 
fire endurance 

creep deflection.. 



METAL FIRES 
fissionable 

extinguish ants, 
radioactive 

extinguish ants. 



METAL PARTICLES 
combustibility 
short circuits 



METAL POWDERS 
characteristics 

explosion hazards. 



.1216 
.1216 

1422 
1422 

,1180 

1179 



149 3 



METAL STRUCTURES 
fire protection 

gypsum plaster shells... 
1205 



METAL STRUCTURES (cont'd) 
gypsum plaster shells 

patent 1205 

METHYL BROMIDE 
(also see: halons) 

MILITARY PERSONNEL RECORD 

CENTER 
St. Louis, MO 

fire incident 1973. .1106 

MINE BULKHEADS 
polyurethane foam linings 
fire tests 1224 

MINE EXPLOSIONS 
barriers 

patent 1376 

bibliography 

1964-1976 1377 

MINE FIRES 
bibliography 

1964-1976 1377 

endogenous 

gas detection methods... 
1249 

suppression methods 

1450 

fire-fighting tactics 

mechanical foam 1459 

suppression 

nitrogen inerting . . . 1 453 

MINERAL ROCK WOOL 
gypsum wallboards 

fire endurance 1223 

MINE ROADWAYS 
polyurethane foam lining 
fire tests 1224 

MINES 

explosion barriers 

patent 1376 

fire gases 

flow model 1 123 

MINING 

fire/ explosion safety 

bibliography 1 377 

MODELING 
fire tests 

combustible materials... 

1241 

shopping center fires 

smoke hazards 1124 

MOLDINGS 
fire-resistant 

gypsum/calcium silicate. 
1207 

1-19 



MOLDINGS 



PATENTS 



MOLDINGS (cont'd) 
fire-resistant (cont'd) 
patent 1207 

MONOAMMONIUn PHOSPHATE 
intumescent coatings 

fire retardants 1206 

MOTOR VEHICLES 
diesel-engined 

fire protection 1309 

MST LABORATORIES 
University of Tennessee 
combustion toxicology 

studies 11*70 

MUSHROOM APPAREL FLAMMA- 

BILITY TESTER 
design parameters 

heat transfer rates 

1239 



N 



NATIONAL BDREAD OF STAN- 
DARDS 
analysis procedures 

fire hazards... 1185 

NATIONAL FIRE DATA CENTER 
information systems 

development 140 8 

NBS SEE: NATIONAL BUREAU 
OF STANDARDS 

NEOPRENE 
foam 

flame/smoke retardants.. 
1208 

NFPA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 
PROTECTION ASSOCIATION 

NFPCA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 
ADMINISTRATION 

NIGHTCLUB FIRES 
fatalities 

France 1107 

NITROGEN INERTING 
mine fires 

effectiveness 1453 

NON-METALLIC MATERIALS 

fire response 1132 

fume emission 

assessment 1188 

smoke emission 

assessment 1188 



SUBJECT INDEX 

NUCLEAR FIRES 
extinguishing agents 
sodium carbonate. ., 



,1418 



NUCLEAR REACTORS 
power plants 

fire protection 1378 

NURSING HOMES 
fire protection 

escape means 1375 

fire safety 

evacuation problems 

1443 

room doors 

life safety 1373 



O 



OIL FIRES 

petrochemical industry 
water extinguishment.... 
1417 

OIL INDUSTRY 
tanker fires 

fire protection 1363 

OIL WELLS 
fires 

safety caps 1320 

fire-safety caps 

patent 1320 

OLD AGE HOMES 
(also see: nursing homes) 

OLD BUILDINGS 

fire protection 

stairwells 1380 

vestibule doors 1380 

OPERATING ROOMS 
(also see: hospitals) 

OPTICAL DETECTORS 
fire detectors 

buildings 124 8 

ORE WASTES 
fire hazards 

parameters 1171 

ORGANIC MATERIALS 
fire behavior 

furnace tests 1144 

fire retardant effects 

furnace tests 1144 



OXYGEN INDEX (cont* d) 
polymer systems testing 
review 1163 



PAINTS 

aluminum powders 

flammability 1170 

explosion hazards 

classification 1174 

fire hazards 

classification 117 4 

fire-resistant 

ship interiors 1386 

PANELS SEE: CEILING 

PANELS; WALL PANELS 

PANIC SEE: HUMAN BEHAVIOR 



PARTICULATES 
incipient fires 
detectors 



1265 



OXYGEN INDEX 
flammability tests 
cellular plastics. 



1168 



PARTITIONS 
fire-resistant 

flexible materials. . 1 31 9 

PASSENGER SEATS 

(also see: seat cushions) 

PATENTS 

ACCELERATOR FOR A LIQUID 
SPRINKLER FIRE-EXTING- 
UISHING SYSTEM WITH A 
WET SPRINKLER PIPE 
NETWORK FILLED WITH 
COMPRESSED GAS (FRG)... 
1343 

AQUEOUS FOAM COMPOSITIONS 
TO SUPPRESS COAL DOST 
(US) 1423 

AUTOMOBILE FIREFIGHTING 

APPARATUS (US) 1350 

AUXILIARY EXTENSION FIAT- 
FORM ASSEMBLY SUPPORT 
FRAME DRIVE MEANS FOR 
AN AERIAL LADDER ASSEM- 
BLY (US) 1404 

AUXILIARY FIRE DETECTOR 

(French) 1262 

BREATHING MASK (FRG).. 1410 

CLAMPING RING FOR THE 
WINDOW FRAME OF A 

BREATHING MASK (US) 

1411 

COMPOSITIONS OF FIRE-EX- 
TINGUISHING FOAM 
CONCENTRATES AND METHOD 
OF USING THE SAME (US) . 
1424 

DEVICE FOR ACTUATING FIRE- 



1-20 



PATENTS 



PLASTICS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



PATENTS (cont'd) 

PEOTECTION MEANS (USSR) 
1353 

DEVICE FOR TESTING PHOTOE- 
LECTRIC SMOKE DETECTORS 
(Japanese) 1263 

DISCHARGE HEAD HAVING DOAL 
FUNCTION PLUG RETAINING 
MEMBER (OS) 1352 

DRY POWDER FIRE EXTINGUIS- 
HER MATERIAL (UK)..11»21 

ESCAPE DEVICE, ESPECIALLY 
FOR ROPING DOWN FROM 
BUILDINGS (Swiss) .. 1UI15 

EXPLOSION VENT CONSTRUC- 
TION (US) 132a 

FIRE DETECTOR (French).... 
1261 

fire detectors 

tire r misters 1 260 

FIRE EXTINGOISHANT FOR 
FISSIONABLE MATERIAL 
(US) 1U22 

FIRE- EXTINGUISHING EQUIP- 
MENT (US) 1349 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD 

AND APPARATUS (US) 

1351 

FIRE FIGHTING (OS). ..1425, 
1426 

FIRE HYDRANT (French) 

1434 

FIRE HYDRANT VALVE ROD 

COUPLING (US) 1435 

FIRE LADDER (US) 1446 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

(US) 1264 

FIRE RATED GRID MEMBER 

WITH CONTROLLED EXPAN- 
SION MEANS (US) 1292 

FIRE RATED GRID (US).. 1293 

FIRE-RETARDANT DEVICE, 
ESPECIALLY FOR METAL 

STRUCTURES (French) 

1205 

FIRE SPRINKLER AND CEILING 

PANEL ASSEMBLY (US) 

1245 

FLAME DEFLECTING DEVICE 
FOR MOUNTING ON A 
BUILDING EXTERIOR (US) . 
1323 

FLAME DETECTION SYSTEM 

(US) 1268 

FLEXIBLE FIRE-RESISTANT 
MATERIAL (Fr ench) . . 1 3 1 9 

HIGH-SPEED VALVE (French) . 
1345 

hydrant stems 

regulation method. .. 1434 

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELAT- 
ING TO FIRE ESCAPE 
MEANS OR APPARATUS 
(Irish) 1444 



PATENTS (cont'd) 

INCIPIENT FIRE DETECTOR 

(US) 1265 

INTOMESCENT COMPOSITIONS 
AND SUBSTRATES COATED 
THEREWITH (US) 1206 

IONIZATION SMOKE DETECTOR 
CO-USED TO ISSUE FIRE 
ALARM AND DETECT AM- 
BIENT ATMOSPHERE (US).. 
1267 

lONIZATION-TYPE FIRE 

DETECTOR (OS) 1266 

LADDER WORKING LIMIT BASED 
LADDER STOPPING DEVICE 
FOR AERIAL LADDER TROCK 
(US) 1403 

PASSIVE EXPLOSION BARRIER 
(OS) 1376 

PROCESS FOR PREPARING 

FIRE-RESISTING MOLDINGS 

RESCUE BELT (USSR) 1448 

RUBBER COUPLING FLANGE ON 

RUBBER HOSES (FRG) 

1433 

SAFETY DAMPER FOR WELLS 

(French) 1320 

SAFETY DEVICE FOR REPLENI- 
SHING THE SOPPLY OF 
INERT GAS IN THE CARGO 
TANKS OF TANKER SHIPS 
(Swedish) 1346 

SERIES TO PARALLEL TRANS- 
FER CIRCUIT FOR INITIA- 
TOR STRING (OS) 1347 

SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL FOR 
ROOFS IN CASE OF FIRE 
(GDR) 1321 

SMOKE STOP (US) 1322 

SPIRAL SLIDE FIRE ESCAPE 
(OS) 1447 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM AND 

METHOD OF OPERATING THE 
SAME (US) 1348 

THERMISTOR FIRE DETECTION 
INSTALLATION (French).. 
1260 

TRIGGER-ACTOATED, FAST 

SELF-CLOSING VALVE FOR 
GAS FLASKS, ESPECIALLY 
FOR HAND-OPERATED FIRE 

EXTINGUISHERS (FRG) 

1344 

WORKING PLATFORM LIFTING 
APPARATUS FOR AERIAL 
LADDER TROCK (OS).. 1406 

WORKING RANGE INDICATING 
DEVICE FOR AERIAL LAD- 
DER TROCK (US) 1405 

PENETRATION SEALS 
silicone foams 

flammability charac- 



PENETRATION SEALS (cont'd) 
silicone foams (cont'd) 

teristics 1149 

PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 
(also see: protective 
clothing) 

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 
fire protection 

preventive measures 

1364 

fire safety 

protection measures 

1366 

fuel fires 

water extinguishment.... 

1417 

oil fires 

water extinguishment.... 
1417 

PHOSPHATE PLASTICIZEES 
flame resistance 

classification 1 200 

PHOTOELECTRIC DETECTORS 
flame 

patent 1268 

smoke 

testing device 1263 

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS 
body tolerance 

heat fluxes 1484 

PILL TESTS 
floor coverings 

flame spread.. 1117 

PLASTIC COATINGS 

powder application 

explosion hazards ... 1 130 

fire hazards 1130 

new techniques 1130 

PLASTICS 

(also see: polymers; 
thermoplastics) 

building materials 

fire hazards 1294 

fire perf ormance. . . . 1 1 34 

burning characteristics 

aircraft 1385 

government regulations.. 

1385 

smoke formation 1194 

transit vehicles. ... 1 385 

cellular 

flammability tests.. 1168 

fire behavior 

data sheets 1129 

fire gases 

animal experiments. . 148 1 



1-21 



PLASTICS 



PRESTRESSING STEELS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



PLASTICS (cont'd) 
fire hazards 

polyvinylchloride. . 
fire resistance 

flame retardants. . . 
flame retardants 

comparative evaluat 



.1178 

. 1199 

ion. . 
. 1200 



flammability tests 

full-scale fires. ... 1 1 50 

variances 1150 

furniture 

fire perf ormance . . . . 1 1 46 
interior furnishings 

fire perf ormance. . . . 1 146 
properties 

fire classification 

1129 



smoke density hazards 
smoke density chamb 



er. . . 
.1190 



PLATFORMS 

aerial ladders 

patent 1406 

(also see: elevating plat- 
forms; offshore plat- 
forms) 

PLAYPIPES 
200 1pm 

construction .14 07 

foam 

construction 1407 

PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS 
fire- extinguishing systems 
development. ........ 1 342 

POLAR-SOLVENT FIRES 
foam extinguishants 

alcohol-type concentrate 
1416 

POLYACRYLONITRILE 
decomposition products 
fire toxicity 1193 



POLYESTER BATTING 
pyrolysis products 
relative toxicity. 



1472 



POLYESTER PIPES 

gas connections 

fire resistance 1217 

heat resistance 1217 

POLYESTER RESINS 
f lame -ret ardant 

commercial developments. 

1198 

flammability charac- 
teristics 1213 

thermosetting methods. . . 



POLYESTE 

flame-re 

thermo 



R RE 
tard 
sett 



glass-fi 
therma 



ber- 

1 CO 



thermal 
predic 

unsatura 
f lamma 
ter 
smoke 
toxic 



cond 

tion 

ted 

bili 

isti 

evol 

gas 



SINS (cont'd) 
ant (cont'd) 
ing (cont'd) 

1198 

reinforced 
nductivity. . . . 

.1136 

uctivity 
1136 

ty charac- 

cs 1213 

ution 1 1 92 

evolution 



POLYESTERS 
unsaturated 

smoke evolution.. 

POLYESTER SOLFONES 
flame resistance 
treatment 

POLYMER CONCRETES 
fire resistance 
structures 



, .1191 



. .1202 



1215 



POLYM 
aircr 

fir 

(also 

be 

cemen 

the 
combu 

the 



ERS 

aft com 
e resis 
see : p 
r; ther 
t compo 
r ma 1 p r 
stion 
rmochemical study 



partments 

ta nee ..... 1 390 

lastics; rub- 

moplastics) 

sites 

operties. .1131 



fire tests 
theoretica 



flammability 
theoretica 



1142 

1 analysis. . . . 

1162 

tests 
1 analysis. . . . 
1162 



POLYMER SYSTEMS 
oxygen index tests 
review 



1163 



POLYSTYRENE 
manufacture 

fire hazards 1362 

physical properties 

manufacture 1362 



POLYSULFONES 
flame resistance 
treatment 



1202 



POLYORETHANE FOAMS 

carbon-impregnated 

flammability tests.. 1145 

smoldering combustion. . . 

1145 



POLYORETHANE (cont'd) 
fire safety 

industry requirements... 

1210 

insulation 

fire hazards 1182 

mine bulkhead linings 

fire tests 1224 

mine roadway linings 

fire tests 1224 

smoldering 

chemical anlysis. . . . 1 139 



POLYORETHANE RESINS 
combustion products 
toxic gas control. 



1475 



POLYORETHANES 
foams 

fire tests 1158 

mattresses 

fire tests 1137 

protective coatings 

fire tests 1158 

flammability tests. .1158 

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE 
fire hazards 

fire incidents 1178 

molded 

flame/smoke retardants.. 
1208 

POOL FIRES 
extinguishment 

halons 1420 

PORT INSTALLATIONS 
fire-fighting operations 
conference 1097 

POWDER EXTINGOISHANTS 
efficiency 

class ABC fires 1427 

POWDERS 

plastic coatings 

application techniques.. 
1130 

POWER PLANTS 
nuclear reactors 

fire protection 1378 

PRESSORIZATION SYSTEMS 
smoke control 

fire tests 1122 

stairwells 

highrise buildings. . 1 325 

PRESTRESSING STEELS 
strand temperature 

fire tests 1230 



1-22 



PROPEETY LOSSES 



REVIEWS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



PROPERTY LOSSES 

(also see: fire losses) 

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 
(also see: clothing) 
chemical resistance 

leather 1409 

firefighters 

aluminized gloves. .. 1 U12 
fire resistance 

leather TtOQ 

fire-resistant fabrics 

firefighters 1196 



PYROMANIA 

(also see: arson; incen- 
diarism) 



PROTEIN FOAMS 
properties 

foam playpipes. 



m07 



PUBLIC BDILDINGS 

fire protection 

smoke removal 1379 

ventilation systems 

1379 

PUBLIC EDUCATION 
(also see: education) 
fire prevention 

buildings 1439 

FRG 1438 

PUHPER-LADDERS 

(also see: apparatus) 

PUMPS 

fire- suppression systems 
technical specifications 
1336 

PYPOLYSIS 
combustion products 

toxicity 1468 

polymeric composites 

aircraft compartments... 
1390 

PYEOLYSIS PRODUCTS 
cotton batting 

relative toxicity. .. 1 472 
furnishings 

relative toxicity ... 1 479 
polyester batting 

relative toxicity. .. 1472 
relative toxicity 

animal species 1471 

synthetic polymers 

combustion toxicology... 
1473 

PYROLYTIC TOXICITY 
forced air flow 

test effects 1152 

oxygen concentration 

test effects 1152 



QUARTZ CRYSTALS 
fire detectors 
incipient fires. 



,1285 



RADIO COMMUNICATIONS 

emergency 

Japan 1415 

technical specifications 
1415 



RAILROAD CARS 
fire prevention 
Japan 



1295 



RAILROAD FIRES 
fire prevention 
Japan 



1295 



RAILROADS 
sleeper cars 
fire tests. 



1225 



RANN SEE: RESEARCH APPLIED 
TO NATIONAL NEEDS 

RAPID TRANSIT 
(also see: elevated rail- 
ways; subways) 

REACTIVE MATERIALS 
spontaneous ignition 

kinetic constants. .. 1 1 1 9 

REFINERIES 

crude oil 

fire fighting 1371 

fire protection 1371 

RESCUE BELT 
locking device 

patent 1448 

RESCUE EQUIPMENT 
highrise buildings 

endless chain elevators. 

1442 

spiral slides 

patent 1447 

RESCUE MEANS 

chain ladders 

building fires 1444 

patent 1444 



RESCUE SERVICES 
modernization 

France 1091 

organization 

France 1091 

RESCUE TRAINS 
railroad tunnel fires 

Switzerland 1456 

RESCUE TUBES 

fire escapes 

description 1441 

recommendations 1441 

RESCUE VEHICLES 
all-purpose 

tactical applications... 

1397 

fire service 

operational requirements 
1399 

RESIDENTIAL FIRES 
life safety 

ionization smoke detec- 
tors 1284 

smoke detectors 

tests 1270 

RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 
(also see: highrise build- 
ings; hotels; mobile 
homes; motels) 
corridor fires 

fire spread 1118 

fire protection 

low cost sprinklers 

1381 

RESPIRATION 
toxicants 

classification 1 483 

RESPIRATORS 
(also see: breathing 
apparatus) 

RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS 
facial burns 

access management ... 1 482 
smoke inhalation 

access management ... 1482 

RETIREMENT HOMES SEE: 

NURSING HOMES; OLD AGE 
HOMES 



REVIEWS 




fire detectors 




state-of-the-art. 


...1250 


oxygen index tests 




polymer systems. . 


. . . 1163 



1-23 



RHEOLOGY 



SMOKE DETECTORS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



RHEOLOGY 

foam extinguishants 

aqueous films 1U19 

RHEDMRTIC DISEASES 
firefighters 

treatment ... - 1485 

RISK CRLCOLATION 
fire protection 

hospitals. 1374 

RISK MANAGEMENT 
financial aspects 

cost analysis 1503 

ROOF INSOLATION 
hollow-core units 

fire tests .....1230 

RUGS SEE: FLOOR COVERINGS 

s 

SAFETY ENGINEERING 
explosion protection 

guidelines ....1299 

SAFETY MANAGERS 
fire safety 

industrial occupancies.. 
1361 

SAFETY REGULATIONS 
firebreaks 

building construction... 
1316 

SANCTUARIES SEE: REFUGE 
AREAS 

SEAT CUSHIONS 
(also see: passenger 
seats) 

SELF IGNITION 
hay 

investigations 13 55 

SEMINARS 
Arson 

1976 1098 

Fire Safety in Construc- 
tion 

1975 1100 

Turbulent Buoyant Convec- 
tion 
197 6 112 5 

SFPE 
seminars 

arson 1098 



SHEAR STRESS 

foam extinguishants 

viscometric measurement. 
1428 

SHIP ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 

SHIP INTERIORS 
fire resistance 

paints 13 86 

SHIPS 
compartment fires 

risk criteria 123U 

fire-fighting operations 

conference 1097 

fire protection 

USSR 1383 

SHOPPING CENTERS 
multi-level covered 

smoke hazards 1124 

SHOPPING MALLS SEE: SHOP- 
PING CENTERS 

SHORT CIRCUITS 
combustibility 

metal particles 1180 

SILICONE FOAMS 
flammability characteris- 
tics 

fire stops 1149 

penetration seals 

fire stops 1149 

SILICONE SURFACTANTS 
extinguishants 

hydrophobic liquids 

1425, 1426 

SILOXANES 

fire hazard properties 

test data 1156 

flammability 

test data 1 1 56 

SLEEP 
arousal 

emergencies 1486 

SLEEPER CARS 
railroads 

fire tests 1225 

SLIDES 

rescue equipment 

patent 1447 

spiral 

rescue equipment. ... 1 447 



SMOKE 

physical properties 

test conditions 1189 

SMOKE CONTROL 
buildings 

pressurization systems.. 

1311 

highrise buildings 

air-handling systems.... 

1326 

pressurization systems 

fire tests 1311 

shaft pressurization 

fire tests 1122 

structural fires 

test methods 1 120 

SMOKE DENSITY 
forced air flow 

test effects 1152 

oxygen concentration 

test effects 1152 

SMOKE DENSITY CHAMBER 
smoke density hazard 

plastics 1 190 

toxicity screening tests 

evaluation 1469 

SMOKE DENSITY CHAMBERS 
fire performance 

smoke measurement ... 1 127 

SMOKE DENSITY HAZARDS 
plastics 

determination 1 190 

SMOKE DETECTORS 
(also see: detectors) 
combustion products 

aircraft compartments. . 

1279 

detecting element 

Taguchi gas sensor.. 1254 
fire alarm systems 

review 1255 

fire extinguishers 

patent 1264 

fire tests 

large-scale 1275 

flame detectors 

combinations 1261 

patent 1261 

ionization 

life safety 1284 

mathematical models 

1126 

patent 1267 

patent application. . 1 272 

physical aspects. ... 1 283 
measurement standards 

ionization chambers 

1274 



1-24 



SMOKE DETECTORS 



STANDARDS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



SMOKE DETECTORS (cont'd) 
photoelectric 

performance 1282 

review 1282 

testing device 1263 

pyrolysis products 

aircraft compartments... 

1279 

residential fires 

tests 1270 

response 

smoke entry 1276 

response threshold 

measurement 1278 

sensitivity 

threshold measurement... 

1278 

submicron particles 

ionization chambers 

1272 

testing device 

patent 1263 

SMOKE EVOIOTION 
non-metallic materials 

assessment 1188 

plastics 

building mater ials. . 1 19U 
polyester resins 

fire retardancy 1192 

polyesters 

dibromoneopentyl glycol. 

1191 

polymers 

thermal degradation 

1142 

wood 

thermal degradation 

1142 

SMOKE EXPLOSIONS 
(also see: backdraft) 

SMOKE HAZARDS 
fire environments 

review lUSO 

plastics 

animal experiments. . 1 481 
shopping center fires 

modeling 1124 

SMOKE INHALATION 
respiratory airways 

access management. .. 1482 

SMOKEEBOOFING 

doors 

elastic strips 1312 

intumescent strips.. 1312 

SMOKE REMOVAL 

carbon dioxide pads 

patent 1321 

roof structures 1321 



SMOKE REMOVAL (cont'd) 
fire protection 

public buildings. ... 1 379 
fire suppression 

insurance guidelines.... 
1318 

literature survey. .. 1 314 

SMOKE RETARDANTS 
aluminum trihydrate 

modification of materi- 
als 1201 

neoprene 

foam 1208 

polyvinylchloride 

molded 1208 

SMOKE STOPS 
doors 

patent 1322 

SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS 
fire performance 

smoke density chambers.. 
1127 

SMOKE TESTS 
opague materials 

aircraft compartments... 
1151 

SMOLDERING 
combustion products 

irritants 1 1 87 

polyurethane foams 

carbon -impregnated ..1145 
polyurethane resins 

chemical analy sis. . . 1 1 39 

SODIOM CARBONATE 
extinguishing agents 

sodium fires 1418 

SODIOM FIRES 
breeder reactors 

extinguishing agent 

1418 



SPALLING 
concrete 

fire resistance. 



1219 



SOFT-COAL INDUSTRY 
dust suppression 
medium- expansion. 



1372 



SOLIDS 
combustion tests 

burning process 1157 

glowing fires 

powder extinguishants . . . 
1427 

SOUNDING SEE: ACOUSTIC 
SOUNDING 



SPILLS 

(also see: fuel spills) 

SPONTANEOUS IGNITION 
ambient temperature 

specimen size 1119 

SPRAY FIRES 
extinguishment 

halons 1420 

SPRINKLER HEADS 
design parameters 

specifications 1332 

technical specifications 

Japan 1332 

SPRINKLERS 
fire sensors 

chemical plants 1269 

SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 
computer components 

system design 1340 

foam extinguishants 

specifications 1 335 

low cost 

residential occupancies. 

1381 

pressurized conduits 

operating method. ... 1 348 

patent 1348 

valve actuator 

patent 1343 

valves 

contamination protection 

1343 

water delivery rates 

design 1328 

STAIRWELLS 
fire protection 

old buildings 1380 

highrise buildings 

pressurization systems.. 
1325 

STANDARDS 
building materials 

fire behavior 1496 

combustible gases 

Jugoslavia 1495 

combustible liguids 

Jugoslavia 1495 

fire alarms 

Japan 1 2 57 

fire detectors 

Japan 1 2 56 

fire-extinguishing systems 

Japan 1329 



1-25 



STANDARDS 



TANK FAFMS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



STANDARDS (cont'd) 
fire-suppression systems 

Japan. .1330, 1331, 1333, 
1337 

water flow rate 1330 

water-pipe fixtures 

1337 

fire tests 

design criteria 1t98 

international situation. 
1497 

philosophy 1498 

foam extinguishing systems 

Japan 1334 

foam- sprinkler systems 

Japan 1335 

hydrants 

Japan 1431 

hydraulic systems 

Japan 1430 

pumps 

fire-suppression systems 
1336 

Japan 133 6 

smoke detectors 

fire tests 1275 

sprinkler heads 

Japan 1332 

structural elements 

fire behavior 1496 

STATISTICS 
aircraft accidents 

1964 - 1974 1108 

furniture fires 

OK 1507 

UK (1962-1 972) 1506 

hydrocarbon processing 
industry 

1974 1504 

institutional fires 

OK (1969-1973) 1505 

interior furnishing fires 

UK 1507 

STORAGE TANKS 
liquid hydrocarbons 

fire protection 1369 

STOREHOUSES 
high-rack 

fire prevention 1356 

STRAND TEMPERATURE 
prestressing steels 

fire tests 1230 

STRUCTURAL ANALYSES 
fire endurance 

concrete panels 1228 

STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 
ceiling panels 

sprinkler head openings. 



STRUCTURAL (cont'd) 
ceiling panels (cont'd) 
sprinkler head (cont'd) 
1245 

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE 

fire damage 

assessment 1502 

salvage 1502 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN 
buildings 

fire safety 



1246 



STRUCTURAL FIRES 
bibliography 

1964-1974 1103 

1975-1 976 1104 

corner room 

cellar explosion. ... 1 1 05 
rescue means 

chain ladders 1444 

smoke control 

test methods 1120 



STRUCTURAL PANELS 
fire- resistant 

flexible materials. 



1319 



SUPPRESSION SEE: 
SUPPRESSION 



FIRE 



SURFACTANTS 

(also see: wetting agents) 

SWEDISH STATE FIRE INSPEC- 
TORATE 
circular letters 

1959-1975 1491 

recommendations 

1959-1 975 1491 



SYMPOSIA 

American 

the A 

Scien 

1976.. 

Fire Det 

Safet 

1975 



Associa 
dvanceme 
ce 



tion for 
nt of 



Fire Saf 

Mater 

1975 



ection 

y 

1101, 
1275, 
1278, 
1281, 
1284, 
.1486 

ety of 

ials 
1102, 
1143, 
1146, 
1161, 
1165, 
1168, 
1186, 



for 



. . .1209 
Life 



273, 
276, 
279, 
282, 
285, 
1489, 



1274, 
1277, 
1280, 
1283, 
1286, 
1490 



Combustible 



128, 
144, 
147, 
162, 
166, 
169, 
194, 



1142, 
1145, 
1148, 
1163, 
1167, 
1185, 
1210, 



SYMPOSIA (conf 


d) 




Fire Safety of 


(cont 


•d) 


1975 (cont'd) 






1211, 


1212, 


1213, 


1240, 


1241, 


1242, 


1300, 


1301, 


1302, 


1303, 


1304, 


1305, 


1306, 


1480, 


1481, 


1497, 


1498, 


1501, 
..1507 



SYNERGISM 

flame retardants 

hydrocarbon polymers.... 
1186 

SYNTHETIC MATERIALS 
fire gases 

toxicity evaluation 

1464, 1465 

traditional materials 

toxicological comparison 
1465 

SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 
pyrolysis gases 

combustion toxicology... 
1473 



TAGUCHI GAS SENSOR 

detecting element 

gas detectors 1254 

smoke detectors 1254 

TANKER SHIPS 
crude-oil 

flammable gas, ignition.. 
1183 

metal fracture 1183 

fire protection 

foam extinguishants 

1387 

inert-gas extinguishants 

emergency supply .... 1 346 
inert-gas supply system 

patent 1346 

liquefied natural gas 

fire safety 1391 

oil industry 

explosion prevention.... 
1363 

fire protection 1363 

TANKER TRUCKS 
combustible liquids 

hazardous mixing .... 1 494 

TANK FARMS 

liquid hydrocarbons 

fire protection 1369 



1-26 



TANK FIRES 



VALVE ACTOATORS 



TANK FIRES 
(also see: fuel tanks; 

fuel storage tanks) ^" 
suppression methods 

base foam injection 

^U5U 

TESTING 

(also see: fire tests; 
flammability tests) 
bedroom fires 

analysis 1232 

fire detectors 

automatic 1271 

fire propagation 

building materia Is. . 1227 
fire safety 

international situation. 

1U97 

large-scale/small-scale 

correlation 12U0 

plastic fuel tanks 

fire resistance 1229 

small -scale/large-scale 

correlation 12U0 

smoke control 

structural fires .... 1 120 

TEXTILES SEE: FABRICS 

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 
polyester resins 

glass-fiber reinforced.. 
1136 

THERMISTORS 
fire detectors 

patent 1260 

THERMOGRAVIMETRY 
polymers 

thermal degradation 

11U2 

wood 

thermal degradation 

1142 

THERMOPLASTICS 
(also see: plastics) 

THERMOSETTING PLASTICS 
polyester resins 

flame retardant 1198 

TOLUENE DI-ISOCYANATE 
firefighter exposure 

medical description 

1U66 

neurological complica- 
tions 1467 

TOXICANTS 
respiratory effects 

classification 1483 



SUBJECT INDEX 

TOXICANTS (cont'd) 
respiratory (cont'd) 

first aid 1U83 

TOXIC GAS EVOLUTION 
polyester resins 

fire retardancy 1192 

TOXIC GAS HAZARDS 
fire environments 

review 1480 

TOXIC GAS TESTS 
transparent materials 

aircraft compartments... 
1151 

TOXICITY 
(also see: combustion 

toxicology) 
combustion products 

pyrolysis 1468 

fire gases 

biological evaluation... 

1464, 1465 

pyrolysis products 

animal species 1471 

cotton batting 1472 

polyester batting. .. 1 472 

TOXICITY HAZARDS 
plastics 

animal experiments. . 1 481 

TOXICITY RATINGS 
fire toxicity 

toxic species 1477 

pyrolysis products 

furnishings 1479 

TOXICITY SCREENING TESTS 
smoke density chamber 

evaluation 1469 

TOXIC SPECIES 
fire toxicity 

rating methods 1477 

TRADITIONAL MATERIALS 
synthetic materials 

toxicological comparison 
1465 

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 
(also see: accidents) 

TRAINING 

(also see: education; 

firefighter training) 
fire-fighting 

electrical facilities. . . 

1452 

volunteer firefighters 

FRG 1393 



TRANSFER CIRCUITS 
series- to- par all el 

initiator string. ... 1 347 

TRANSIT VEHICLES 

(also see: buses; subway 

cars) 
plastic materials 

burning characteristics. 
1385 

TUNNEL FIRES 
fire-fighting trains 

Switzerland 1 456 

rescue trains 

Switzerland 1456 



U 

ULTRAVIOLET DETECTORS 
(also see: detectors) 

UNDERGROUND FIRES 
explosion prevention 

inert gases 1458 

UNDERGROUND PREMISES 

fire protection 1317 

UNDERLAYMENTS SEE: FLOOR 
COVERINGS 

UNIONS 
firefighters 

compensation 1413 

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE 
MST Laboratories 

combustion toxicology 

studies 1 470 

UNSATURATED POLYESTERS 
smoke evolution 

dibromoneopentyl glycol. 
1191 

UPHOLSTERY 
enclosure fires 

flashovers 1147 

URBAN PLANNING 
consolidation 

fire/police 1095 

V 

VALVE ACTUATORS 
fire-extinguishing systems 

patent 1345, 1353 

sprinkler systems 

patent 1343 



1-27 



VANDALS 



WRIGHT-PATTEESCN AFB 



SUBJECT INDEX 



VANDALS 
arsonists 

physiological charac- 
teristics 146 2 

VAENISH COATINGS 
aluminum powders 

f lammability 1170 

VARNISHES 
synthetic resin 

f lammability 1170 

VEHICLE ACCIDENTS 
(also see: accidents) 

VEHICLES 

(also see: apparatus) 

extinguishers 

patent 1350 

fire hazards 

electrical cables. .. 1 1 81 

VENTILATION SYSTEMS 
fire protection 

public buildings. ... 1379 
industrial occupancies 

principles 1315 

throughput 

fire control 1327 

VENTING 
ex plosions 

patent 1324 

VESTIBULE DOORS 
fire protection 

old buildings 1380 



WALLS 
masonry 

fire perf ormance. . . . 1 1 48 
timber-framed 

fire perf ormance. . . . 1 1 48 

WAREHOUSES 
concrete beams 

mineral wool sheathing.. 

1221 

high-rack storage 

fire prevention 1356 

WATER CURTAINS 

fire suppression 

development 1341 

tests 1341 

WATER DAMAGE 
extingui shants 

fire tests 1233 

WATER-PIPE FIXTURES 
fire-suppression systems 
technical specifications 
1337 

WATER SUPPLIES 

(also see: fire flows) 

fire-fighting operations 

buildings 1430 

fire suppression 

Netherlands 1432 

fire- suppression systems 

technical specifications 
1330 



WEARING APPAREL 
CLOTHING 



SEE: 



WOODEN HV POLES 
fire causes 

potential cures 1358 

WOOD FIRES 
carbon monoxide 

inhalation toxicity 

1478 

WOOD PRESERVATIVES 
combustion products 

environmental implica- 
tions 1135 



WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB 
f irehouse 

engineering design. 



1395 



VISCOMETERS 
torsional vane 

foam shear stress. 



1428 



WETTING AGENTS 

(also see: surfactants) 



VOLUNTEER FIREFIGHTERS 
training 

FRG 1393 

w 

WALLBOARDS SEE: CHIP- 
BOARDS; FIBERBOARDS; 
GYPSUM BOARDS 

WALL COVERINGS 
gypsum boards 

fire protection 1308 



WALL HYDRANTS 

self- help 

commercial buildings.... 

1429 

highrise buildings. . 1 429 
public buildings. ... 1429 



WINDOWS 

fire resistant glass 

performance criteria. . . . 
1197 

WOOD 
carbonization 

properties 1133 

combustion 

thermochemical study. . . . 

1142 

fire retardants 

performance 1203 

properties 

carbonization 1 1 33 

WOOD DOST 
explosion hazard 

precautions 1172 

fire hazard 

precautions 1172 



1-28 



BOOKS 



SOURCE INDEX 



JCUBNALS 



BOOKS, MONOGRAPHS 

A FULL-SCALE FIRE TRIAL ON 
THE POLYOPETHANE FOAM 
LINING OF AN EXPERIMEN- 
TAL MINE ROADWAY. .. 1224 

CRASH, FIRE, AND RESCDE 
INFORMATION FOR BOEING 
COMMERCIAL JET TRANS- 
PORTS 1382 

DETECTION DEVICES FOR 
EARLY WARNING AND 
CONTROL OF FIRE IN 
BDILDINGS 1247 

DETERMINANTS OF FIRE 

FIGHTER COMPENSATION... 
1U13 

DEVELOPMENT OF A DATA 
SHEET ON THE FIRE 
BEHAVIOR OF PLASTICS 
FOR PROCESSING BY 
EXPERTS IN PREVENTIVE 
FIRE PROTECTION. .. .1129 

FIRE PREVENTION IN BUILD- 
ING DESIGN (PREVENTION 
DO FEO DANS LE PROJET 
DO BATIMENT) 1243 

FIRE PROBLEMS IN HIGHRISE 
BUILDINGS 1449 

FIRE PROTECTION OF SHIPS 
(POZHARNAYA ZASHCHITA 
SODOV) 1383 

POSSIBILITIES FOR CULTIVA- 
TING A SENSE OF FIRE 
PROTECTION IN CHILDREN 
AND YOUTHS 1437 

PROMOTING A SENSE OF FIRE 
PROTECTION IN CHILDREN 
- DIDACTIC AND METHODO- 
LOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 
1438 

SIMULATION OF REALISTIC 
THERMAL RESTRAINT 
DURING FIRE TESTS OF 
FLOOR AND ROOF ASSEM- 
BLIES 1228 

SMALL BOATS FOR FIRE 

DEPARTMENT OPERATIONS.. 
1396 



CONFERENCES 

Fire Research Conference, 
NSF/RANN, Annual, Proc 
1976, Jul 14-16, APL/ 

JHU, Laurel, MD..1096 
APL/JHU FPP B76-2...1096 
Society of Plastics 
Engineers Annual 
Technical Conf, 34th, 
Proc 
1976, Apr 26-29, Atlan- 
tic City, NJ 



CONFERENCES (cont'd) 
Society of (cont'd) 
1976, Apr (cont'd) 
Pages 

222-224 



1149 



JOURNALS 

Am Chem Soc, Div Org Coat 
Plast Chem, Prepr 

36 (1) :217-223, 1976 

1150 

Arch Surg 

111 (7) :744-749, 1976 

1482 

ASHRAE J 

18(7):54-57, 1976. ..1248 
ASTM Standardization News 

4 (8) :18-25, 1976 1120 

Bauplanung Bautech 

29(8) : 390-394, 1 976 

1214 

Beruf sgenoss 

(6) :219-224, 1976. . . 1110 
(8) :300-302, 1976. . .1409 
Beton Zhelezobeton 

(3):25-26, 1976 1215 

Bezop tr prom-sti 

(4) :34, 1976 1170 

(6) :8-10, 1976 1450 

(6) :25-26, 1976 1249 

Bor'ba gazom, pyl'yu i 
vybrosami v ugol'n 
shakhtakh 

(11) :15-20, 1975 1171 

Brand aus 

84 (8) :304-305, 1976 

1483 

84(9) :361-362, 1976 

1483 

Brandhilf e 

23 (9) :211-216, 1976 

1393 

23 (9) :229-231, 1976 

1451 

23(9):231, 1976 1414 

23 (10) :242-243, 1976 

1397 

Brandschutz 

30(8):212, 1976 1429 

30 (9) : 239-241, 1976 

1109 

Brandvaern 

2(2) :9-10, 1976 1380 

2 (2) :17-18, 1976 1327 

Brit J Ind Med 

33(2):65-71, 1976. ..1466 
33(2) :72-78, 1976. . .1467 
Brown Boveri Mitt 

62(9) : 422-427, 1976 

1195 



JOURNALS (cont'd) 
BVD/SPI Bull 

(2) :7-12, 1976 1294 

Can J Civ Eng 

3 (2) :219-228, 1976. .1216 
Chart Hech Eng 

22(8):23-25, 1976. ..1360 
Chem Eng 

83 (8) :81-82, 1976. . .1416 
Chemik 

28(9) : 333-337, 1975 

1307 

Combust Sci Technol 

12(4-5-6) :165-175, 1976. 
1121 

12(4-5-6) : 217-228, 1976. 
1464 

12(4-5-6) : 229-2U4, 1976. 

1465 

Concrete 

10(1):14-17, 1976. ..1502 
Constr Specifier 

29(4):46-50, 1976. ..1250 

29(7) : 18-29, 1976.. .1373 
Consult Eng 

40(5):27, 29, 1976. .1398 
Denki kikansya 

(234):30-37, 1975. ..1295 
Denryoku to tetsudo 

26(2):14-19, 1 976 . . . 1 1 1 1 
Draegerheft 

(305):1-12, 1976 1251 

Dupont Mag 

70(3):10-11, 1976. ..1196 
Electr Contract 

(1) :54, 1976 1252 

Electron Des 

24(9):88, 1976 1253 

Electron Des News 

21 (4) :104,106, 1976 

1254 

Elek-Prakt 

30(1):7-9, 1976 1357 

Elektrotech Z 

B28 (2) : M8, 1976 1452 

Face au risque 

(119):37-38, 1976. ..1308 

(120):35-39, 1976. ..1130 

(121):23-25, 1976. ..1361 

(122):18-19, 1976. ..1105 

(123):22-25, 1976. ..1484 

(123):26-30, 1976. ..1151 

(123):32-36, 1976. ..1091 

(123):39-45, 1976. ..1092 

(124):27-29, 1976. ..1229 

(124):33-36, 1976. ..1362 
Feuerwehr 

26(9) :259-260, 1976 

1255 

Fire 

68(848) :449-450, 1976. . . 
1309 

68(849) :511-512, 1976... 
1374 



1-29 



JOURNALS JOURNALS 

SOURCE INDEX 

JOURNALS (cont'd) JOURNALS (cont'd) JOURNALS (cont'd) 

Eire (cont'd) Heron Kunstst J 

68(850):573, 1976.. .1384 21(1):1-46, 1976 1218 10(1/2):6-7, 1976. ..1173 

69(853) : 71-73, 1976 HLH Lakokrasoch materialy i 

1122 27(3):97, 102, 1976 ikh primenenie 

69(853):7t», 1976 1097 1328 (1):78-80, 1976 1174 

69 (853) :85-86, 1976 HLK Manage Sci 

1503 (2):67-68, 73, 1976 22 ( 12) : 13 1 0- 1 3 1 9, 1976.. 

69 (854) :ia2-m3, 1976... 1312 1436 

1487 Holzrundschau Mat Consts/Mat Struct 

69(856) :237-238, 1976... 32 (699) :699-710 , 771- 9 (5 1) : 177- 182, 1976 

1392 772, 1976- 1172 1226 

69 (856) :239-240, 1976 Hydrocarbon Process Mater Eng 

1375 54(8):72-75, 1975. ..1454 84(2):20-22, 1976. ..1385 

69 (856) :243-250, 1976... 55 ( 5) : 291 , 295, 2 97- 298 , Medd fran Statens brand- 

1394 1976 1504 namnd 

Fire Eng IEEE Trans Power Apparatus (1):1-11, 1976 1491 

129 (7) :5G-52, 1976.. 1098 and Systems Mitt Inst Bautech 

Fire J PAS -95 (2) : 621-629, 1976. 7 (5) : 1 34- 138, 1976. .1314 

70(2):28-33, 1976. ..1461 1358 Hod Plast 

70(2):36-41, 1976.. .1462 Ind Res 53 (9) : 95, 97-98 , 10 1 , 103, 

70(2):45-47, 1976.. .1463 18(9):68-70, 1976. ..1492 1976 1192 

Fire Prot Rev Inf Costr Naeringsmiddelindustrien 

39(428):307, 1976. ..1399 (266) : 93-104, 1976. .1291 29 ( 1/2) : 3, 5, 1 1 , 1976 

39(430):395, 397, 399, Instalador 1175 

1976 1310 (96) :1 15-1 18, 1976. .1379 29(3):1,3-4, 1976. ..1315 

39 (430) :410-411, 1976... Instrum Control Syst Nihon kenchiku gakkai 

1400 49(8):41-43, 1976. ..1365 ronbun hokokushu 

39(430) :414-415, 1976... J Am Concr Inst (229):1-14, 1975 1131 

1311 72(4) : 164-165, 1975 Not AICAP 

39(432) : 506-508, 1976... 1106 3(3):4-9, 1976 1220 

1417 J Combust Toxicol Nursing Homes 

39(433) : 544-546, 1976... 3(2):89-102, 1976. ..1188 25(1):11-13, 19, 1976... 

1363 3(2): 103-116, 1976 1443 

39 (433) : 552-553, 1976... 1469 Oesterr Feuerwehr 

1099 3 (2) :117-124, 1976. .1470 30(4):67-71, 1976. ..1288 

Fire Technol 3 (2) : 1 25- 1 34, 1976.. 1471 Ohm: denki zasshi 

12(2):85-94, 1976.. .1381 3 ( 2) : 1 35-1 50, 1976. .1187 63(3):1-3, 1976 1112 

12(2) :95-108, 1976. .1244 3 (2) : 1 51 - 1 56, 1976. .1472 63(3):4-5, 1976 1113 

12 (2) :109-112, 1976 3 (2) : 1 57- 1 65, 1976. .1473 63(3):6-11, 1976 1287 

1468 3 (2) :166-188, 1976. .1235 63 (3) : 22-23, 1 91 , 1976... 

12 (2) :113-123, 1976 3 (2) : 1 89-1 95, 1976. .1474 1176 

1126 J Faculty Eng, Univ Tokyo, 63(3):24-31, 1976. ..1177 

12(2) : 124-132, 1976 SerB 63(3):46-57, 1976. ..1329 

1418 33(1) : 45-103, 1975. .1219 63(3):58-59, 1976. ..1330 

12(2) :133-140, 1976 J Fire Flaramability 63 (3) : 60-1 18 , 1976. .1430 

1197 7 (2) :165-180, 1976. .1189 6 3 ( 3) : 1 20- 147, 1976 

12(2) :141-150, 1976 7 (2) : 1 81- 1 99, 1976. .1152 1332 

1419 7 (2) :217-233, 1976. .1190 6 3 (3) : 1 48- 1 55, 1 81 , 1976. 

Gas Erdgas 7 (2) : 2 34- 247, 1976. .1127 1333 

117 (7) :295-297, 1976 7 (2) : 248-2 56, 1976. .1236 6 3 (3) : 1 56-167 , 1976 

1217 7 (2) :257-278, 1976. .1237 1334 

Geriatrics 7 (2) : 279- 287, 1976. .1114 63 (3) : 1 68-1 80, 1976 

31 (5) : 106-110, 1976 J Fire Retard Chem 1331 

1296 3(1):5-21, 1976 1198 63 (3) : 1 92-203, 1976 

Glueckauf 3(1):34-43, 1976 1191 1335 

112 (14) :810-816, 1976... J Text Inst 63 ( 3) : 204-207, 1976 

1453 67 (9) :309-318, 1976 1431 

Haikan gijutsu 1153 63 (3) : 208-209 , 213 , 1976. 

18(3) :153-166, 1976 Kogyoyosui 1336 

1364 (209):11-16, 1976. ..1366 6 3 (3) : 2 14-239, 1976 

Hansa Kunstst 1256 

113 (6) :471-472, 1976 66 ( 10) : 679 -682 , 1976 6 3 (3) : 2 40-245, 1976 

1386 1199 1359 

1-30 



JOURNALS PATENTS 

SOORCE INDEX 

JOURNALS (cont'd) JOURNALS (cont'd) JOURNALS (cont'd) 

Ohm: denki zasshi (cont'd) SBB Nachrichtenbl VGB Kraf twerkstechnik 

63 (3) :2U6-263, 1976 53(2):26-27, 1976. ..1456 56 (7) : 425-432, 1976 

1257 Sb tr VNII protivopozhar 1378 

63(3) : 298-305,309, 1976. oborony Yuatsuka sekkei 

1337 (6):1-111, 1975 1383 ia(3):50-53, 1976. ..1342 

63 (3): 310-313, 1976 Schadenprisma Zem Kalk Gips 

1415 5(2):21-25, 1976 1496 19 (6) : 269-272, 1976 

63 (4) :89-95,- 1976.. .1338 5(2):26-30, 1976 1355 1259 

Packs (Japan) 5(3):46-51, 1976.. ..1181 Zentralbl Arbeitsmed 

20(1):182, 1976 1339 5(3):54-57, 1976 1094 Arbeitsschutz 

PCI J 5(3):57-59, 1976 1370 25 (9) : 275-277, 1976 

(1):40-49, 19'76 1230 Schiff Hafen 1485 

Plaste Kautsch 28(2):148, 1976 1387 26 (6) : 1 33-136, 1976 

23(3) : 192-197, 1976 Schweiz Feuerwehr Z 1299 

1200 102 (3) :99-100, 1976 Zesz probl gorn 

Plastforum 1441 13(2):3-20, 1975 1123 

7(3):30-33, 1976 1178 102 (3) : 10 2 , 103 , 105, 107, ZS Magazin 

Powder Metall 109,111, 1976 1371 (9):36-3B, 1976 1442 

19(2):70-73, 1976.. .1179 Sharyokogaku 

19(2):73-74, 1976.. .1493 44 (1 1) : 14-18, 1976. .1225 

Pozhar delo Soda to enso 

(5):19-21, 1976 1455 26 (1 1) : 352-362, 1975 

Pribory i sistemy upr 1297 MEETINGS 

(2) :40-41, 1976 1313 26 ( 1 2) : 393-402 , 1975.... American Chemical Society 

Prof Saf 1298 National Meeting, 

21(2):24-28, 1976. ..1340 Steir Feuerwehrbl 172nd, Abstracts of 

21(3):32-38, 1976.. .1367 25 ( 10) : 21 3-214 , 1976 Papers 

Prom Energ 1457 1976, Aug 29-Sep 3, San 

(2) :9-12, 1976 1180 Str-vo truboprovodov Francisco, CA 

Prot Civ Secur Ind (3):15-16, 1976 1231 Paper 

(250):7-26, 1976 1093 Technica (Switz) 7 1132 

(250):27-29, 1976. ..1439 25(3):165, 1976 .1154 19 1238 

Protivpozar na zastita Tech Ueberwach 38 1203 

16(6):33-34, 1976. ..1495 17 (4) : 1 15- 1 18, 1976 39 1133 

16(6):35-37, 1976. ..1356 1494 46 1420 

Przegl budowl Tijdschr watervoor en 88 1156 

48 (3) : 111-114, 1976 af valwaterbehandel Fire Retardant Chemicals 

1221 9 (9) :180-182, 1976. .1432 Assoc Meeting, Semi- 

Prz poz Tokyo daigaku kogakubu Annual, Papers 

64(2):4-6, 1976 1115 kiyo, A 1976, Mar 13-17, Wil- 

64(3):13-14, 1976. ..1368 (13):8-9, 1975 1155 liamsburg, VA 

Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan) Ugol Paper 

(11):25-28, 1974 1341 (3):65-70, 1976 1458 1-15 1204 

Rev ind Ugol Ukraina 

29 (241) : 5-14, 1976. ,1499 (1):34-35, 1976 1459 

Rev Tech Feu Unser Brandschutz 

17 (154) :13-45, 1976 26(3):20-21, 1976. ..1372 

1258 26(8):12, 1976 1182 PATENTS 

17 (155) :18-39, 1976 26(8):28-29, 1976. ..1460 French 

1316 VDI Z 2,233,300 1319 

17 (155) :39-41, 1976 30(39):17, 1976 1202 2,235,317 1434 

1317 Verfahrenstechnik (Mainz) 2,240,491 1260 

17 (155) :50-51, 1976 10 (6) : 394 , 396 , 398,400 , 2,247,609 1320 

1201 406, 1976 1289 2,250,869 1205 

17(158):50, 1976 1107 Versicherungswirtsch 2,251,060 1261 

Sangyo kikai 31 (15) : 833-838, 1976 2,251,767 1345 

(305):49-51, 1976... 1401 1500 2,254,073 1262 

Sapeur Pompier VFDB Z FRG 

87 (674) :20-21, 1976;525_ 25 (3) : 84- 1 00, 1976. .1402 1,708,046 1410 

Sapeur Pompier.. . 1369 25 (3) : 100-102, 1976 2,120,455 1344 

87(675) :28-32, 1976 1116 2,233,284 1343 

1369 25(3) : 102-105, 1976 2,310,729 1433 



1318 



1-31 



PATENTS 



REPORTS 



SOURCE INDEX 



PATEN 
GDE 

113 
Irish 

3U, 
Japan 

50- 
Swedi 

311 
Swiss 

570 
UK 

1,4 

US 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 
3,9 

USSR 
479 
487 



TS (cont'd) 

,399 1321 

757 mau 

ese 

28320 1263 

sh 

,888 1346 

,173 1445 

10,469 1421 

52,808 1264 

52,809 1347 

53,844 1265 

54,662 1423 

55,987 1206 

56, 138 1424 

57,522 1207 

57,657 1425 

57,658.. 1426 

58,643 1348 

59,788 1266 

60,216 1349 

60,217 1376 

61,642 1435 

61,669 1350 

61,685 1403 

63,095 1404 

63,097 1446 

63,626 1422 

64,036 1267 

64,214.. 1322 

64,549 1245 

65,631 1292 

65,632 1293 

65,988 1351 

66,017 1405 

66,018 1406 

67,255 1268 

68,793 1411 

68,841 1323 

68,856 1447 

69,858 1324 

71,443 1352 

,874 .1353 

,633 1448 



REPORTS 

Advisory Group for Aeros- 
pace R and D (AGAPD) 

AGARD-ograph-221 ... .1388 
Air Force Inst Tech 

AD-A030 355/2GA 1395 

GCE HC/76S-2-V01-2. . 1395 
Auerbach Assoc, Inc 

AAI FR-4318 1408 



REPORTS (cont'd) 

Brown Univ 

TR-1 1160 

Building Res Estab (UK) 

ERE CP-50/76 1269 

BRE CP-62/76 1505 

BRE CP-63/76 1135 

BRE CP-66/76 1506 

BRE CP-70/76 1136 

BRE LP-39/76 1134 

BRE R-6 1227 

Building Res Estab (UK) , 
Boreham Wood, UK 
BRE CP-45/76 1124 

Case Western Reserve Univ 
RP-75-1 -12 .1140 

Construct Eng Res Lab 
(Army) 

AD-A028 386/1GA 1158 

CERL TR-M-129.. 1158 

Dept of Housing and Con- 
struction (Australia) 

TR 44/153/424(L) 1325 

TR 44/153/425(L) 1326 

Dept of Interior 

DOCKET MIN-2395 1272 

PAT APPL-689 757/GA 

1272 

PB-255 369/1 1272 

Dept of Navy 

AD-D002 746/6 1475 

AD-D002 880/3 1354 

PAT APPL-689 692/GA 

1475 

PAT APPL-691 122/GA 

1354 

Factory Mutual Res Corp 
FMRC 21011 .7 1232 

Fed Aviation Admin 

AD-A029 162/5GA 1108 

FAA RD-75-156 1108 

Fire Res Sta, Boreham 
Wood, UK 
Fire Res Note 1040.. 1478 
Fire Res Note 1055.. 1428 
Fire Res Note 1056.. 1407 

Internat City Man Assoc 
ICMA 18759/MIS-776/N. . . . 

1095 

PB-256 473/OGA 1095 

Lockheed-California Co 

AD-A029 242/5GA 1389 

FAA RD-76-54 1389 

LR-27477 1389 

Monsanto Res Corp 

AD-A030 094/7GA 1208 

Nat Acad Sci 

AD-A027 181/7GA 1184 

N76-28 4 33/0GA 1246 

NASA CR-148513 1246 

USCG D-82-76 1184 

Nat Aeronautics and Space 
Admin 
N76-25354 1390 



REPORTS (cont'd) 

Nat Aeronautics (cont'd) 
NASA TM-X-73126, A-6555. 
1390 

Nat Bureau of Standards 

NBSIR 76-1021 1118 

NBSIR 76-1052 1234 

NBSIR 76-1126 1270 

NBSIR 76-1172 1271 

PB-255 864/1GA 1290 

PB-256 130/6GA 1117 

PB-256 425/OGA 1222 

PB-257 101/6GA 1118 

PB-257 125/5GA 1139 

PB-258 118/9GA 1234 

Nat Res Council Canada 

BR Note 108 1223 

BR Note 111 1193 

BR Note 115 1119 

DBR Paper 685 1477 

NRC CNR TT-1855 1138 

Nat Tech Information 
Service 

NTIS PS-76/0597/5GA 

1377 

NTIS PS-76/0702/1GA 

1103 

NTIS PS-76/0703/9GA 

1104 

Nav Res Lab 

AD-A027 411/8GA 1183 

NRL-8013 1183 

Navy Clothing and Textile 
Res Facility 

AD-A027 211/2GA 1412 

DOD AGFSRS-76-17 1412 

Ohio State Univ 

PRC RP-75-1-36 1141 

State of California Dept 
of Consumer Affairs 
SP-76-5 1479 

Univ Engrs Inc 

AD-A030 619/1GA 1391 

UE-293-FR 1391 

USCG D-94-76 1391 

Univ Karlsruhe, FRG 

AGF 27 1157 

AGF 28 1427 

AGF 29 1233 

Univ of California (Berke- 
ley) 

NBS GCR-76-73 1488 

PB-257 424/2GA 1488 

UCB FRG 76-2 1137 

Univ of California, Santa 
Barbara 

ARB R-2096-75-51 1476 

PB-254 821/2GA 1476 

Univ of Maryland 

NBS GCR-76-77 1159, 

1164 

NBS GCR-76-78 1239 

PB-257 767/4GA 1159, 

1164 



1-32 



REPORTS SYMPOSIA 

SOURCE INDEX 

REPORTS (cont'd) SYMPOSIA (cont'd) 

Dniv of Maryland (cont'd) Fire Safety of (cont'd) 

PB-257 836/7GA 1239 burgh, Scotland 

DSDA Forest Serv Pages 

PSW-119 ^UUO 1-11 13 00 

12-19 1301 

20-25 1302 

26-40 1303 

41-54 1304 

SEMINARS 55-65 1305 

International Construction 66-83 1306 

Science College Semin- 84-99 1161 

ar, Proc 114-121 1210 

1975, Nov 18-20, Saint- 122-130 1501 

Remy-les-Chevreuse, 131-14 1497 

France 141-148 1240 

Pages 149-155 1498 

1-272 156-161 1185 

Paper 162-168 1241 

1-12 1100 17 9-186 1507 

Turbulent Buoyant Convec- 187-198 1162 

tion Sem, Internat, 199-205 1211 

1976, Proc 206-217 1212 

1976, Aug 30-Sep 4, 218-225 1186 

Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia 226-230 1142 

Pages 231-252 1480 

457-471 1125 25 3-2 57 1194 

258-265 1481 

266-278 1128 

279-286 1143 

287-295 1144 

SYMPOSIA 296-303 1163 

American Assoc for the 304-309 1165 

Advancement of Science 310-316 1166 

Symp 317-324 1167 

1976, Feb 24, Boston, MA 333-340 1168 

120 9 341-347 1145 

Fire Detection for Life 348-354 1146 

Safety Symp, Proc, 1977 355-366 1169 

1975, Mar 31-Apr 1, 367-374 1213 

Washington, DC 375-383 1147 

Pages 384-390 1242 

1-238 1101 391-401 1148 

3-14 1273 

15-22 1489 

23-37 1486 

38-41 1490 

42-62 1277 

63-69 1278 

70-77 1274 

78-92 1275 

93-127 1276 

128-139 1279 

151-161 1280 

162-170 1281 

171-187 1282 

188-198 1283 

199-209 1284 

210-226 1285 

227-238 1286 

Fire Safety of Combustible 
Materials Symp, Inter- 
nat, 1st, Proc 
1975, Oct 15-17, Edin- 

1-33 



AAI FR-a318 USCG D-94-76 

REPORT NUMBER INDEX 

TP 44/153/425 (L) 1326 



AAI FR-4318 1408 ICMA 1 87 59/MIS-776/N . . 1 095 

AD-A027 181/7GA 1184 UCB FRG 76-2 1137 

AD-A027 211/2GA 1412 UE-293-FR 1391 

AD-A027 411/8GA 1183 USCG D-82-76 1184 

AD-A028 386/1GA 1158 USCG D-94-76 1391 

AD-A029 162/5GA 1108 LR-27477 1389 

AD-A029 242/5GA 1389 

AD-A030 094/7GA 1208 

AD-A030 355/2GA 1395 

AD-A030 619/1GA 1391 

AD-D002 746/6 1475 N76-25354 1390 

AD-D002 880/3 1354 N76-2 843 3/OG A 1246 

AGARD-OGRAPH-221 1388 NASA CR-148513 1246 

AGF 27 1157 NASA TM-X-73126, A-6555... 

AGF 2 8 142 7 13 90 

AGF 29 1233 NBS GCE-76-73 1488 

APL/JHU FPP B76-2 1096 NBS GCE-76 -77. . . 1 1 59 , 1164 

ARE E-2096-75-51 1476 NBS GCR-76-78 1239 

NBSIR 76-1021 1118 

NBSIR 76-1052 1234 

NBSIR 76-1126 1270 

NBSIR 76-1172 1271 

BR NOTE 108 1223 N HC CNS TT-1855 1138 

BR NOTE 111 1193 NPL-8013 1183 

BR NOTE 115 1119 NTIS PS-76/0597/5G A. . . 1 377 

ERE CP-45/76 1124 NTIS PS- 76/0702/1G A . . . 1 1 03 

ERE CP-50/76 1269 NTIS PS-76/0703/9G A. . . 1 10 4 

ERE CP-62/76 1505 

ERE CP-63/76 1135 

ERE CP-66/76 1506 

ERE CP-70/76 1136 

ERE LP-39/76 1134 PAT APPL-689 692/G A . . . 1 475 

BRE R-6 1227 PAT AFPL-689 757/G A. . . 1 272 

PAT APPL-691 122/GA. . .1354 

PE-254 821/2GA 1476 

PB-255 369/1 1272 

PB-255 864/1GA 1290 

CEBL TR-H-129 1158 PB-256 1 30/6GA 1117 

PE-256 425/OGA 1222 

PE-256 473/OGA 1095 

PB-257 101/6GA 1118 

PB-257 125/5GA 1139 

DEE PAPER 685 1477 PB-257 424/2GA 1488 

DOCKET MIN-2395 1272 PB-257 767/4GA . . 1 1 59 , 1164 

DOD AGFSRS-76-17 1412 PB-257 836/7GA 1239 

PB-258 1 18/9GA 1234 

PRC RP-75-1-36 1141 

PSW-1 19 1440 

FAA RD-75-156 1108 

FAA RD-76-54 1389 

FIFE RES NOTE 1040. ...1478 

FIRE RES NOTE 1055 1428 EP-75-1-12 1140 

FIEE RES NOTE 1056 1407 

FMRC 21011.7 1232 

SP-76-5 1479 



GCE HC/76S-2-VOL-2... .1395 



TR-1 1160 

TR 44/153/424(L) 1325 



1-35 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATION*^ 

Iccid *nal Prev ... Accident Analysis and Banplanung Bautech .. Eauplanung £ Eaute- 

Preventicn chnik [ Euilding Design S Euildiro 

Acta Dniv Opsaliensis .. Acta Universita- Engineering] 

tis Upsaliensis [Transactions of BEC-Nachr .. Erown-Eoveri und Coufagnie - 

Uppsala (Sweden) University] Nachrichten [Bulletin of the Ercvn- 

Adv Fire Retard Text, Frog Fire Betard Ecveri Company] 

Ser Advances in Fire Fetardant Beratende Ing Beratende Ingenieure 

Textiles, Progress in Fire Retar- [Consulting Engineers] 

dancy Series Berufsgenoss .. Beruf sgenossenschaf t [Eb- 

*llg fcrstztg ... Allgemeine Forstzeitung ployer's Liability Insurance] 

[General Forestry Gazetteer] Beton Zhelezcbeton . Eeton i Zhelezctetcn 

Im Chen Soc, Div Org Coat Plast Chen, [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete] 

Prepr ... American Chemical Society, Bezcp eksploat elektromekh oborud v shak- 

Eivisicn of Organic Coatings and htakh .... Bezopasnost ekspluatatsii 

Plastics Chemistry, Preprints elektromekhanicheskogo obor udcvani ya 

Ants und Bitteilungsbl Bundesanst Materi- v Shakhtakh [Safety of Operation of 

alpraef ..Amts- und Mitteilurgsblatt Electromechanical Equipment in 

der Bundesanstalt fuer Mater ialprue- Mines] 

fung [Official Gazette and Communi- Bezop tr prcm-sti ... Bezopasnost truda v 

cations of the Federal Bureau for promyshlennosti [Occupational Safety 

Materials Testing] in Industry] 

Anesth Analg ... Anesthesia and Analgesia Bor'ba gazom, pyl'yu i vybrosami v ugcl*n 

inn Surg Annals of Surgery shakhtakh . Eor'ba s gazcm, pyl'yu i 

Antincendio protez civ .... Antincendio e vybrosami v ugcl'nykh shakhtakh 

Frotezione Civile [Fire and Public [Prevention of Gas, Dust ard Cis- 

Erotection] charges in Coal Mines] 

Apave . Revue technique du groupeaent des Brandaus Brandaus [All Cut] 

associations de proprietaires d'ap- Brandforsvar . Brandforsvar [Fire Erotec- 

pareils a vapeur et electrigues tion] 

[Technical Review of the Group of Brandforsvar, FoO-Brand ... Brandforsvar, 

Associations cf Steam and Electrical FoO-Erand [ Fire Protection, Research 

Equipment Owners] Bulletin] 

Ippl Ergon Applied Ergonomics Brandhilfe . Erandhilfe [Fire Assistance] 

Arch Hal Prof Med Trav Secur Sec Brandschutz ... Brandschutz [Fire Erctec- 

.. Archives des Maladies Profession- tion] 

nelles, de Hedecine du Travail et de Brandvaern . Brandvaern [Fire Prctection] 

Securite Sociale [Archives of Brandverhuetung ... Brandverhueturg [Fire 

Professional Diseases, Industrial Prevention] 

Medicine and Public Safety] Brandwacht Brandwacht [Firewatch] 

Arch Surg Archives of Surgery Bramielt Brauwelt [Brewirg Kcrld] 

Arch Termodyn Spal .. Archiwum termodyna- Brit J Ind Med British Journal cf 

iiiki i spalania [Archives cf Ther- Industrial Medicine 

modynamics and Combustion] Bro«n Boveri Bitt Brown-Boveri Mit- 

ASCE Proc. J Struct Div American teilungen [Communications frctc the 

Society of Civil Engineers. Proceed- Erown-Eoveri Company] 

ings. Journal of the Structural Bull mens Chambre Commerce ind Meurthe- 

Division et-Moselle .. Bulletin mensuel de la 

ASHEAE J ... American Society of Heating, Chambre du Commerce Industriel de 

Refrigerating and Air-Conditicning Meurthe-et-Moselle [Monthly Eulletin 

Engineers Journal of the Industrial Chamber cf Ccit- 

ASBE Trans. Ser C. J Heat Transfer merce of Meurtheet-Moselle ] 

American Society of Mechanical BVD/SPI Bull .... Brandverhuetungsdienst/ 

Engineers. Transactions. Series C. Services de Protection Incendie 

Journal cf Heat Transfer Eulletin [ Fire Prevention Service 

ASBE Trans. Ser H. J Eng Bater Tecfanol Bulletin] 

American Society of Mechanical Cah Cent Sci Tech Batim Cahiers du 

Engineers. Transactions. Series H. Centre Scientifique et Technique du 

Journal of Engineering Materials and Batiment [Communications cf the 

Technology Scientific and Technical Euilding 

ASTM Standardization News American Center] 

Society for Testing and Materials. Can J Civ Eng . Canadian Journal cf Civil 

Standardization News Engineering 

xJtli 

1-37 



EXEANSICNS OF JOURNAL AEEEE VlftT IONS 

Chart Mech Eng Chartered Mechanical ter ] 

Engineer Fire Fir€ 

Chen Erg Chemical Engineering Fire Chief Fire Chief 

Chemik Chemik (Pcland) [Chemist] Fire CoBBand Fire CcnEand 

Chem-Ing-Tech .. Cheniie-Ingenieur-Technik Fire Eng Fire Engineering 

[ Chemistry-Engineer-Technology ] Fire Eng J Fire Engineers Jcurnal 

CheiB lech ... Chemische Technik [Chemical Fire Internal Fire International 

Engineering] Fire J Fire Journal 

CoBbast FlaBe , Combustion and Flame Fireline Fireline 

Coabust Sci Technol .. Combustion Science Fire Hater Fire and Materials 

and Technology Fire Prev Fire Prevention 

Concrete Concrete Fire Prev Sci Technol ... Fire Prevention 

CoBstr Specifier . Construction Specifier Science and Technology 

Consult Eng Consulting Engineer Fire Prot Eev .... Fire Protection Feview 

Cour Nora .. Courrier de la Nor nal isation Fire Technol Fire Technology 

[Standardization Eulletin] For Sci Forest Science 

Denki zasshi Denki gakkai zasshi Fune no kagaku ... Fune no kagaku [farine 

[Journal of the Institute cf Elec- Engineering] 

trical Engineers cf Japan] Gas Erdgas .... Gas- und Wasserfach, Gas- 

Denki kikansya .... Denki kikansya [Elec- Erdgas [Gas and Water Technology, 

trical' Machinery ] Gas - Natural Gas] 

Denryoku to tetsudo . Denryoku to tetsudc Geriatrics Geriatrics 

[Electric Lighting and Facilities in Glueckauf .. Glueckauf [Journal cf Mining 

Railways] Engineering and Industry] 

Densetsa kogyc .... Densetsu kogyo [Elec- Glueckauf Forschungsh ... Gluechauf -Fcrs- 

trical Construction Engineering] chungshefte [Glueckauf Research 

Dimensions/NES Dimensions/National Journal] 

Bureau of Standards Gorno spasat delo ... Gorno-spasatel 'noye 

DIM Mitt Deutsche Industrie-Ncrmen dele [Mine Rescue] 

Mitteilungen [German Standards Haikan gijitsu ... Haikan gijitsu [Piping 

Eulletin] Engineering] 

Diteru Diteru [Detail: Magazine for Hansa .. Ransa [Journal of Shipping, Ship 

Architects and Engineers] Construction and Harbors] 

Draegerheft ... Draegerheft [Draeger Bui- Heron Heron [Journal of the TNC fcr 

letin] Building Materials and Building 

Dtsch Ausschuss Stahlbeton .... Deutscher Structures, The Netherlands] 

Ausschuss fuer Stahlbeton [German Hessische Feuetwehr Z .. Hessische Feuer- 

Reinforced Concrete Ccmmittee] viehr-Zeitschrif t [Hessian Fire 

Dtsche Farben Z ... Deutsche Farben-Zeit- Service Journal] 

schrift [German Paint Journal] HLH . . Zeitschrif t fuer Heizung, lueftung, 

Dupont Hag Dupont Magazine Klimatechnik und Haustechnik [Jcur- 

Electr Commun .. Electrical Communication nal of Heating, Ventilaticr, Air 
Electr Contract ... Electrical Contractor Conditicning and Household Engineer- 
Electron Des Electronics Design ing] 

Electron Des News .... Electronics Design HLK Heizung-Lueftung-Kliraatisaticn 

News [Heating, Ventilating, Air Ccrditic- 

Electrcn Ind .... Electrcrics in Industry ning] 

Electron Power .... Electronics and Pcwer Holzrundschau Holzrundschau [Wood 

Elek-Prakt .. Elektro-Praktiker [Electri- Review] 

cal Practitioner] Hydrocarbon Process . Hydrocarbon Prcces- 

Elektrotech Z ... Elektrotechnische Zeit- sing 

schrift [ Electrotechnical Journal] IEEE Proc ... Institute of Electrical and 

Elektr Stn Elektricheskiye Stantsii Electronics Engineers. Proceedings 

[Electrical Pcwer Stations] IEEE Trans Biomed Eng Institute cf 

Eng Min J Engineering and Mining Electrical and Electronics Ergin- 

Jcurnal eers. Transactions on Bicnedical 

Environ Health Perspect ... Envircnmenta 1 Engineering 

Health Perspectives IEEE Trans Power Appar Sys ..Institute cf 

Exchange Exchange Electrical and Electronics Engin- 

Face au Bisque ... Face au Risque [Facing eers. Transactions on Power fippara- 

the Risk. Journal of the French tus and Systems 

National Prevention and Prctectior Ind Digest . Industrie Digest [Industrial 

Center ] Digest ] 

Feuerwehr Die Feuerwehr [The Fire Ind Eng Industrial Engineering 

Service] Ind Eng Chea Prod Res Eev .... Irdtstrial 

Feuerwehrmann .. Feuer wehrmann [Firefigh- and Engineering Chemistry, Product 

1-38 



EXPANSIONS OF JODENAL ABBEEVIftTIONS 

Fesearch and Develcpment Japan 

Ind Pes Industrial Fesearch J Text Inst .Journal of the Textile 

Ind Vernice Industria della Vernice Institute 

[Varnish Industry] Kasai Kasai [Journal of the Japanese 

Inf Ccnstr ...Informes de la Construccion Association of Fire Science and 

[Construction News] Engineering] 

Inf Process Manage .. Infcrniaticn Proces- Keisoku jido seigyo gakkai lOEbunshu 

sing Management ..Keisoku jidc seigyo gakkai rcrbun- 

Ing Digest . Ingenieur Digest [Engineer's shu [Transactions of the Society of 

Digest/Materiels Nouveaux et Tech- Instrument and Control Engineers] 

nigues Mondiales/Ingenieur Digest] Khim prom .. Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost 

Instroi Control Syst Instruments and [Chemical Industry] 

Control Systems Koatsu gasu .. Koatsu gasu/Journal of the 
Instrui Techncl .. Instrumentation Techn- Institute of Safety in High Pressure 

ology Gas Engineering (Japan) 

Internat Fire Chief .. International Fire Kogyo yosoi Kogyc yosui [Industrial 

Chief Water] 

ISA Trans Instrument Society of Kriminalistik . . Kriminalistik [Crinicolc- 

Jmerica. Transactions gy] 

Istalador Instalador [Installers' Kuki tyoiia to reito . . Kuki tyowa tc reitc 

Journal] [Air Conditioning and Ref rigeraticn ] 

J An Concr Inst ..Journal of the Airericar Kunstst Kunststoffe [Elastics] 

Concrete Institute Kunstst J . . . Kunststof f-Journal [Elastics 
J Am Med Assoc .. Journal of the American Journal] 

Medical Association Kunstst Plast Kunststof fe-Elastics 

J Br Fire Serv Assoc and Ind Fire Erot Lakokrasoch material; i ikh prineneniye 

Assoc .. Journal of the British Fire .... Lakokrasochnyye materialy i ikh 

Service Association and the Indus- primeneniye [Paints and Varnishes 

trial Fire Protection Asscciaticn and Their Application] 

J Cbei Educ .. Journal of Chemical Educa- Manage Sci Management Science 

tion Maschinenmarkt .. Maschinenmarkt [Kachin- 
J CoBbust Toxicol . Journal of Ccmbusticr ery Market] 

Toxicology (Quarterly Supplement to Naschinenschaden Maschinenschaden 

the Journal of Fire and Flamma- [Machine Failure] 

bility) Mat Consts/Mat Struct Materiaux et 

J Consumer Prod Flamaability . Journal of Constructions/Materials and Struc- 

Ccnsumer Product Flammability (Cuar- tures 

terly Supplement to the Journal of Hater Eng Materials Engineering 

Fire and Flammability) Medd fran Statens brandnamnd .Meddelanden 
J Faculty Eng, Dniv Tokyo, Ser B .Journal fran Statens Erandnamnd [ ComiiuEica- 

of the Faculty of Engineering, tions from the State Fire Adminis- 

Cniversity of Tokyo, Series E [Tokyo tration] 

Eaigaku Kogakubu Kiyc, B (published Melliand Textilber Melliand lextil- 

in English)] berichte [Melliand Textile Jcurral] 

J Fire FlamBability . Journal of Fire and Mitt Inst Eautech Mitteilungen des 

Flammability Instituts fuer Bautechnik [Communi- 

J Fire Retard Chem Journal of Fire cations of the Institute fcr Puild- 

Eetardant Chemistry (Quarterly Sup- ing Technology] 

plement to the Journal of Fire and Mitt Inst Rasserbau Oniv Stuttgart 

Flammability) .... Mitteilungen des Instituts fuer 

J For Journal of Forestry Hasserbau der Universitaet Stuttgart 

J Mines Met Fuels Journal of Mines, [Communications of the Hydrological 

Metals and Fuels Institute of Stuttgart University] 

J Occup Med Journal of Occupational Mod Plast Modern Elastics 

Medicine Naeringsniddelindustrien . . . . Naer irgsmid- 

J Pediatr Journal of Pediatrics delindustrien [Foodstuff Industry] 

J Polya Sci: Polym Chem Ed ... Journal of Nat Saf News National Safety News 

Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Nav Eng J Naval Engineers Journal 

Edition Nav, ports, chant Navires, Eorts et 

J Polya Sci: Polym lett Ed ... Journal of Chantiers [Ships, Ports and Yards] 

Polymer Science: Polymer Letters Nihon kencbiku gakkai ronbun hokckushu 

Edition Nihon kenchiku gakkai rcnbun 

J Prestr Concr Inst Journal of the hokokushu [Transactions cf the 

Prestressed Concrete Institute Architectural Institute of Japar] 

J Soc Automot Eng Jap .... Journal of the Not AICAP .. Notizario AICAP [Bulletin cf 

Society of Automotive Engineers of the AICAP] 

1-39 



EXPANSIONS OF JODRNAL ABBPE VIATIGNS 



Nuclear Saf Nuclear Safety 

Nursing Homes Nursing Homes 

Oesterr Feuerwehr Oesterreichische 

Feuerwehr [Austrian Fire Service] 
Ohm: denki zasshi Ohm: denki zasshi 

[Ohm Journal] 

Offshore Serv Offshore Service 

Oper Ees Operations Research 

Packs (Japan) Packs [Eakkusu] 

Paper lechnol Paper Technology 

PCI J Prestressed Concrete Institute 

Journal 
Plaste Kautsch Plaste und Kautschuk 

[Elastics and Rubber] 
Plastforum . .Plastforum [Plastics Review] 
Plast lechnol ....... Plastics Technology 

Polizei Tech Verkehr .. Eolizei-Technik- 

Verkehr [Police and Traffic Safety 

Engineering Journal] 
Polya Eng Sci ... Polymer Engineering and 

Science 

Powder Metall Powder Metallurgy 

Pozhar delo . Pozharnoye Eelo [Firefight- 

ing ] 
Pozhar okhrana . Pczharnaya okhrana [Fire 

Protection ] 
Prakt Anaesth .... Praktische Anaesthesie 

[Practical Anesthesiology] 
Pribory i sisteiy opr ..Pribory i Sistemy 

Opravleniya [Control Instruments and 

Systems ] 

Prof Saf Professional Safety 

Prom energ .... Prcmyshlennaya energetika 

[Industrial Power] 
Prot Civ Secur Ind . Protection Civile et 

Securite Industrielle [Public 

Protection and Industrial Security] 
Protivpozarna Zastita Protivpozarna 

Zastita [Fire Protection] 
Przegl budowl .Przeglad budowlany [Build- 
ing Review ] 
Prz poz ...Przeglad pozarny [Fire Review] 
PTT Tech Mitt ... Technische Mitteilungen 

der Schweizer ischen Post-, Telephcn- 

und Telegraphenbetriebe [Technical 

Information Journal of the Swiss 

Postal, Telephone and Telegraph 

Service ] 
Publ Pers Manage Public Personnel 

Management 

E/D Research and Development 

Q Sep Bailw Tech Res Inst (Japan) . Nihon 

Kokuyu Tetsudo Gijutsu Kenkyusho 

[Cuarterly Reports of the Railway 

Technical Research Institute 

(published in English) ] 
Rep Fire Res Inst Japan . Shoto Kenkyushu 

Hokoku [Reports of the Fire Research 

Institute of Japan] 
Rep Fire Sci lab (Japan) ... Shobc Kagaku 

Kenkyushoho [Reports of the Fire 

Science Laboratory] 
Rev Beige Feu . . Revue Eelge du Feu [ Bel- 
gian Fire Review ] 
Hev Ind ...Revue Industrielle [Industrial 

Review ] 



Eev Sci InstruD .... Review of Scientific 
Instruments 

Rev Tech Peu Revue Technique du Feu 

[Fire Engineering Review] 

Rubber Age Rubber Age 

Sangyo kikai ....Sangyo kikai [Irdustrial 
Machinery ] 

Sapeur pompier [Firefighter] 

SBB Nachrichtenbl ... Schweizerische Eur- 
desbahn. Nachrichtenblatt [News 
Bulletin of the Swiss Federal Fail- 
way] 

Sb Tr VNII protivopozhar chcrcny 

Sbornik Trudov Vsesoyuznogc 

Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Irstituta 
Erotivopozharnoy Oborony [ Eigest cf 
Papers of the Ail-Union Fire Protec- 
tion Research Institute] 

SBZ Sanitaer-Technik, Heizungs - und 

Lueftungsbau [Sanitary Engineering, 
Heating and Ventilation Construc- 
tion ] 

Schadenprisna Schadenprisma [Carnage 

Prism - Journal of Damage Prevention 
and Research] 

Schiff Hafen .Schiff und Hafen [Ships and 
Ports] 

Schweiz Feuerwehr Z Schweizerische 

Feuerwehr Zeitung [ Swiss Fire 
Protection Journal] 

Science Science 

Seewirtsch Seewirtschaf t [Maritime 

Affairs ] 

Seisan to denki Seisan tc denki 

[Production and Electricity] 

Sharyo kogaka .Sharyo kogaku [Railway Car 
Engineering ] 

Sharyo to Denki .. Sharyo to Denki [Rail- 
way Car and Electric Equipment] 

Sichere Arb Sichere Arbeit [labor 

Safety] 

Siemens Bev Siemens Peviev 

Siemens Z .. Siemens Zeitschrift [Siemens 
Journal ] 

Sigurncst Sigurnost [Safety] 

Soda tc enso Soda to enso [ £cda anc 

Chlorine ] 

Stahl Eisen .. Stahl und Eisen [Steel and 
Iron ] 

Steir Feuerwerbl . . Steirisches Feuerwehr- 
blatt [Styrian Fire Services Jour- 
nal ] 

Str-vo trnboprovodov Stroitel 'stvc 

truboprovodov [Pipe Construction] 

Sad Med Ekspert ... Sudebno-Meditsinskaya 
Ekspertiza [ Expertise in Forensic 
Medicine ] 

Surg Clin North Am .. Surgical Clinics cf 
North America 

Surg Forum Surgical Forum 

Tech Mod Technique Hoderne [Kcdern 

Technology ] 

Technica (Switz) ..Technica (Switzerland) 
[ Technology ] 

Technocrat (Japan) . Technocrat (publish- 
ed in English) 



1-40 



EXPANSIONS OF JOORNAl ABBEEVIftTIONS 



Teck Qeberaach . . . Technische Deberwachung 
[Technical Security Supervision] 

Telecoaaan J .. Teleconimunicaticn Journal 

Text Chea Color Textile Chenist and 

Colorist 

Text Inst Ind Textile Institute and 

Industry 

Text Prax Int .Textil-Praxis Internation- 
al [International Textile Engineer- 
icg] 

Text Bes J Textile Research Journal 

Tijdschr watervoor en afvalwaterbehaadel 
. . .Tijdschrif t vocr watervoorziening 
en af valbehandeling [Hater Supply 
and waste Treatment Journal] 

Tokyo daigaka kogakabn kiyo, A .... Tokyo 
daigaku kogakubu kiyo, A [Journal of 
the Faculty of Engineering, Univer- 
sity of Tokyo, Series A] 

Tr Inzfa-ekon Fak Bizh Folitekbn In-ta 
... Trudy Inzhenerno-Ekonomicheskogc 
Fakul'teta Pizhskogc Politekhnich- 
eskogo Instituta [Transactions of 
the Faculty of Engineering Economics 
of the Figa Polytechnic Institute] 

Tr Tost Nil po bezop rabot v gorn proa-st 
..Trudy Vostochnogo Nauchno-Issledo- 
vatel'skcgo Instituta po bezopas- 
nosti rabot v gornoy promyshlennosti 
[Transactions of the Eastern Scien- 
tific Research Institute for Indus- 
trial Safety in the Mining Industry] 

Trans filJ Transactions of the AIJ 

Ogol Dgol [ Coal ] 

Dgol Dkraina Dgol Dkraina [Ukrainian 

Coal] 

Onser Brandschutx Onser Brandschutz 

[Cur Fire Protection] 

fDI Z . . Zeitschrift des Vereins Deutscher 



Ingenieure [Journal of the German 
Engineers Society ] 

Terfahrenstechnik (Bainz) . Verf ahrenste- 
chnik [Process Engineering] 

Versicherangsnirtsch . . Versicherungswirt- 
schaft [Insurance Industry] 

▼et Med Snail Anim Clin Veterinary 

Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 

YFBB S . . Zeitschrift der Vereinigung zur 
Foerderung des Deutschen Brandschut- 
zes [Journal of the Associaticn for 
the Advancement of Fire Prctecticn 
in Germany] 

TGB Kraftserkstechnik ....Vereinigung der 
Grosskraf twerksbetreiber - Kraftwer- 
kstechnik [Association of Kajcr 
Power-plant Operators. Power-Elant 
Engineering ] 

Vopr ekon pozhar okhrane Voprosy 

ekoncmiki v pozharnoy okhrane 
[Problems of Economics in Fire 
Protection] 

■est J Bed .. Western Journal of Medicine 

Yaatsa Gijatsa .. Yuatsu Gijutsu [ Eydrau- 
lics and Pneumatics] 

Taatsoka sekkei .... Yuatsuka sekkei [Hy- 
draulics and Pneumatics] 

Zea Kalk Gips . .Zement-Kalk-Gips [Cement- 
Lime-Gypsum ] 

Zentralbl irbeitsaed Arbeitsscfaotz 

... Zentralblatt fuer Arbeitsmedizin 
und Arbeitsschutz [Jourral of 
Industrial Medicine and Occupational 
Safety ] 

Zesz pcobl gorn Zeszyty Prctlemcue 

Gornictwa [Reports on Mining 
Research ] 

ZS Hagazin ... Zivilschutz Magazin [Civil 
Defense Journal] 



1-41 



NATIONAL FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL 

ADMINISTRATION 

Available Publications 

PERIODICALS 

Fireword: Official NFPCA newsletter. 

Resource Exchange Bulletin: Prepared by NFPCA's Public Education Office. 

BROCHURES 

Wake Up ! Smoke Detectors Can Save Your Life If . . . 

Smoke Detector Fact Sheet 

Winter Fire Safety Tips for the Home 

Summer Fire Safety Tips for the Home 

The National Fire Data System 

National Fire Prevention and Control Administration 

Teaching Fire Safety Education 

Abstract of the National Survey of Fire Education and Training Programs 

REPORTS 

Highlights of the National Household Fire Survey 

Arson: America's Malignant Crime 

Second Annual Report: The annual report of the Secretary of Commerce on the NFPCA. 

The Report of the Site Selection Board: National Academy for Fire Prevention and Control. 

The Human Factor in High Fire Risk Urban Neighborhoods: A Pilot Study in New Orleans, Louisiana 

Fire Fighter Mortality Report: Prepared by the International Association of Fire Fighters for the 
Center for Fire Research, National Bureau of Standards. A study of on-duty fire fighter deaths. 

Dynamics of Fire Prevention: Proceedings of the Second National NFPCA Conference held October 
1976. 

Third Symposium on Occupational Health and Hazards of the Fire Service 

Sources of Federal Funds for the Fire Services 

NFPCA publications are available free from: 

NFPCA 

Office of Information Services 
P.O. Box 19518 
Washington, D.C. 20036 

6 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1977 — 240-848/365 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 

ting and contradictory needs voiced by the public. 
;se contradictions can be reduced if the scientific and 
mical community assists in fighting sensationaUsm, giv- 

basic research top priority, communicating that how 
erials are used is as important as the properties of 

materials themselves, getting recognition for the fact 
; helping people exit from the fire areas may be more 
ortant than using 100% fire-safe materials, helping 
imize the extra costs that must be added to buildings 

fire safety, and focusing on residential fires as op- 
ed to further expenditures on highrise problems. 

0. Fishbein J 

E IMPACT ON MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OF 
E SAFETY REQUIREMENTS OF COMBUSTIBLE 
TERIALS 

' Safety of Comhustihle Materials Svmp, Internat, 1st, 
r, 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 114- 

•nsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 
ison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

ince any discussion of industry using combustible 
erials covers a span of activities so great as to be 
ost all-embracing, this talk is based on taking a particu- 
industry which has numerous applications and has been 
mately concerned with the problem of fire and safety 
a considerable time. An attempt is made to show 
impact of fire safety requirements on the flexible 
^urethane foam industry. (Author) 

1. Shafizadeh F, Chin PS and Degroot WF 
CHANISTIC EVALUATION OF FLAME RETAR- 
VTS 

• Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internat, 1st, 
?; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 199- 

nsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consuhancy and 
son with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

wo different mechanisms are involved in flameproofing 
;el]ulosic materials, controlling the pyrolytic reactions 
produce char, water and carbon dioxide, instead of 
imable volatiles, and preventing the combustion of the 
;r products in the gas phase. 

he effectiveness of flame retardants in controlling the 
jlytic reactions could be evaluated by the Ther- 
;ravimetric Analyzer (TG), which measures the char- 
effect, and by the Thermal Evolution Analyzer 
A), which measures the production of flammable 
itiles. The TEA instrument could be also calibrated 
jrovide the heat content of the combustible volatiles 
this value could be compared with the heat of pre- 
tion to show the net energy produced or the combusti- 
y of the substrate. 

fiis method has been used for evaluation of various 
le retardants. 17 refs. (Author) 

I. Drews MJ, Barker RH, Yeh K and Camas, BM 
t SIGNIFICANCE OF CALORIMETRIC MEASURE- 
NTS IN STUDIES OF THE MECHANISM OF FLAME 
PARDANT ACTION 

Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internat, 1st. 
:; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 206- 

nsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 
son with Dept Fire Saf Eng 



In a burning situation, once ignition occurs, the two 
closely related parameters which control the continued 
propagation of the flame front are the amount of heat 
released and the rate of this heat release. Of these two, 
the data currently available indicate that the rate of heat 
release is proportional to the total heat release for a given 
substrate. In no case has the rate been found to decrease 
without a corresponding decrease in the total heat 
evolved. This would appear to estabUsh the total heat 
release as the controlling factor in determining the 
flammability of a material. 

This paper is concerned with two approaches to the 
measurement of the heat given off by a burning fabric, 
and their appUcation to mechanistic studies on the mode 
of flame retardant action in various polymer substrates. 
In the first approach, the theoretical heat release, assum- 
ing complete combustion to CO2 and H2O of all the 
volatile products, is calculated using static oxygen bomb 
calorimetry. The second approach uses an isoperibol 
calorimeter to measure the heat release directly. 

The theory of these techniques, the assumptions implicit 
in their use and their inherent limitations are discussed. 
Selected data from the Uterature are reviewed with empha- 
sis placed on a critical evaluation of the results. 

Some current results of studies using these two methods 
to study the mode of flame retardant action on cot- 
ton/polyester blend fabrics are presented. 

In addition, the utility of these techniques to distinguish 
between condensed phase and vapor phase retardancy are 
also demonstrated. 6 figs, 10 refs. (Author) 

1213. Stepniczka HE 

FLAME-RETARDED UNSATURATED POLYESTER 

RESINS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 367- 

374 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The flammability characteristics of unsaturated polyester 
resins are of utmost importance in many application areas, 
and flame-retarded resins have been produced for approxi- 
mately two decades. Regulations by federal, state and 
local authorities, insurance group specifications and pres- 
sure, and industry-wide agreements, to a limited extent, 
have enforced the use of such resins, predominantly in 
construction, transportation, marine, and electrical appli- 
cations. The market for flame-retarded polyester resins 
is expected to grow significantly, especially when stricter 
flammability requirements for the construction and marine 
industries come into effect. The most important US 
flammability tests for polyester resins include the ASTM 
E-84 Test (construction, corrosion-resistant applications, 
mass transportation), the UL-94 Test (construction, elec- 
trical and electronic applications), MVSS 302 (automotive 
applications), the HLT-15 Test (construction, aviation, 
electrical applications), the lAPMO Torch Test 
(construction), the ASTM D-635 Test (construction, avia- 
tion, electrical applications and transportation) and the 
Oxygen Index Test (ASTM D-2163) for analytical and 
quality control purposes. Numerous other tests are also 
in use, but are of little overall importance. Three basic 
methods are available to obtain flame-retardant polyester 
resins. They include the use of additives such as inorganic 
fillers and halogen and/or phosphorus-containing organic 



235 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

e. Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 

compounds, the incorporation of halogenated reactive in- 
termediates into the polymer backbone, and post-bromina- 
tion of polyester resins. 2 tables, 40 refs. (Author) 

f. STABILITY OF MATERIALS AT ELEVATED 

TEMPERATURES 



RESISTANCE OF 



1214. Weise J and Vierke R 
FLAMMABILITY AND FIRE 
AERATED CONCRETE WALLS 

Bauplanung Bautech; 29(8):390-394, 1976 (German) 

The codes have so far contained inadequate information 
regarding the flammability and fire resistance of construc- 
tion components made of aerated concrete. In conjunction 
with the development of preliminary design guidelines for 
aerated concrete by the Institute for Steel Concrete in 
the years 1969-70, fire resistance values were estimated 
by the Building Academy of the GDR on the basis of 
test results and foreign data. In order to test and refine 
these data, fire tests of wall structures made of aerated 
concrete were carried out at the Institute for Mining 
Safety, the results of which are presented in this article. 
7 figs, 4 tables, 12 refs. 

1215. Paturoev VV, Krasil'nikova CM, Bushev VP and 
Zhemchenkova GI 

FLAMMABILITY OF POLYMER CONCRETES AND 
THE FIRE RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURES MADE 
FROM THEM 
Beton Zhelezobeton; (3):25-26, 1976 (Russian) 

As a result of the study, recommendations are made 
for flammability testing of specimens made from polymer 
concrete using a ceramic tube and a calorimeter. The 
ISO method is not recommended for evaluation of the 
flammability of polymer materials, polymer concrete and 
similar materials. It is necessary to improve the methods 
used in evaluating combustibility and to perform fire tests 
on full-scale structures made from other types of polymer 
concrete, polymer silicates and concrete polymers. 2 ta- 
bles. (Author) 

1216. Harmathy TZ 

CREEP DEFLECTION OF METAL BEAMS IN 
TRANSIENT HEATING PROCESSES, WITH PARTICU- 
LAR REFERENCE TO FIRE 

Can J Civ Eng; 3(2):21 9-228, 1976 

A new numerical technique is described by which the 
process of creep bending under transient heating condi- 
tions can be predicted. It utilizes a convenient creep 
model, proposed by Dorn and expanded by this author. 
The computer simulation of the behavior of three pro- 
tected steel beams during standard fire tests is discussed. 
The close agreement between the experimental and com- 
puted mid span deflection histories is regarded as the 
proof for the accuracy of the technique as well as of 
the creep model employed. 4 figs, 26 refs. (Author) 

1217. Polig F and Osten KF 

nRE AND HEAT RESISTANCE OF HOUSE GAS CON- 
NECTIONS MADE OF RIGID POLYESTER 

GasErdgas- 1 17(7):295-297, 1976 (German) 

Fire tests were conducted on two house inlets for rigid 
polyester pipes. The tests showed that it is possible to 



build rigid polyester house connections with fittings pro- 
jecting into the inside wall of the cellar that can withstand 
temperatures of 600 to 650°C for several hours and remain 
gastight. The principal feature of the house inlets is the 
use of the protective pipes made of asbestos cement and, 
in the cellar, visible portions made of steel, both class 
Al fire-resistant construction materials according to stan- 
dard DIN 4102. The house inlets were so designed that 
the gas-conducting steel components were mostly insulated 
from the effects of corrosion. 4 figs, 1 table, 2 refs. 
(Fachdok 12/0978) 

1218. Boon J and Monnier Th 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 
BEAMS 

Heron; 21(l):l-46, 1976 

The research on the fire resistance of prestressed 
concrete beams described in this report was carried out 
by the Institute TNO for Building Materials and Building 
Structures (IBBC-TNO). The research started in 1953. 
From empirical results and theoretical considerations a 
method was developed for predicting the fire resistance 
of a prestressed concrete beam. This was published in 
the Netherlands Committee for Concrete Research report 
CUR 13 (1963). It turned out, however, that some 10 
to 15% of the beams behaved considerably worse than 
this prediction. Therefore, the investigations were com- 
bined in order to get a better indication of the reason 
for this discrepancy. This part of the investigations relates 
mainly to I-beams and forms the main body of this report. 
Also given are results of fire tests on T-shaped beams. 
Calculated by this method is the length of time over which 
a prestressed concrete beam can be exposed to fire before 
failure occurs as a result of the prestressing steel reaching 
the critical temperature. 26 figs, 5 tables. 

1219. Kishitani K and Mori M 

STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF POPPING OF AG- 
GREGATES ON THE FIRE RESISTANCE OF 
CONCRETE 

J Faculty Eng, Univ Tokyo, Ser B\ 33(1):45-103, 1975 

Concrete, prestressed concrete and asbestos-cement 
products spall during fire, posing a disaster prevention 
problem. Concrete structures are widely used in building 
construction, which is based on the trust that the fire 
resistance of concrete is high, but certain types of ag- 
gregate, particularly most artificial lightweight aggregates, 
show that extreme popping results in marked reduction 
of fire resistance. This study endeavors to clarify the 
popping phenomena of aggregates and their causes. It also 
suggests that the fire resistance of aggregates may be 
judged by simple test methods, indicates that the cause 
of popping lies principally in the mineral constitution of 
the aggregate, in addition to which the presence of 
moisture plays a part. 9 figs, 29 tables, 12 photos, 25 
refs. (Author) 

1220. ContiniP 

THE FIRE RESISTANCE OF NORMAL REINFORCED 
AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES AND 
RELATED FIP/CEB RECOMMENDATIONS - PART 1 

Not AICAP: 3(3):4-9, 1976 (ItaUan) 



236 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

f. Stability of Materials at Elevated Temperatures — Continued 



The author analyzes the modifications produced by high 
temperatures in structural materials, concrete, steels and 
the like, and verifies the structural response in both iso- 
static and hyperstatic fields. The research is aimed at 
formulating the essential qualities characterizing the fire 
resistance of structures and determining the residual bear- 
ing strength of structures downstream from the thermal 
event and is based on the recommendations of the Interna- 
tional Prestressing Federation for the design of structural 
components of ordinary and prestressed reinforced 
concrete with respect to fire resistance. 14 figs. 

1221. Grabiec K 

nRE RESISTANCE OF PRESTRESSED AND POST- 
STRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS IN WAREHOUSES 

Przegl budowi, 48(3):11 1-114, 1976 (Polish; Russian and 
English summaries) 

Discussed in the article are fires in two warehouses 
constructed of prefabricated components, their causes, 
and preventive measures that have been taken. The fire 
resistance of prestressed and poststressed concrete beams 
with a protective mineral wool sheath is described. Sug- 
gestions for designers are included, as are the conditions 
for successful rescue operations in the case of fire. 5 
refs. 

1222. Ellingwood B and Shaver JR 

ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS SUB- 
JECTED TO FIRE. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for 
Bidg Technol, Washington, DC, 86 pages, Jul 1976 
Availabihty: NTIS PB-256 425/OGA 

Methods for analytically predicting the behavior of 
simply supported reinforced concrete beams subjected to 
fire are presented. This is generally a two-step process 
involving a thermal analysis followed by a stress analysis. 
This study emphasizes the latter, wherein the determina- 
tion of moment-curvature-time relationships for the beam 
cross section incorporates the temperature-dependent 
strength degradation in the steel and concrete as well 
as thermal and creep strains. The sensitivity of the predic- 
tions to various phases of analytical modeling is in- 
vestigated to establish the parameters most important for 
the prediction of beam behavior and to indicate where 
additional data should be gathered. A comparison of pre- 
dicted behavior with that observed in fire tests shows 
excellent agreement when realistic reinforcement tempera- 
ture histories are used. (Author) 

1223. Konicek L and Galbreath M 

FIRE PROTECTION OF HORIZONTAL SERVICE 
SPACES. Nat Res Council Canada, Div Bidg Res; BR Note 
108, Feb 1975 

Eight fire endurance tests were carried out on single 
and multiple layers of Type X gypsum wallboard, com- 
binations of gypsum wallboard with air space between, 
and gypsum wallboard with mineral wool topping. All 
specimens were exposed to furnace temperatures follow- 
ing the time-temperature curve specified in the ASTM 
El 19 standard test. The tests indicated that mineral rock 
wool, used primarily as a heat insulation, did not add 
to the fire resistance of the assembUes. (Author) 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

a. FIELD EVALUATION 

1224. Wilde DG 

A FULL-SCALE FIRE TRIAL ON THE POLYURETHANE 
FOAM LINING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL MINE ROAD- 
WAY 

Health and Safety Executive, UK; 34 pages, Jun 1976 

Information relating to the conditions and events before 
and during the fire at the Sunshine Mine, Shoshone Coun- 
ty, Idaho, on May 2, 1972, was used as a basis in setting 
up the fire trial. In the Sunshine Mine, polyurethane foam 
was used to line the roof and sides of a bulkhead made 
of wood that crossed the 09 vein on the 3400 level. The 
fire trial is concerned with the proposition that the bulk- 
head that crossed the 09 vein was attacked and breached 
by a fire that approached the bulkhead from the back 
or waste side. 8 figs, 13 photos, 4 refs. 

1225. Hiroshige I 

FIRE TESTS OF A SLEEPER CAR 

Sharyo kogaku; 44(11): 14-1 8, 1976 (Japanese) 

A report is made on fire tests of a new type of railway 
sleeper car on the special test section of the Hokuriku- 
sen railway line. During the tests the greatest attention 
was devoted to the combustibility of the various synthetic 
materials used to upholster the couchettes. Couchette 
components were investigated as potential secondary fire 
sources. Tabulated and photographic data are presented 
to illustrate the dependence of the quantitative and quahta- 
tive deterioration rates of the couchettes on the tempera- 
ture and other microclimatic conditions, the nature and 
location of the fire source, and others. 2 figs, 4 tables. 
(RZh) 

1226. Hildebrand C 

EVALUATION OF FIRE TESTING PROCEDURES FOR 
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS AND BUILDING ELE- 
MENTS FROM THE STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 
VIEWPOINT 
Mat ConstslMat Struct; 9(51):177-182, 1976 

The burning characteristics of building materials are 
discussed. For assessing the fire behavior of structural 
materials the following properties are relevant: combusti- 
bility, flame spread and heat contribution. These charac- 
teristics are determined in different laboratory tests. How- 
ever, the fire performance of structural elements in situ 
is of much greater importance with regard to fire protec- 
tion in structures, and the resistance to fire and fire 
propagation are the most important criteria. International 
unification is proposed in the testing of fire propagation. 
11 figs, 1 table, 2 refs. (Author) 

1227. Fisher RW and Rogowski BFW 

RESULTS OF FIRE PROPAGATION TESTS ON BUILD- 
ING PRODUCTS. Building Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Sta; 
BRE R-6, 21 pages, 1 plate, 7 tables, 6 refs, 1976 

Since the incorporation of the fire propagation test (BS 
476: Part 6) into building regulations to define Class O 
performance for linings and cladding materials in specified 
locations there has been a demand and a need for a con- 



237 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

a. Field Evaluation — Continued 

solidated list of proprietary and generic products that can 
satisfy the specified performance levels. This pubhcation 
is intended to fulfill this need and to provide data on 
other products that fall outside this category, but whose 
likely behavior in a fire is of interest. The fire propagation 
test is a forerunner of a new generation of fire tests 
and is one of a series which belong to the '"reaction 
to fire" category. Results of sponsored fire propagation 
tests carried out at the Fire Research Station from 1968 
to October 1974 are given in this pubhcation, and it is 
hoped that architects, builders, control authorities and 
others will find it a useful source of reference in making 
a choice of products to meet regulatory controls and other 
considerations. (Author) 

b. FIRE TESTING, STRUCTURES 

1228. Abrams MS and Lin TD 

SIMULATION OF REALISTIC THERMAL RESTRAINT 
DURING FIRE TESTS OF FLOOR AND ROOF ASSEM- 
BLIES 

Portland Cement Assoc; 36 pages, Feb 1977 

Fire tests of two pan-joint floor specimens were con- 
ducted. One specimen was tested to simulate an interior 
panel, and the other to simulate an exterior panel in a 
9-panel concrete structure. The expansion of each 
specimen during the fire test was controlled to conform 
to the calculated time-expansion relationship. Restraining 
forces were appUed to the four edges of the specimen 
to control expansion. Measured restraining forces were 
less than those predicted. Consequently, the computer 
program can be considered to give a conservative estimate 
of the behavior of fire-exposed floor systems. Even with 
the effects of creep strain neglected, the computer pro- 
gram yields values of the restraining forces accurate 
enough for engineering analysis of the structure. In the 
tests, exterior and interior panels performed as restrained 
floor systems in a structure. Tests were stopped after 
4 hrs 3 min of exposure with no signs of structural col- 
lapse. 17 figs, 2 tables, 3 refs. 

1229. LeBotlan Y 

FIRE TESTS OF PLASTIC FUEL TANKS 
Face au risque; (124):27-29, 1976 (French) 

Plastic fuel tanks in the basements of private homes 
are still prohibited in France. But since ihese tanks have 
proved their value in the neighboring country (FRG), in- 
vestigations and fire tests are being carried out by the 
"National Shipping Container and Conditioning Center," 
which had already studied material fatigue, vibration 
damage, impact and rebound damages, and behavior 
toward the various fuels. These new tests are described; 
temperature curves and heat flux rates are measured, and 
the heat radiation is determined. A large number of 
problems and aspects requiring further clarification was 
discovered. 3 figs. (Fachdok 13/0047) 

1230. Abrams MS 

FIRE TESTS OF HOLLOW-CORE SPECIMENS WITH 
AND WITHOUT ROOF INSULATION 

PC/y;(l):40-49, 1976 

Fire tests were conducted on 8-in. hollow-core 
specimens 40 x 48-in. in plan. Specimens were tested 



with and without roof insulation to determine the effect 
of the insulation material on the temperature of the strand. 
Specimens were oriented horizontally with the central 33 
X 33-in. area of the underside of each specimen exposed 
to fire. No load was applied. Strand temperatures were 
monitored for more than 3 hr. Test results indicate that 
strand temperatures were not significantly affected by the 
presence of the roof insulation. 3 figs, 5 tables, 3 refs. 
(Author) 

1231. Morozov NS, Rubinshteyn AB, Zaypol'd VV, 
Dubasova LM, Gol'tsov NKh, Deminov NN and Popov 
PS 

FIRE TESTS OF AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURES 

Str-vo truboprovodov; (3):15-16, 1976 (Russian) 

Fire tests of an air-supported structure made of polymer 
materials of the "combustible" class are described. It 
was found that ignition of the structure at separate points 
or exposing the structure to a fire source near the shell 
does not lead to the spread of fire over the material 
of the structure. It is demonstrated that such structures 
can be widely used in the national economy. 2 figs. (RZh) 

1232. Modak AT 

THE THIRD FULL-SCALE BEDROOM FIRE TEST OF 
THE HOME FIRE PROJECT (July 30, 1975). VOL. 2. 
-ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS. Factory Mutual Res 
Corp, Basic Res Dept; FMRC 21011.7, 263 pages, 64 figs, 
10 tables, 74 refs 

Analyses of various fluid-mechanical, thermochemical, 
heat transfer and mass transfer processes which occur 
during the growth of fires in (bedroom) enclosures are 
presented. These analyses provide the basic components 
for developing a deterministic and predictive model of 
fire growth starting from ignition up to and beyond 
flashover. (Author) 

1233. Fuchs P 

FULL-SCALE FIRE AND EXTINGUISHMENT TESTS TO 
FIND SUITABLE EXTINGUISHANTS OR COMBINA- 
TIONS OF EXTINGUISHANTS TO REDUCE THE 
WATER DAMAGE USUAL IN PRESENT-DAY FIRE 
FIGHTING. Univ Karlsruhe, FRG, Fire Prot Eng Res 
Center; AGF 29, 27 pages, 14 figs, 1 table, 6 refs, 1975 
Availability: Fachdok 

In the first part of a long-term research project to in- 
vestigate suitable extinguishants and extinguishing 
methods which might reduce the usual water damage in- 
curred in present-day fire fighting a full-scale test enclo- 
sure was set up. A weighing platform constitutes the false 
bottom of this test enclosure, so that the burning rate 
could be determined during the test. The temperature dis- 
tribution in the test area was measured, and the expendi- 
ture of extinguishants and the quantity of water causing 
damage were determined. Four tests, each with about 380 
kg of wood cribs as the fire material, were carried out 
to check the reproducibility of the test results. 

Approximately the same fire development was observed 
in all tests. The burning rate averaged 10.4 kg/min ±0.3 
kg/min. On the average, about 101 hters of water 
vaporized in extinguishing the fire, corresponding to a 
heat removal of about 262,900 KJ. The quantity of 
damage-causing water fluctuated between 57 liters (in test 



238 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

b. Fire Testing, Structures — Continued 

4) and 240 liters (in test 3). The investigations are continu- 
ing with furniture as the fire load. (Author) 

1234. Lee BT and Parker WJ 

NAVAL SHIPBOARD HRE RISK CRITERIA - 
BERTHING COMPARTMENT FIRE STUDY AND FIRE 
PERFORMANCE GUIDELINES. Nat Bureau of Standards, 
Center for Fire Res, Washington, DC; NBSIR 76-1052, 
87 pages, Sep 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-258 118/9GA 

Judicious apphcation of shipboard materials and choice 
of compartment furnishings can significantly reduce the 
threat of serious fire on board ship. Unfortunately, the 
fire performance of materials is currently difficult to 
ascertain from laboratory fire tests on the materials. Full- 
size and quarter-scale compartment fires in conjunction 
with an analytical treatment were performed to obtain 
an improved understanding of the relationships between 
the laboratory fire test assessment and the observed 
behavior of materials in actual fires. The compartment 
fire experiments indicated that the temperature of the hot 
air layer below the ceiling is a suitable quantitative mea- 
sure of the level of fire buildup in a compartment. When 
this temperature exceeds 700°C there is sufficient radiation 
from the hot air layer and the heated upper surfaces to 
cause ignition of aU combustible materials in the compart- 
ment. Ventilation and its points of application were found 
to be very important considerations. Observations of the 
fire scenarios in the compartment tests along with an em- 
pirical and analytical analysis of fire growth in compart- 
ment spaces have resulted in an improved application of 
the fire test ratings. (Author) 

c. MODELING AND SCALING 

1235. Gaume JG 

AN ANIMAL EXPOSURE TEST SYSTEM FOR LARGE 
SCALE FIRE TESTS 

J Combust Toxicol; 3(2):166-188, 1976 

An animal exposure test system has been designed and 
fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and 
environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects ex- 
posed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The 
system consists of an open wire mesh, two-compartment 
cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, 
and the other containing one rat instrumented externally 
for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage tem- 
perature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper 
portion of the rat compartment. Temperature range 
recorded is 10°C to 100°C. The ECG and respiration sen- 
sors are located in a beU placed around the torso of 
the subject, belt wires forming an umbilical to a connector 
in the top of the compartment. A cable extends from 
the connector to the power supply and signal conditioning 
electronics. These are connected to a dual-beam oscil- 
loscope for real-time monitoring and a magnetic tape 
recorder having three or more channels. After the bum 
test, the data on the tape is reproduced in the laboratory 
on an 8-channel Beckman Type Sll Dynagraph for analy- 
sis. Endpoints observed are bradycardia, cardiac arr- 
hythmias, changes in respiratory pattern, respiratory arrest 
and cardiac arrest. The ECG record also is a good method 
of monitoring of animal activity as indicated by an in- 
crease in noise on the record during increased activity 



of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are 
presented and discussed as to their significance regarding 
toxicity of fire gases. 18 figs, 2 tables, 6 refs. (Author) 

1236. Hilado CJ 

THE MULTICAPABILITY FIRE TEST METHOD 

J Fire Flammability; 7(2):248-256, 1976 

Fire hazard is the summation of all the fire-response 
characteristics of a material or product in a specific en- 
vironment. Because of the desirability of studying as many 
characteristics as possible with a single apparatus, a new 
class of tests has evolved: the multicapability fire-test 
method, which seeks to provide an improved basis for 
evaluating fire hazard by obtaining information on two 
or more fire-response characteristics. Five tests which the 
author considers to be in this class are described and 
discussed, namely, the ASTM E4 25 -foot tunnel for sur- 
face flame spread, the ASTM E-162 radiant panel, the 
NBS smoke-density chamber, the Ohio State University 
release-rate apparatus, and the Harvard Medical School 
toxicity apparatus. The NBS smoke-density chamber is 
beUeved to offer the greatest potential as a multicapability 
fire test method. 24 refs. (Author) 

1237. Kourtides DA, Parker JA, Leon HA, Williamson 
RB, Hasegawa H, Fisher F, Draemel R, Marcussen WH 
and Hilado CJ 

FIRE CONTAINMENT TESTS OF AIRCRAFT INTERIOR 

PANELS 

J Fire Flammability; H2):257-21S, 1976 

The objective of the program was to develop fire con- 
tainment criteria of aircraft interior panels such as 
bumthrough time, rate of back-face temperature rise, 
evaluation of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat 
flux rate, and other parameters that affect fire contain- 
ment such as structural integrity. These tests are intended 
to evaluate fire performance of panels under relatively 
full-scale conditions prior to more expensive large-scale 
testing. Test methods used and results are examined. 24 
figs, 3 tables, 9 refs. (Author) 

1238. Smith EE 

RELATING FIRE TESTS TO FIRE PERFORMANCE; 

Paper No. 19 

American Chemical Society National Meeting, 172nd, Ab- 
stracts of Papers; 1976, Aug 29-Sep 3, San Francisco, CA 

Examples are given which show how release-rate data, 
obtained at several exposure levels, can be used to predict 
the performance of materials and products in large-scale 
fire tests. The conventional large-scale fire tests expose 
the sample to a simulated fire and measure one or more 
performance criteria. On the other hand, release-rate tests 
using the Ohio State University's equipment and 
procedures measure basic "engineering" characteristics of 
the sample over a range of exposure conditions so that 
the sample's performance in real or simulated fire situa- 
tions can be predicted. Performance criteria described by 
the large-scale tests are the net result of several charac- 
teristics measured individually in release-rate tests. In 
order to predict performance in actual fires, the basic 
engineering characteristics must be combined in a rational 
manner. Predictions of Flame Spread Ratings from Steiner 
tunnel tests, corner test data, and compartment test data, 



239 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 
c. Modeling and Scaling — Continued 

based on release-rate tests at three exposure levels, are 
given and compared to experimental values. Although the 
large-scale test data are too limited to allow a complete 
evaluation of the techniques used, the use of release- 
rate data to predict performance in large-scale fires looks 
promising. (Author) 

1239. Stratton AK 

AN INVESTIGATION OF CERTAIN DESIGN PARAME- 
TERS OF THE MUSHROOM APPAREL FLAMMABILl- 
TY TESTER. Univ of Maryland, Dept of Textiles and Con- 
sumer Economics, College Park, MD; NBS GCR-76-78, 
114 pages, Jul 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-257 836/7GA 

This paper describes the effect of variations in design 
parameters of the apparatus on the heat transfer rates 
measured by the Mushroom Apparel Flammability Tester. 
In this instrument, cylindrical specimens of apparel fabrics 
are suspended from a circular top plate, and the rate 
of heat transfer to the top plate and a cylinder inside 
the specimen are measured. The paper describes the effect 
of changing the cylinder diameter and of introducing rods 
between the specimen and cylinder to prevent deposition 
of molten polymer on the cylinder. Heat-transfer rates 
measured on the top plate and on the cylinder are com- 
pared. Design parameters for the present version of this 
instrument and the corresponding test method were chosen 
on the basis of this investigation. The paper is in the 
form of a Master of Science thesis; the experimental work 
was performed at NBS. (Author) 

1240. Benjamin lA 

PROBLEMS IN THE CORRELATION OF SMALL AND 
LARGE-SCALE TESTS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 141- 

148 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

In this paper an attempt was made to show that there 
are problems in defining large-scale tests: the validity of 
the large-scale test is no better than the scenario chosen 
for its conduct. A review of the literature shows that 
the small-scale tests now being used to evaluate hnings 
do not measure well what they are designed to measure. 
Future small-scale tests should derive from studies of 
large-scale tests which are designed to determine the pro- 
perties to be measured. The small-scale tests will then 
show better correlation to large-scale tests. 1 fig. (Author) 

1241. Becker WHK 

SYSTEMATICS OF FIRES AND FIRE TEST METHODS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 162- 

168 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Fire tests can only be considered as a suitable means 
of forming the basis for predicting how materials will 
behave under fire conditions, provided certain require- 
ments are met with: a) The type, intensity and duration 
of the fire attack must be virtually in accordance with 
the particular fire situation, b) The fire hazard of a materi- 



al is determined by the relation of ignition energy and 
developed heat. If the ignition energy is prescribed as 
one of the test requirements throughout the particular fire 
situation, the potential liberatable energy of the material 
to be examined must be in reasonable relation to the 
ignition energy. This requirement cannot be satisfied if 
the specimens are too small, c) The requisite arrangement 
of the specimens in space, their combination with other 
materials and the secondary conditions which determine 
the thermal behavior of the material to be examined, must 
virtually conform with the situation prevailing under actual 
usage conditions. 

These requirements can be met with only to a limited 
extent in laboratory tests, which means that, initially, the 
applicability of test results to the actual fire situation is 
often a matter of doubt. With the aid of model fire in- 
vestigations, in which both the potential risk situation in 
terms of time and space is realized, and the material 
to be examined is investigated under prescribed conditions 
of usage, the question of the extent to which data obtained 
in laboratory tests can be employed in predicting fire 
events is ascertained. The systematics of fire show the 
hmits of such predictions made on the basis of tests. 
3 figs, 2 refs. (Author) 

d. SYSTEMS BEHAVIOR 

1242. Rogowski BFW 

SOME EXPERIMENTS ON FIRE DEVELOPMENT IN 

HOSPITAL CUBICLES 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Svmp, Internal, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 384- 

390 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Following a serious life loss fire in a mental hospital, 
criticism was made that the fire hazard in hospital wards 
was being increased by attempts to depart from traditional 
institutional decor. Patients, however, particularly those 
confined for long periods, do require a degree of privacy 
in simulated domestic surroundings and, in an attempt 
to provide a satisfactory economic compromise between 
such an environment and adequate fire safety for infirm, 
possibly mentally afflicted patients, the PSA Supplies 
Division, in consultation with the DHSS, designed a 
modular system of compartmentation. The benefits of in- 
corporating flame-retardant materials into the design had 
to be assessed and the Fire Research Station was 
requested to carry out appropriate full-scale fire experi- 
ments. 3 figs, 2 tables. (Author) 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 
PRINCIPLES 

1243. Bayon R 

FIRE PREVENTION IN BUILDING DESIGN 

(PREVENTION DU FEU DANS LE PROJET DU BATI- 

MENT) 

Editions EyroUes, Paris, France; 304 pages, 1976 (French) 



240 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. Building Design and Construction Principles— Continued 

The aim of the book is to provide a catalogue of the 
principal solutions to be apphed in the design stage of 
a building in order to obtain maximum fire safety under 
normal conditions. The twelve chapters of the book are 
devoted to the following topics: 1) General Information; 
2) Fire; 3) Protection Principles; 4) Structural Lay-out 
(Structural Design and Matenals; Descriptive Forms); 5) 
Automatic Detection; 6) Automatic Extinguishment, 
Water; 7) Gas Extinguishment; 8) Safety Lighting; 9) Mo- 
bile Fire Barrier Systems; 10) Smoke Removal; 11) Plumb- 
ing; 12) Protection Against Lightning. The appendices con- 
sist of an abstract of the fire protection regulations, a 
description of safety and control systems. 67 figs. 
(Author) 

1244. Harmathy TZ 
DESIGN OF BUILDINGS FOR HRE SAFETY. FART 1 

Fire Technol; 12(2):95-108, 1976 

Fire Safety provided by conventional fire-resistant com- 
partmentation of buildings is largely illusory. Both mathe- 
matically and experimentally, it was found that maximum 
fire temperatures occur at relatively low levels of ventila- 
tion (ship, basement, and theatre fires). Well-ventilated 
fires bum at lower temperatures and are very short. Wall, 
floor, or building collapse usually occurs after the spread 
of fire to adjacent spaces; collapse is the result of fire 
spread, net the cause. In multistoried buildings, fire 
spread on upper floors will be toward outside boundaries 
while on the lower floors, fire spread is toward the shafts. 
Noxious combustion products are carried through the 
shafts to the upper floors. 6 figs, 14 refs. (Author) 

1245. McGill PF 
nRE SPRINKLER AND CEILING PANEL ASSEMBLY 

US Patent No. 3,964,549; CI 169/37, (A62C 37/10), Appl 
8 Nov 1974, Disci. 22 Jun 1976, Assignee: Paul F. McGill, 
Omaha, NE 

A fire sprinkler and panel ceiling assembly having a 

f)anel with a vertical sprinkler head passage therethrough 
arge enough to allow the panel to be tilted with respect 
to a sprinkler pipe sufficient to allow the panel to pass 
downwardly beyond its supporting flanges and over the 
sprinkler head, and a cover extending around the pipe 
above the sprinkler head and covering the panel head 
passage hole, the cover having a removable part to permit 
Its removal from the pipe without the necessity of the 
removal of the head. 

A cover, as described, having two identical interfitting 
sections, each section being formed of one piece of 
material. 7 claims, 6 drawing figs. (Author) 




1246. Anon 

PROGRAM FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING 
A NEW APPROACH TO DESIGNING FOR FIRE 
SAFETY IN BUILDINGS. Nat Acad Sci, Nat Res Council; 
NASA CR-148513, 38 pages, 1975 
AvaUabiUty: NTIS N76-2^33/0GA 

The traditional method of providing for fire safety in 
buildings through reliance on codes and standards that 
prescribe specific measures to be taken in the design and 
construction of buildings to minimize the potential for 
a fire occurring and to protect property and Ufe should 
a fire occur was evaluated. A new approach to designing 
for fire safety in buildings is outlined. (Author) 

b. DETECTION AND ALARM EQUIPMENT 

1247. Anon 

DETECTION DEVICES FOR EARLY WARNING AND 
CONTROL OF FIRE IN BUILDINGS 

LCN Door Closers; 12 pages, 1976 

The toxic gases of combustion are now known to be 
the prime cause of death in a burning building. This study, 
prepared by LCN Closers, shows the reasons for this 
and the consequent steps necessary to reduce casualties 
in the event of fire in modem buildings, particularly 
multi-story stmctures. Some typical detection devices are 
described, along with additional precautions that help save 
life through slowing down the spread of smoke through 
a building. 

1248. Klein CF 

THE NATURE AND DETECTION OF FIRES IN 
BUILDINGS 

ASHRAEJ; 18(7):54-57, 1976 

The author discusses the mechanism of combustion, 
some of the toxicological and physiological consequences 
of fire exposure, and future needs in the area of fire 
detection, such as optical sensors, gas and aerosol detec- 
tors, particularly optical sensors, which combine gas and 
aerosol detection. 2 figs, 3 tables. 

1249. Alperovich VYu 
MONITORING POINTS OF RRE OUTBREAK 

Bezop tr prom-sti; (6):25-26, 1976 (Russian) 

An endogenous mine fire can be detected from the con- 
centration of carbon monoxide in the mine damp. For 
example, 0.001% CO (vol) in the mine area represents 
the onset of spontaneous ignition. With 0.01% CO the 
fire is already advanced. In the author's opinion the CO 
concentration is not completely reliable for evaluating 
fires. The All-Union Mine-Rescue Research Institute 
(USSR) has developed a new method in which ethylene 
and acetylene can be monitored in the case of mine fires. 
The temperature at the seat of the fire can be determined 
by the ratio of these gases. Sensitive gas chromatographs 
are used to monitor the gases. (Fachdok 13/0092) 

1250. Lein H 

nRE DETECTION PRODUCTS — STATE-OF-THE-ART 

Constr Specifier, 29(4):46-50, 1976 

The types of equipment available to detect a fire in 
its various stages, areas of special concern customarily 

241 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

requiring special detection measures, such as computer 
rooms, elevator spaces, and others, and some of the new 
performance specifications that help assure a quaUty fire 
detection system are reviewed. 4 figs. 

1251. Neuhaeusser R and Schinkmann M 
DETECTION OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS 
AND OXYGEN BY AN ELECTROCHEMICAL 
TECHNIQUE 

Draegerhefl; (305):1-12, 1976 (German) 

The structure and operating method of an instrument 
sensitive to chlorine ions which permits continuous detec- 
tion of chlorinated hydrocarbons in air is described. Using 
measurements made with this instrument it is shown that 
the choice of decomposition temperature of the 
chlorinated hydrocarbons is of decisive importance for 
the reproducibility of the measurement results. Various 
electrochemical techniques for the detection of oxygen 
will be presented in Part 2 and their advantages and disad- 
vantages will be discussed. 11 figs, 2 tables, 12 refs. 
(Fachdok 13/0076) 

1252. Anon 

NEW FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 

Eleclr Contract; (1):54, 1976 

The Photain Controls Co (UK) is producing the Ramick 
MK5 fire-extinguishing system with solid-state circuits, 
powered by a 240-Va-c net; cost of the system is 100 
pounds. The system design includes a light indicator. A 
battery is planned to ensure system operation in case 
of network failure. The dimensions of the steel housing, 
which is fitted for wall mounting, are 230 x 150 x 102 
mm. 1 fig. (RZh) 

1253. Lipman J 

BUILD A SIMPLE FIRE ALARM WITH METAL-OXIDE 
TEMPERATURE SENSORS 

Electron Des; 24(9):88, 1976 

A low-cost, sharp-transition thermal sensor can be com- 
bined with a single voltage-controlled oscillator to make 
a simple inexpensive fire-alarm system. A brief description 
and circuit diagram are given. 1 fig. 

1254. Pshaenich A 

GAS/SMOKE DETECTOR USES A SEMICONDUCTOR 
SENSOR 

Electron Des News; 21(4):104,106, 1976 

The gas/smoke detector described and illustrated in the 
article uses the Taguchi Gas Sensor as the detecting ele- 
ment. 1 fig. 

1255. Wagner U 

AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 

Feuerwehr; 26(9):259-260, 1976 (German) 

The automatic fire early-alarm systems presently in use 
are discussed in detail with reference to the principles 
of their mode of operation, their sensitivity, and the limits 
of their usefulness. Design and installation require special 
attention; the place of installation is decisive for correct 
operation (failure or false alarms). Discussed are smoke 
detectors (ionization and optical), heat detectors 
(maximum heat and differential heat), and flame detectors 



(with evaluation of the infrared radiation or the ultraviolet 
radiation of the flame). (Fachdok 13/0080) 

1256. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC 
FIRE DETECTORS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):214-239, 1976 (Japanese) 

Given in tabular form are technical specifications 
governing various factors relating to the design, develop- 
ment, production, installation and operation of automatic 
fire detectors used either alone or in conjunction with 
complex automated fire-extinguishing systems. The 
specifications were worked out by the Standardization 
Group of the Japanese Construction Ministry and are 
recommended for use under operational conditions as well 
as in the experimental design and study stage in the 
development of automated fire-extinguishing systems. 
About 20% of all the recommended specifications are in- 
troduced in the form of intra-govemmental standards. 
Among these are, in particular, a Usted series of various 
types of unitized fire-detector standards: actuation tem- 
perature ranges of fire detectors; methods of electrical 
commutation of fire detectors in branched networks (the 
corresponding circuits are given and analyzed); etc. Also 
considered are block diagrams and operating principles 
of a number of assembUes and systems using fire detec- 
tors as components. 28 figs, 2 tables. (RZh) 

1257. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE-ALARM 
EQUIPMENT 

Ohm: denki zasshi: 63(3):246-263, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications regulating the dimensions and 
optimal location of systems and individual components 
of emergency fire alarm systems, such as various types 
of fire detectors, sirens, loudspeakers, bells, lamps, light 
signals, etc, in accordance with the new Japanese fire 
legislation for construction are presented. Specifications 
for the optimal selection of each component as well as 
for the selection of an optimal scheme for their distribu- 
tion as a function of the nature of the premise being 
protected are given. 14 figs, 5 tables. (RZh) 

1258. Anon 
DETECTION 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(154):13-45, 1976 (French) 

The safety aspects of detection in fighting fires and 
warding off intruders are discussed, including transmission 
between detection and actuation, human response to de- 
tection, certification tests of automatic detectors and 
signal panels in France, choice of predetection systems, 
smoke detection in air-conditioned and ventilated 
buildings, American codes and regulations for fire detec- 
tion installations, and a new design for automatic fire 
detection and suppression. 28 figs. 

1259. Pfeiffer, PL 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS IN CEMENT PLANTS 

Zem Kalk Gips; 19(6):269-272, 1976 (German; English and 
French Summaries) 

After an introductory review of early warning systems 
for the outbreak of fire, the author deals with fire detec- 
tors that can suitably be used in cement manufacturing 



242 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

plants. Such devices include ionization fire alarms, optical 
smoke detectors and differential fire alarms. The require- 
ments applicable to a fire detecting and monitoring center 
are discussed. Some suggestions for preventive fire pro- 
tection are offered. 10 figs. (Author) 

1260. Anon 

THERMISTOR FIRE DETECTION INSTALLATION 

French Patent No. 2,240,491; CI G08B 17/06, A62C 39/02, 
Appl 7 Aug 1974, Disci. 7 Mar 1975, Assignee: Groupe 
Dentzer Noxa SA * 

The distinctive feature of the proposed model is that 
the fire detectors are under a low voltage (up to 1.5 
V). This feature ensures long-term use as a supervisory 
supply source for electrical components. When the tem- 
perature rises in one of the fire detectors, the electronic 
commutator turns on an acoustic or visible signal operat- 
ing at a voltage of 12 to 15 V. 3 drawing figs. 

1261. Anon 
nRE DETECTOR 

French Patent No. 2,251,060; CI G08B 17/00, Appl 7 Nov 
1974, Disci. 6 Jun 1975, Assignee: Nomi Bosai kogyo 
kk 

In order to prevent spurious actuation of automatic fire 
detection and alarm systems, combinations of automatic 
detectors responding to various factors accompanying fire, 
e.g. smoke and light, or to a rise in temperature and 
water vapor, etc , are used. One drawback of such devices 
is that in the intial stage of a fire, the second factor 
may not be very strong and therefore the device does 
not signal a fire. In the detector proposed here, two sensi- 
tive components responding to different fire factors are 
recommended for connection by a single wire to a special 
electronic device which, when a signal is received from 
a detector that one of the fire factors is present in a 
premise, automatically increases the sensitivity of the 
device to the second factor. 4 drawing figs. 

1262. JoUot A A 
AUXILIARY FIRE DETECTOR 

French Patent No. 2,254,073; CI G08B 17/10, A62C 39/02, 
Appl 5 Dec 1973, Disci. 4 Jul 1975, Assignee: Adolphe 
Andre Joliot 

The patented device is recommended for use in detect- 
ing a fire in premises equipped with a forced exhaust 
ventilator in the form of linear perforated pipes. A 
cylinder with a screen is fixed to the pipe below the 
exhaust outlet by means of a clamp; a sealed glass am- 
poule containing a readily evaporating liquid is placed in 
the screen. When a fire breaks out, the ampoule breaks 
owing to the increase in temperature and the vapors of 
the discharged hquid are entrained by the air passing 
through the pipe system, reaching the analyzer mounted 
ahead of the fan. When the vapors of the control liquid 
hit the analyzer, it emits a fire alarm. It is noted that 
such an alarm system will be more economical in this 
case than a specially adapted electrical system. 2 drawing 
figs. (RZh) 



1263. Funeda K 

DEVICE FOR TESTING PHOTOELECTRIC SMOKE DE- 
TECTORS 

Japanese Patent No. 50-28320; CI 101 F 322, (G08B 
17/12), Appl 9 Mar 1971, Disci. 13 Sep 1975, Assignee: 
Nomi bosai kogyo kk 

The patent disclosure relates to the design circuit and 
operating principle of a device to check, regulate and 
adjust photoelectric fire detectors designed to be actuated 
in case smoke is present in the space being monitored. 
The device is a cyUndrical chamber, reliably sealed from 
penetration of light beams and containing a calibrated light 
source (electric lamp), a condensing lens, and a holder 
for the sensors of the detectors to be tested. The lens 
is so arranged that the lamp is in its focus, providing 
uniform illumination by parallel light beams within the 
chamber. A certain amount of smoke is passed through 
a connector inlet into the chamber, causing the light to 
scatter and, consequently, to modify the illumination. By 
means of a simple electric circuit the parameters of the 
detector being tested can be adjusted to actuate at any 
desired degree of change in illumination. 5 drawing figs. 
(RZh) 

1264. Richardson EG 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

US Patent No. 3,952,808; CI 169/61, (A62C 37/04), Appl 
21 Jan 1975, Disci. 27 Apr 1976, Assignee: National 
Research Development Corp, London, England 

A protection system for use in the detection of smoke 
etc , from one or more of a plurality of locations and 
the subsequent release of an extinguishant into these loca- 
tions, comprising a control unit including pump, sensing 
equipment and extinguishant in fluid connection with a 
plurality of sensing tubes in a pre-arranged distribution 
network with the open ends of the tubes extending into 
the locations to be protected; during operation, air from 
the locations being protected is sucked through the sensing 
tube network and into the control unit, where it is 
analyzed by the sensing equipment. Upon detection of 
contaminated air, the sensing side of the system is sealed 
off and extinguishant automatically made to flow through 
the same distribution network to the location being pro- 
tected. 10 claims, 6 drawing figs. (Author) 

1265. Barr LG, Chuan RL and Harkeg JF 
INCIPIENT FIRE DETECTOR 

US Patent No. 3,953,844; CI 340/237 S, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 11 Apr 1974, Disci. 27 Apr 1976, Assignee: Celesco 
Industries Inc, Costa Mesa, CA 

The incipient fire detector employs a particulate monitor 
for detecting particulates in the atmosphere. During an 
incipient fire condition, prior to ignition, a large mass 
of particulates less than 5 microns in size is generated 
by the combustible material which increases the concen- 
tration of such particulates in the atmosphere. The detec- 
tor samples and responds to the rate of increase of such 
particulates to provide an alarm when such rate exceeds 
a predetermined rate indicative of a hazardous condition. 
The particle collector used in the incipient fire detector 
is specially designed to collect particulates less than five 
microns in size and reject those above this size. 24 claims, 
6 drawing figs. (Author) 



243 



F!RE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment— Continued 



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OSCILLATOR 



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1266. Tipton WC, Suchomel M and Taran JZ 
lONIZATION-TYPE FIRE DETECTOR 

US Patent No. 3,959,788; CI 340/237 S, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 10 May 1974, Disci. 25 May 1976, Assignee: General 
Signal Corp, Rochester, NY 

An ionization-type fire detector having a pair of ionized 
chambers, one of which is arranged so that products of 
combustion can flow therethrough while the other is sub- 
stantially isolated from the products of combustion. As 
a result, when combustion products are present, the elec- 
trical conductivity in one chamber is different than the 
other, and this condition is sensed to provide a fire-alarm 
signal. The first-mentioned ionized chamber is defined by 
inner and outer sheUs of plastic material which are 
suitably spaced from each other and with the inner surface 
of the outer sheU being provided with a conductive coat- 
ing. The spaced plastic surfaces are curved, and one of 
the sheUs defines a cavity which forms at least a part 
of said first-mentioned chamber. It has been found that 
this minimizes the adverse effects caused by wind drafts 
which otherwise can affect the electrical conductivity in 
the first chamber and provide an erroneous fire alarm 
signal. The overall arrangement of the detector is such 
as to provide a compact unit which is attractive in ap- 
pearance and relatively low -cost to manufacture. 16 
claims, 8 drawing figs. (Author) 



26i ,74/- 80 









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1267. Adachi Y and Tsuni H 

IONIZATION SMOKE DETECTOR CO-USED TO ISSUE 
FIRE ALARM AND DETECT AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE 

US Patent No. 3,964,036; CI 340/237 S, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 24 Oct 1974, Disci. 15 Jun 1976, Assignee: Hochiki 
Corp, Tokyo, Japan 

A fire alarm system having a plurality of ceiling, fixtures 
containing ionization smoke detectors which are located 
in regions of a building to be protected. Each smoke 
detector is connected to a common fire alarm signal 
receiver for sounding an audible alarm, as well as a visual 
alarm, in response to a fire alarm signal therefrom. Each 
ionization smoke detector is also provided with an ioniza- 
tion ambient atmosphere auxiliary codetector for produc- 
ing an auxiliary signal that is responsive to the environ- 
mental conditions of the detector in situ. The ambient 
atmosphere detector comprises an internal circuit having 
female terminals of a receptable mounted in the wall of 
the corresponding fixture, and an external circuit having 
male terminals of a plug adapted to mate with the cor- 
responding female terminals of such receptable. Such ex- 
ternal circuit contains a visual signal indicating device, 
as well as a recorder for tracing auxiliary signal patterns 
on a tape synchronized with the actual time of test of 
the ionization smoke detector being checked. Such pat- 
terns provide characteristic shapes corresponding to stable 
air, strong air current, feeble air current, dust, steam, 
static discharge, and cooking combustion products of the 
ambient atmosphere, as distinguished from smoke due to 
fire, while the fire detector system per se is in actual 
use, and subject to possible false alarm caused by environ- 
mental conditions other than fire. 17 claims, 14 drawing 
figs. (Author) 

1268. Ohver SM, Proud RA, Jr and Parsons SJ 
FLAME DETECTION SYSTEM 

US Patent No. 3,967,255; CI 340/227 R, (G08B 21/00), 
Appl 28 Jun 1974, Disci. 29 Jun 1976, Assignee: The Del- 
phian Foundation, Sheridan, OR; Q^ Corp, Los Angeles, 
CA 

A flame detection system comprising »wo Ught-respon- 
sive photovoltaic photocell sensors in combination with 
corresponding light filters, a photovoltaic sensing amplifi- 
er, a control ampUfier, and a power source. The 
photocell/filter combinations are responsive to spectral 
energy in two different regions of the spectrum, said re- 
gions being such that illumination from a hydrocarbon 
flame causes a reversal in voltage polarity of the signal 
from the pair of photovoltaic photocells. The photovoltaic 
photocells are serially connected in voltage opposition and 
the voltage produced by the combination is appUed as 
an input coupled to the sensing amplifier. The latter is 
arranged and configured to respond to a selected voltage 
polarity generated by the photovoltaic combination, when 
illuminated by a hydrocarbon flame, by providing a con- 
trol signal to the control ampUfier. The control amplifier 
is typically coupled to a relay and/or solenoid valve which 
controls the turn-on of a fire alarm and/or extinguishing 
means. Whenever the control amplifier receives a control 
signal (indicative of the presence of a hydrocarbon flame), 
it activates the relay and/or solenoid valve and, thereby, 
causes the alarm and/or extinguishing means to turn on. 
20 claims, 12 drawing figs. (Author) 



244 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 



KJ- 



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1269. Nash P and Theobald CR 

THE USE OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS AS FIRE SEN- 
SORS IN CHEMICAL PLANT. Building Res Estab (UK), 
Fire Res Sta; BRE CP-50/76, 10 pages, 10 figs, 8 refs, 
Jul 1976 

The automatic sprinkler normally responds to the hot 
gas layer that forms beneath a ceiling below which a 
fire is developing. In a chemical plant it is often used 
as a fire sensor in the open, when it has to respond 
to radiated heat from adjacent flames or heated bodies. 
Its operation in the two modes is described and compared 
in this paper. (Author) 

1270. Bukowski RW 

nELD INVESTIGATION OF RESIDENTIAL SMOKE DE- 
TECTORS. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for Fire Res; 
NBSIR 76-1 126, 45 pages, 25 figs, 5 tables, 25 refs, 1976 
Availability: NTIS» 

A test program was undertaken to evaluate the effect 
of sensitivity and placement of residential smoke detectors 
on their response to fires in homes. The tests were con- 
ducted in two homes scheduled for demolition and used 
actual furnishings in typical configurations. In addition 
to the detector response times, the homes were highly 
instrumented with data on smoke, temperature, and gas 
concentration measured for all tests. 

The tests showed that smoke detectors can be highly 
effective in providing adequate warning of a fire before 
conditions in the home become dangerous. (Author) 

1271. Bright RG 

A NEW TEST METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC FIRE DE- 
TECTION DEVICES. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for 
Fire Res; NBSIR 76-1172, 23 pages, 2 figs, 11 tables, 
4 refs, 1976 
Availability: NTIS 



An analysis of the test methods for automatic fire detec- 
tion devices in the US reveals the fact that different types 
and different sizes of fires are used to evaluate different 
classes of detectors. The result is a lack of comparison 
test data for each detector class and, as a consequence, 
intelligent decisions cannot be made in the selection of 
automatic fire detectors for specific fire risks. A new 
test method is proposed in which aU automatic fire detec- 
tors, regardless of sensor type, would be subjected to 
a series of the same test fires. In addition, each test 
fire series would consist of three different test fire sizes. 
From the results obtained, it should then be possible to 
match a detector's characteristics against a specific fire 
risk resulting in a more intelligent application of automatic 
fire detectors. (Author) 

1272. Hertzog M, Litton CD and Garloff R 

A SUBMICRON PARTICLE DETECTOR. Dept of Interior; 
PB-255 369/1, DOCKET MIN-2395, 14 pages. May 1976 
Availability: NTIS PAT APPL-689 757/GA 

The patent application relates to a combined improved 
fire detector, incipient combustion detector and/or a par- 
ticulate pollution monitor. The triode detector forming the 
subject of the invention has a gastight housing enclosing 
a charging chamber with an inner and outer electrode 
arranged as two generally concentric cylindrical elec- 
trodes. To achieve a symmetrical bipolar charge region, 
near the inner electrode, this electrode has a radioactive 
source with a covering to limit the effective travel distance 
of emitted radioactive particles. Remote from this 
chamber is a third electrode used to collect a secondary 
current when charged particles impinge theron. Circuitry 
is provided to measure this secondary current which relays 
the desired information on the detected particles. There 
is also a pump system to move ambient air into the 
chamber and to the collection electrode. (Author) 

1273. Bright RG 

STATUS AND PROBLEMS OF FIRE DETECTION FOR 
LIFE SAFETY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 3-14 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

The statistics of fires in the United States, a comparison 
of the fire deaths per capita for 1972 in the US and 
12 other countries, and the finding that 75% of the fire 
incidents occur during nighttime hours, indicate the 
enormity of the problem of fire detection for life safety 
in the United States. In the light of these facts, a general 
survey is made of the situation with regard to fire-detec- 
tion devices; their effectiveness is analyzed in terms of 
sensitivity and reliability. Some recommendations are 
made concerning the requirement for installation of detec- 
tors in occupancies, which is now gaining momentum. 
4 figs, 3 tables, 9 refs. 

1274. Burry PE 

THE SEPARATED IONIZATION CHAMBER 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 70-77 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 



245 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment— Continued 

This new chamber, being developed at the Fire Research 
Station, Borehamwood (UK), has three distinct zones: 
ionization by collision with alpha particles; recombination 
and capture of ions; and collection of ions by the elec- 
trodes. In the conventional ionization chamber, these three 
processes all occur in the same place, whereas they are 
separate in the new chamber, hence the name. The device 
described here is still under development, but shows 
promise of being another weapon in fire protection. The 
major current use is likely to be in the field of measure- 
ment standards. 1 fig, 2 refs. 

1275. Bukowski RW 

LARGE-SCALE LABORATORY FIRE TESTS OF SMOKE 
DETECTORS 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 78-92 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

A report is made on a series of tests carried out for 
the purpose of developing performance specifications for 
single-station residential smoke detectors. These specifica- 
tions were intended to constitute a pubUshed standard 
for residential-type smoke detectors and a uniform testing 
procedure. The test conditions and four test runs are 
described, followed by the test conclusions. 7 figs, 1 table. 

1276. Heskestad G 

GENERALIZED CHARACTERIZATION OF SMOKE 
ENTRY AND RESPONSE FOR PRODUCTS-OFCOM- 
BUSTION DETECTORS 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975. 

Mar 3 1 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 93-127 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

The first part of a study on fire detection in apartments 
in highrise buildings was recently completed by Factory 
Mutual Research Corporation. The study led to the 
identification of performance characteristics of products- 
of-combustion detectors that are closely related to the 
case of smoke entry into the sensing volume of the detec- 
tor. The study also established threshold combinations of 
these performance characteristics that would allow human 
escape for a number of experimental fires in the particular 
occupancy considered. With an extended data base, in- 
cluding experiments in other residential occupancies, it 
should be possible to make a rational selection of per- 
formance criteria that fire detectors must meet. This paper 
summarizes the important findings of the study. First, 
the simple theory leading to the identification of per- 
formance characteristics is reviewed. Then follow descrip- 
tions of two series of experiments to verify the theory, 
one in a laboratory setting, the other under actual fire 
conditions. Finally, tenability data from the experimental 
fires are used to estabhsh performance criteria for 
products-of-combustion detectors as a function of siting 
options for the particular fires investigated. 15 figs, 4 
tables, 10 refs. (Author) 



1277. Liu BYH 

AEROSOL TECHNOLOGY IN FIRE RESEARCH AND 
DETECTION 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 42-62 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

In this paper a brief review is given of some of the 
modem instruments available for experimental aerosol stu- 
dies. The appUcation of these modern instruments to fire 
research would undoubtedly lead to better understanding 
of the characteristics of aerosols produced in fire and 
the development of improved fire detecting systems. 16 
figs, 1 table, 18 refs. (Author) 

1278. Kraus FJ 

MEASURING TECHNIQUES FOR THE RESPONSE 
THRESHOLD VALUE OF SMOKE DETECTORS 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 63-69 

Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

Smoke detectors have the task of giving an alarm in 
case of an emergency fire condition. Automatic fire detec- 
tors must meet stringent requirements, among them relia- 
bility, durability, and sensitivity. Standards for smoke de- 
tectors exist in which methods are described to show 
compliance of a smoke detector with these requirements, 
especially sensitivity, i.e., the response threshold value. 
Some ideas about the operating principle of smoke detec- 
tors, the definition of the response threshold of a smoke 
detector, and testing methods for this threshold value are 
discussed. 2 figs, 16 refs. (Author) 

1279. Alvares NJ and McKee RJ 

THE RESPONSE OF SMOKE DETECTORS TO PYROLY- 
SIS AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS FROM AIRCRAFT 
INTERIOR MATERIALS 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 
Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 128-139 
Sponsor: National Research Council Committee on Fire 
Research 

A progress report on the first task of a passenger com- 
partment fire detector program being conducted by the 
Stanford Research Institute is presented. This task aims 
at determining the sensitivity of contemporary gas and 
smoke detectors to pyrolysis and combustion products 
from materials commonly used in aircraft interiors and 
from materials that may be used in the future, as listed 
in a table. The test facility has been designed and con- 
structed and the pyrolysis products detection series is al- 
most finished. Thus, the data reported here are restricted 
to the response of the detectors to the pyrolysis products 
from materials identified in the table as being "on-hand." 
Formal comparisons of environmental effects such as 
changes in ambient pressure, temperature, air velocity, 
or relative humidity are not made. 9 figs, 5 tables, 2 
refs . 



246 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



;. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

). Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

280. Burry PE 

I SURVEY OF AMBIENT CONDITIONS AFFECTING 
IRE DETECTORS 

Ire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

lar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 151-161 

ponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

Research 

Where large numbers of automatic fire detection 
y stems are connected to fire brigades, the numbers of 
ilse alarms may be a serious problem, as determined 
y a statistical survey made in 1968 by the Fire Research 
tation (UK). If systems connected directly to brigades 
re to become more common, then the false alarm/fire 
larm ratio must be reduced. Among other causes, defec- 
ve equipment is primarily the responsibility of the manu- 
icturer; external interference and unnoticed maintenance 
; Ukely to be reduced by better training, which is largely 
le responsibility of the user; alarms due to environmental 
ffects on the detector, however, can only be reduced 
' the conditions the detector may experience are known, 
his paper describes a survey of environmental conditions 
1 situations in which detectors might be used, with the 
bjective of allowing better specification standards and 
odes of practice so that detectors may be more effective- 
/ appbed. 5 figs, 1 ref. 

281. GrabowskiGH 

HE APPLICATION OF THERMAL AND FLAME SEN- 
ORS TO FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS 

ire Detection for Life Safety Svmp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

lar 31-ADr 1, Washington, DC, pages 162-170 

ponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

esearch 

The appUcation of thermal and flame sensors to fire 
election systems covers the entire spectrum of known 
azards in the fire protection field. Thermal detection has 
een the major approach to sensing fires since efforts 
ere first initiated in this area, while flame detection is 
»e newest technique for protection of the complex and 
xotic hazards created by industrial growth. Thermal or 
eat sensors are used to detect the very large quantities 
f heat evolved from combustion and a selective form 
f protection such as water sprinklers. On the other hand, 
ame sensors are used to detect the electromagnetic radia- 
on in the infrared, visible, and/or ultraviolet region of 
le spectrum of a flame. This gives a very rapid means 
f detecting a fire, but with little ability to discriminate 
igarding the harmful nature of the fire. Since only a 
nail part of the combustion energy is radiated in this 
lanner, it is necessary to use complex electronic circuitry 
> make use of this weak signal. This technique holds 
eat potential but has been limited in apphcation in view 
f its complex nature. The performance and application 
f thermal and flame sensors with regard to their potential 
fe safety are reviewed. 3 figs, 2 tables. (Author) 

J82. Zimmerman CE 

HOTOELECTRIC SMOKE DETECTORS 

ire Detection for Life Safety Svmp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 

lar 3 1 -Apr 1 , Washington, DC, pages 171-187 

ponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 

esearch 



Photoelectric smoke detectors have been developed to 
a high state of efficiency and reUability in the 40 years 
that they have been used to detect fires. In this presenta- 
tion the capabihties of photoelectric smoke detectors are 
reviewed and reasons relating to concept, design, per- 
formance, reliability, and field experience versus false 
alarms and long-term stability are cited in support of their 
use in all kinds of premises requiring protection. 8 figs, 
15 refs. 

1283. Scheidweiler A 

PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF IONIZATION CHAMBER 
MEASURING TECHNIQUES (UNIPOLAR AND BIPOLAR 
CHAMBERS) 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Svmp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 
Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 188-198 
Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 
Research 

The subject of this paper is the physical basis of an 
ionization detector. An effort is made to explain and 
demonstrate the fundamental design possibilities that exist 
in the development of such detectors, since it is easy 
to produce an ionization chamber detector that does 
nothing more than signal ihe presence of smoke, but the 
demands for greater reliabiUty, sensitivity, and application 
range require an understanding of physical interrelation- 
ships. 10 figs. (Author) 

1284. PearsaU DD 

IONIZATION SMOKE DETECTION: APPLICATION TO 
LIFE SAFETY IN DWELLINGS 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Svmp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 
Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 199-209 
Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 
Research 

The purpose of this paper is to try to assess the effec- 
tiveness as well as identify the limitations of the ionization 
principle as applied to home fire safety. Three basic 
sources of information are used: a summary of a sample 
survey of detector users, a summary of potentially 
hazardous fires reported to date in protected occupancies, 
and a response to industry concerns from the accumulated 
reports and experiences of one manufacturer. Not in- 
cluded are comparisons with other forms of fire detection. 
Because of the general acceptance of smoke detectors 
as life-saving devices, it is mandatory that the fire protec- 
tion industry recognize the Hmits of their application as 
clearly as they recognize their potential for saving lives. 
3 tables, 8 refs. (Author) 

1285. Ban- LG 

DEVELOPMENT OF A QUARTZ CRYSTAL INCIPIENT 
FIRE DETECTOR 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Symp, Proc, 1977; 1975, 
Mar 31 -Apr 1, Washington, DC, pages 210-226 
Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 
Research 

This report first summarizes the aerosol and particulate 
constituents of incipient fire conditions and normal am- 
bient conditions using data from recently completed 
Celesco Industries tests to determine the feasibility of 
adapting its quartz crystal microbalance monitor product 
line to the detection of incipient fire conditions aboard 



247 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO). The SSO-SDS 
design is then described showing the operation of the 
detector in providing an alarm only when the inherent 
characteristics of an incipient fire exist. 10 figs. (Author) 

1286. Ludewig FA 

APPLICATION OF CLOUD CHAMBER TECHNIQUES 
TO FIRE DETECTION 

Fire Detection for Life Safety Svmp, Proc, 1977. 1975, 
Mar 31-ADr 1, Washington, DC, pages 227-238 
Sponsor: National Research Council, Committee on Fire 
Research 

The cloud chamber type of fire-detection system has 
advanced to a reliable state and is based on many years 
of air pollution measuring equipment manufacture and 
field use. The inherent sensitivity, stabiUty, and particle 
size range result in an early detection capability with a 
low false alarm rate, which is of prime concern to life 
safety. Continuing design changes are resulting in cost 
reductions which will make the cloud chamber type of 
system more economic for small systems. The cloud 
chamber principle, submicron particle production, imple- 
mentation for fire detection, system characteristics, and 
cost are discussed. 6 figs, 1 table, 5 refs. (Author) 

c. FIRE AND EXPLOSION RISKS 

1287. Anon 

PREMISES REQUIRING FIRE PROTECTION 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):6-ll, 1976 (Japanese) 

The principal criteria used in determining the degree 
of fire hazard of various premises are analyzed. These 
criteria relate to the purposes for which the premises are 
used, their architectural features, their size, the presence 
and number of people constantly occupying them, the 
presence and quantity of dangerously explosive and readi- 
ly combustible materials, and the presence and nature 
of the self-contained fire-extinguishing means provided for 
in the design of the premises. A detailed fire-hazard clas- 
sification of the principal typical civil construction pro- 
jects is given: manufacturing plants of varying size and 
nature, storehouses and warehouses, office and residential 
buildings, public social structures, etc. Some recommenda- 
tions regarding the location of these typical premises from 
the viewpoint of fire hazard are made. 3 tables. (RZh) 

1288. Gerstbach H 

SAFETY-ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS FOR ELEC- 
TRIC LAMPS FOR PLANTS WITH EXPLOSION 
HAZARDS 

Oesterr Feuerwehr; 30(4):67-71, 1976 (German) 

The operation of electrical lamps in industrial plants 
with explosion hazards in Austria is regulated not only 
by the obligatory instructions 0VE-E71 and OVE-E65; 
also recommended are the instructions mentioned in the 
title, which contain a classification of explosion-hazard 
zones, materials, possible explosions, and steps to protect 
against them. Considered in detail are the safety-engineer- 
ing requirements imposed on industrial lamps, taking into 
account protective measures (sealing, increased safety, 
ventilation, special forms of protection). Measures for the 
repair of such lamps are proposed. 7 figs. 



1289. Malsy H 

EXPLOSION-PROTECTED DRYING OVENS IN 
LABORATORIES AND INDUSTRY 

Verfahrenstechnik (Mainz); 10(6):394,396,398,400,406, 1976 
(German) 

Evaluation of explosion hazard is difficult and requires 
knowledge of the valid codes, rules and guidelines. Possi- 
ble measures for primary and secondary protection against 
explosion as well as measures to minimize the effect of 
an explosion are examined. In order to enable those 
responsible for safety to find an optimal safety solution 
for any emergency, some currently produced drying ovens 
with artificial ventilation are described and illustrated. Par- 
ticular emphasis is laid on the different designs of the 
ovens with respect to operation and location. 9 figs, 2 
tables, 5 refs. (Fachdok 12/0911) 

d. FIRE LOADS 

1290. Culver CG 

FIRE LOADS AND LIVE LOADS IN BUILDINGS. Nat 

Bureau of Standards; PB-255 864/lGA, 10 pages, 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

The development of a nation-wide survey program for 
determining fire loads and hve loads in buildings and 
estabUshing the factors which affect these loads is 
described. Considerations involved in planning the pro- 
gram and the type of data collected are included. Prelimi- 
nary survey results obtained from the NBS Administration 
building are described. This report was published in the 
Proceedings of the International Conference on Per- 
formance of Building Structures, Glasgow, Scotland, Mar 
31-Apr 1, 1976, Vol 1, pages 111-119 (Pentech Press Ltd, 
London, England, 1976). (Author) 

e. HEAT AND PRESSURE LOAD EFFECTS ON 

STRUCTURES 

1291. RodriquezG 

FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS IN CONSTRUCTION 

InfCostr; (266):93-104, 1976 (Spanish) 

Considered in this article are the effects and deforma- 
tion produced by fire in different construction materials 
such as steel, concrete, stone, plastics, etc. and some 
methods of protecting them. Demonstrated in particular 
are the advantages of gypsum, either natural or synthetic, 
mixed with sand or reinforced with mineral fibers, etc. 
The advantages of cladding exposed components with 
compact concrete and of using mineral wool and blast- 
furnace slag, asbestos cement, etc., are indicated. 

1292. SauerGE 

FIRE RATED GRID MEMBER WITH CONTROLLED 
EXPANSION MEANS 

US Patent No. 3,965,631; CI 52/232, (E04B 1/68), Appl 
1 Aug 1974, Disci. 29 Jun 1976, Assignee: Roblin Hope's 
Industries, Inc, Buffalo, NY 

A fire rated grid-member having fixed end points and 
the web thereof absorbing thermally induced longitudinal 
compression which results from fixed end point reaction 
forces. The grid member further includes a bead sur- 
mounting the web which is deformed to create a plurality 



248 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

e. Heat and Pressure Load Effects on Structures— Continued 



of weakened portions which deform further upon gnd 
member compression to thereby absorb longitudinal com- 
pression in the bead. Each deformed portion of the bead 
comprises opposing portions of the bead sides being 
crimped together to form a plane of abutment which is 
obliquely disposed to a limited extent with respect to the 
longitudinal axis of the bead. Such a disposition of the 
plane of abutment minimizes the reduction in compressive 
strength of the bead while assuring that deformation of 
the bead will occur in a desired manner during thermally 
induced compression of the grid member so as to maintain 
a supported grid network in position. 9 claims, 5 drawing 
figs. (Author) 



f. PREVENTION AND HAZARD REDUCTION 




1293. Rousey DL 
FIRE RATED GRID 

US Patent No. 3,965,632; CI 52/232, (E04C 2/42), Appl 
23 Jul 1975, Disci. 29 Jun 1976, Assignee: Questor Corp, 
Toledo, OH 

A girder-like runner for use with fire-rated suspended 
ceiling structure is disclosed. The runner is provided with 
a bottom flange, an interrupted top bead, and a web in- 
cluding a diamond-shaped expansion member. A lower 
web portion adjacent the flange is formed with two op- 
posed lipped ledges. Buckling forces caused by fire-in- 
duced thermal expansion force the web expansion member 
to deform outwardly into a foreshortened diamond shape. 
The forces also cause the ledge web portion and the flange 
to move downwardly in a controlled, predetermined 
manner which retains runner strength. 18 claims, 9 draw- 
ing figs. (Author) 




FIRE BEHAVIOR OF 



1294. Anon 

FIRE-SAFE CONSTRUCTION 
PLASTICS 

BVDISPI Bull; (2):7-12, 1976 (German) 

Until about 10 years ago highrise buildings were con- 
sidered \o be highly fire-safe structures, first of aU 
because of the fire-resistant construction method and, 
secondly, because of the good fire compartmentation. 
Changes in such a view have occurred recently; combusti- 
ble synthetic materials began to be used as insulation 
and as structural materials in highrise construction. The 
present article is intended to draw attention to the hazards 
of burning plastics, to describe the favorable and un- 
favorable properties with an eye to fire-protection en- 
gineering, to point out the presently valid guidelines, and 
to indicate the possibilities for application of plastics 
which are advantageous from a fire protection standpoint. 
7 figs, 3 refs. (Fachdok 12/1098) 

1295. Watanabe H 
nCHTING TRAIN FIRES 

Denki kikansya; (234):30-37, 1975 (Japanese) 

It is reported that three years after the worst fire ever 
to occur in Japan (1972) on the Hokuriku-sen railroad 
line (30 people perished and 714 were injured) a vast 
program has been set up to analyze the causes of the 
fire and to develop organizational and technical steps to 
prevent and effectively combat such fires in the future. 
A chart of the measures being taken is given; it controls 
the time schedules and the sequence of execution of these 
measures: some change in the running speed schedule 
for trains on the Hokuriku-sen line; introduction of 
changes in the specifications for the manufacture of cer- 
tain types of railroad cars (required to increase the fire 
safety of the cars); conducting training and short courses 
for railroad personnel on the latest methods of preventing 
and fighting fire (including methods of handling the fire- 
fighting equipment of trains). Separately regulated are 
steps to be taken to increase the fire safety of long rail- 
road tunnels, which are sources of increased hazard. Also 
given is a report of the status of these measures as of 
1 November 1975. 1 fig, 7 tables. (RZh) 

1296. Beverley EV 

REDUCING FIRE AND BURN HAZARDS AMONG THE 
ELDERLY 

Geriatrics; 31(5):106-110, 1976 

The physical disabilities of the elderly and the vulnera- 
bility of the elderly to fire hazards resulting from these 
disabihties are discussed. The measures taken by govern- 
ment and industry to reduce these hazards are reviewed 
and various recommendations, such as mandatory flame 
resistance of clothing and advice from physicians or 
precautions, are suggested. 1 fig. 

1297. Wakabayashi K 

PREVENTION OF FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS 

Soda to enso; 26(ll):352-362, 1975 (Japanese) 

The physicochemical principles of combustion and ex- 
plosion processes are analyzed. The results of laboratory 
investigations of some processes involving the materials 



249 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction— Continued 

most widely used in industry and construction, primarily 
gases, are presented. Empirical formulas used to deter- 
mine the temperature limits of flammability of oil products 
are presented and verified. It is noted that the greatest 
influence on variations of the ignition limits is expected 
by admixture of inert gases and vapors, the temperature 
and pressure of the mixture, the diffusion of gases, the 
size of the container in which ignition takes place, and 
a number of other factors. Thus, when the pressure of 
a methane-air mixture increases from 1 to 125 kgs/cm^, 
the lower ignition limit hardly changes at all, namely 5.6 
and 5.7 vol %, respectively, whereas the lower limit in- 
creases from 14.3 to 45.7 vol %. Carbon monoxide at 
a pressure of 760mm Hg has an ignition limit of 15.5 
to 68 vol %, but at 200mm Hg ignition does not take 
place at all. A separate study is made of the processes 
of explosive combustion that occurs when a mixture of 
combustible vapors and gases with air (in a specified ratio) 
is ignited. Explosive combustion of gases, characterized 
by an extremely high rate, does not last more than 0.1 
sec, of liquid vapors 0.15 to 0.35 sec, and of dust 0.5 
sec. The aim of the studies and definitions is to develop 
highly effective preventive methods. 10 figs, 2 tables, 5 
refs. (RZh) 

1298. Wakabayashi K 

nRE AND EXPLOSION PREVENTION ENGINEERING 

Soda to enso; 26(12):393-402, 1975 (Japanese) 

The physicochemical principles of combustion and ex- 
plosion processes are analyzed. Given are the results of 
laboratory studies of some processes involving the materi- 
als most widely used in modem industry and construction. 
Subject of the investigations were highly flammable liquids 
and combustible liquids with flash points up to 45°C, such 
as ester, acetone, benzine, kerosene, and others, as well 
as with a flash point above 45°C, such as oil, glycerine, 
fuel oil, and others. It is shown that the flash point of 
hydrocarbons of one homologous series increases from 
the first member of the series to the next with an increase 
in molecular weight, density, boiling point, and with 
decreasing buoyancy of the liquid vapors. The results of 
the studies are given in graphic and tabular form. The 
design and operating principle of the laboratory equipment 
used during the studies are described. 15 figs, 3 tables, 
5 refs. (RZh) 

1299. Voigtsberger P 

PROTECTION AGAINST EXPLOSION - RECENT IN- 
FORMATION, NEW GUIDELINES 

Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz; 26(6): 133- 136, 1976 
(German) 

The safety-engineering principles which are crucial for 
protection against explosion are presented in compact 
form and are arranged systematically: the sequence of 
protective measures described here lead step by step to 
lower safety levels. Exact implementation of any measures 
higher on the Hst usually makes the succeeding ones su- 
perfluous. From the new guideline for protection against 
explosion issued by the employers' liability insurance it 
is evident that the primary protective measures to be 
covered are in the form of avoidance of explosive mix- 
tures as well as measures to avoid the hazardous effects 
of explosions. Only if these measures are not satisfactorily 
observed are protective measures in the form of exclusion 



of aU ignition sources, of which 13 different kinds have 
been identified to date, to be implemented. 3 refs. 
(Fachdok 12/0887) 

1300. Holland K 

THE FIRE HAZARDS OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 
-A REVIEW OF THE SITUATION IN THE UNITED 
KINGDOM 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 
Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 1-11 
Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 
Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

This subject title is extremely wide. However, on the 
face of it, it appears to exclude hazards other than fire 
hazards, such as toxic and radioactive hazards. On this 
basis, there would appear to be three areas of concern 
to the Home Office (UK), namely, the safety of firemen, 
public safety in occupied buildings, and the destruction 
of property. It is proposed in the talk to examine these 
areas, to demonstrate where the concern arises, and to 
try to identify what is needed (by way of research in 
particular, but by other means if appropriate) to improve 
the situation that gives rise to concern. (Author) 

1301. Lyons JW 

REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE SAFETY OF COMBUSTI- 
BLE MATERIALS IN THE UNITED STATES 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 12- 

19 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Fire safety of buildings and building furnishings in the 
United States is controlled by local codes and certain 
mandatory Federal requirements. The test methods and 
criteria used in codes generally are developed by technical 
committees of ASTM or NFPA. An alternative mechanism 
is inclusion in a mandatory Federal requirement as, for 
example, in the standards for housing insured by the De- 
partment of Housing and Urban Development, for nursing 
homes supported by the Department of Health, Education 
and Welfare, hospitals run by the Veterans Administra- 
tion, or transportation vehicles regulated by the Depart- 
ment of Transportation. Test methods for these Federal 
agencies are developed by Federal research, often at the 
Center for Fire Research at the National Bureau of Stan- 
dards. 

The fire safety of consumer products falls under the 
purview of the Consumer Product Safety Commission. 

There is great concern in the United States about the 
chaotic situation with regard to the vahdity of fire test 
methods. The focus on fire safety has in recent years 
shifted from fire endurance and compartmentation to con- 
cern for the occupants in the room of origin and in sin- 
gle-family residences. This means we are now concerned 
with furnishings and interior finish materials. Tests for 
these items need considerable work. There is no one small 
test which permits one to assess the fire safety of a 
furnished enclosure. Current research efforts are directed 
to developing standardized full-scale fire tests for enclo- 
sures and improved correlations between these and small- 
scale economical tests. 

Fire research in the United States has received new 
impetus from the Federal Fire Prevention and Control 



250 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction — Continued 

Act of 1974, establishing a new National Fire Prevention 
and Control Administration. With this new emphasis and 
support at the Federal level, it is hoped that the U.S. 
fire losses will decrease in the future to come into line 
with those of the other industrial nations of the world. 
1 fig, 2 tables. (Author) 

1302. Turri L 

REQUIREMENTS IN ITALY FOR FIRE SAFETY OF 
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975. Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 20- 

25 

Sponsor. Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

In Italy, standardization organizations involved in the 
fire safety of human life, property and the environment 
are: 1) CNR, the National Research Council, which is 
entrusted with the task of preparing rules for standardiza- 
tion of materials, technical and scientific devices, and 
for the construction, approval and protection of plants 
and buildings; and 2) UNI, a federated group of organiza- 
tions interested in regulations for the different industrial 
fields, such as automobiles, naval constructions, aircraft, 
railway materials, etc. UNI is also connected with interna- 
tional organizations for work in each field. The activities 
of these organizations are discussed in this presentation. 
(Author) 

1303. Becker WHK 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SAFETY OF COMBUSTI- 
BLE MATERIALS IN WESTERN GERMANY 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 26- 

40 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

When making use of combustible materials in Western 
Germany it is necessary, in a wide range of applications, 
to pay attention to the numerous outlooks on fire safety 
and prevention, outlooks which govern the use of all com- 
bustible materials irrespective of their type. The following 
exposition is designed to aid both user and constructor 
by enabhng them to recognize and adhere to the rules 
and regulations governing the use of combustible materials 
in the technical spheres in which they find the most appli- 
cation. 

The assertions made in this report about the manner 
in which combustible materials behave when subjected 
to fire are confined to situations arising from a destructive 
fire, in other words, a fire without a clearly definable 
source, or one that has left its source and spread indepen- 
dently from it in a dangerous manner. Thus any evidence 
given here cannot normally be applied to controlled fires 
such as is the case in firing a furnace or burning rubbish. 
3 figs, 17 refs. (Author) 

1304. Ramsay GC 

REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE SAFETY OF COMBUSTI- 
BLE MATERIALS IN AUSTRALIA 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 41- 

54 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 



This paper reviews the requirements of Australian and 
State Governments and Statutory Authorities in Australia 
for combustibles used in buildings and transport and by 
consumers. Particular emphasis is placed on building 
structures and Unings as the various building regulations 
provide the main means of control. 

Tests promulgated by the Standards Association of Aus- 
traUa (SAA) form the basis of most requirements and, 
in fact, the SAA through its Mark Scheme, can influence 
the fire safety of products directly. The tests of most 
significance, those referred to as "Fire Tests on Building 
Materials and Structures", are described in detail. 

Although there is a multipUcity of responsible authorities 
and, at present, many differing approaches, a trend 
towards uniformity is evident. Codes based upon the Aus- 
trahan Model Uniform Building Code (AMUBC), the Aus- 
tralian Trade Practices Act, the control of linings in pubhc 
buildings, and the labelling of children's night-clothes are 
discussed in relation to this trend. 4 figs, 47 refs. (Author) 

1305. Sumi K 

REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA FOR FIRE SAFETY OF 
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 55- 

65 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

The organizations in Canada primarily responsible for 
promulgating regulations on fire safety of combustible 
materials and some of the regulations in force are 
reviewed. The paper deals with construction materials for 
buildings, transportation equipment (motor vehicle, 
marine, air, railway and subway), furnishings and textiles. 
The problem of controlling materials on the basis of 
flammability, generation of smoke, and evolution of toxic 
decomposition products is discussed. 1 table, 14 refs. 
(Author) 

1306. Shirayama K and Saito F 

FIRE SAFETY OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS IN 
JAPAN -REQUIREMENTS AND CURRENT RESEARCH 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internat, 1st, 

Proc; 1975, Oct 15-17, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 66- 

83 

Sponsor: Univ Edinburgh, Centre for Ind Consultancy and 

Liaison with Dept Fire Saf Eng 

Research work on the fire safety of materials is divided 
into two categories, according to the aim of the research. 
One concerns the development of evaluation methods for 
the performance of materials related to fire safety, the 
other for improving materials to fit them to the criteria 
required by the evaluation methods. 

In Japan, there are many research workers in both 
categories mentioned above, covering a wide field of spe- 
cialization. However, they cannot always contact each 
other, and do not cooperate systematically, as they belong 
to different fields and organizations. Since it is not so 
easy for the authors to obtain complete information from 
other fields, fire safety of materials in the case of struc- 
tural fires is the main topic in this paper. 3 figs, 5 tables. 
(Author) 



251 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 



g. PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT 

1307. Januszewski A, Kozak W and Niemczycki J 
DESIGN OF DRY FIRE BARRIERS 

Chemik; 28(9):333-337, 1975 (Polish; English, French, Ger- 
man, Russian Summaries) 

Various types of fire barriers and their classification 
are described. The structures used in the different 
branches of industry are presented. Structural solutions, 
supplemented by other systems ensuring safety, are given. 
Methods for production of metal-ceramic materials and 
metal fibers to be used in fire barriers are examined. 
(RZh) 

1308. Anon 

nRE PROTECTION BY MEANS OF GYPSUM BOARDS 

Face au risque; (119):37-38, 1976 (French) 

Gypsum board facings have been known in the USA 
since the last decade of the 19th century. At the beginning 
of the 20th century this method was introduced into Eu- 
rope and has proved to be useful in many ways. The 
topics discussed in this article are the response of gypsum 
boards to fire exposure and their fire resistance according 
to thickness and composition. At the present time excel- 
lent boards are available which meet all the requirements. 
The article shows which types are best suited for different 
kinds of structural use. 1 fig. (Fachdok 12/0729) 

1309. Medlock LE 

AUTOMATIC PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR DIESEL-EN- 
GINED SYSTEMS 

Fire; 68(848):449-450, 1976 

A brief description is given of a system to protect 
diesel-engined vehicles from engine compartment fires 
resulting from vehicle defects such as fuel leakage onto 
a hot manifold and fuel ignition from overhead wiring. 
System requirements were detection (by Une detector 
cord), automatic extinguishment (fire extinguishing Une), 
stopping of engine to prevent fuel discharge into the fire 
and eliminate current flow in the charging circuit, auto- 
matic switch to disconnect the vehicle battery, and indica- 
tion that the automatic protection system was operative. 
(See also Fire Internal, 5(52):89-93, 1976). 2 figs, 3 photos. 

1310. Pike CH 

EMERGENCY LIGHTING: REQUIREMENTS FOR RELI- 
ABLE OPERATION SYSTEMS 

Fire Prot Rev; 39(430):395, 397, 399, 1976 

An emergency Ughting system must be reliable. Its relia- 
bility must be such that the level of illuminance along 
escape routes is always adequate. Discussed in the article 
are some of the major requirements for luminaires and 
wiring systems that should be met during the planning 
and installation of emergency lighting to ensure reliability 
in different environments. The requirements of British 
Code BS5266, the code of practice for the emergency 
lighting of premises, are cited. 

1311. Anon 

FIRE TEST IN NEW BUILDING EXAMINES PRES- 
SURIZATION SYSTEM OF SMOKE CONTROL 

Fire Prot Rev; 39(430):414-415, 1976 



A fire test of a smoke control pressurization system 
in a new building is reported. The new building, an office 
building in Hamburg, FRG, has six floors above the 
ground floor and basement. In plan the building is roughly 
rectangular, measuring 92 x 43 ft. On each of its two 
long sides, it is attached to adjoining buildings and at 
the rear it faces directly on a canal. Pedestrian access 
to the building is possible only on the south side. The 
pressurization system is two-stage, incorporating a low 
level of pressurization in the elevator, lobby and staircase 
for continuous running and an emergency state in which 
the pressurization level is increased. The building, system, 
and fire tests are described. (Author) 

1312. BreuR 

BETTER SMOKE AND FIRE PROTECTION IN BUILD- 
ING FIRES 

HLK; (2):67-68, 73, 1976 (German) 

The special hazard of spread of smoke and toxic com- 
bustion products through a building during fires is pointed 
out. A proposal is made to introduce standard tests for 
smoke-proofing properties of door frames and doors using 
elastic or intumescent strips to seal the gaps between 
them. (RZh) 

1313. Evdokimenko AM 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-PROTECTION MEANS AND 
SYSTEMS 

Pribory i sistemy upr; (2):40-41, 1976 (Russian) 

During the 9th five-year plan the volume of work ac- 
complished by the"Union Special Automatic Equipment" 
plant in the assembly of automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems and fire-protection and alarm sets was more than 
doubled. At present more than 20 types of automatic fire 
detectors and fire-alarm receiver sets are in use, per- 
mitting effective protection of national economic installa- 
tions of all kinds. Work is in progress on the development 
of new fire-protection and alarm systems designed to work 
in conjunction with automatic systems for the control of 
technological and manufacturing processes. Increasing the 
efficiency of water fire-extinguishing systems will be ad- 
vanced by using sprinklers with shut-off devices in the 
form of glass flasks, by expanding the range of sprinklers 
with respect to water flow rate, and by using high-molecu- 
lar polyamide water additives. (RZh) 

1314. Klingelhoefer GH 

EFFECTIVENESS OF SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL 
SYSTEMS 

Mitt Inst Bautech; 7(5):134-138, 1976 (German) 

This article is devoted to an evaluation of the pertinent 
professional literature that was prepared to support the 
standardization work being done by the "heat and smoke 
removal in fires" working committee in the Construction 
Standards Section (FRG) and to enable building inspectors 
to deal with smoke and heat removal systems. The work 
being done relates to the theoretical principles and the 
potential apphcations of such systems. The as yet unan- 
swered questions, such as dimensioning, air-flow condi- 
tions on buildings, heat removal, influence of sprinklers 
and test methods, require that further theoretical and prac- 
tical studies be made. 22 refs. (Fachdok 13/0013) 



252 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 

1315. Anon - _ _ 
FIRE VENTILATION 

Naeringsmiddelindustrien; 29(3): 1,3-4, 1976 (Norwegian) 

The principles of a ventilation device intended to 
remove smoke from industrial buildings during a fire are 
discussed briefly. The factors affecting the dimensions 
and location of the ventilation outlets and the components 
that go into thermal and mechanical ventilation systems 
are enumerated. 3 figs. (RZh) 

1316. Cluzel D, Gaignou A and Rou J 
FIREBREAKS 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(155):18-39, 1976 (French) 

The importance of firebreaks in modem construction 
is demonstrated. Regulations for residential and public 
buildings are cited. A hst of firebreak installers is sup- 
phed. The recommendations of the APSAI (Plenary As- 
sembly of Fire Insurance Companies) with respect to in- 
dustrial fire risk protection, in particular, regulation R16 
concerning automatic vertical firebreak devices, are 
presented. Controlled mechanical ventilation and fire pro- 
tection are discussed. A burglar-proof fire-break door is 
shown. 17 figs. 

1317. Anon 

HRE PROTECTION IN UNDERGROUND PREMISES 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(155):39-41, 1976 (French) 

Fire protection in underground premises by various 
means such as smoke detectors, fixed extinguishing 
systems and automatic smoke venting is discussed. 

1318. Rohlfs fnu 

SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL DURING FIRES 

VFDB Z; 25(3):102-105, 1976 (German) 

The present note represents a critical examination of 
the article by Halpaap in VFDB Z, No. 1, 1976 (see 
FTA abstract 301). The increased appUcation of the 
guidelines of the Property Insurers Association in the 
licensing procedure of the Building Inspectorate should 
not be contested, in principle, as long as better informa- 
tion, guideUnes, or standards are lacking. It is also shown 
that the recent work of the insurance companies in the 
Comite Europeen des Assurances (European Insurance 
Committee) and the ideas being discussed recently in the 
working groups of the Standards Committee really are 
not greatly divergent. Progress in obtaining information 
or developing new experimental information will be gladly 
incorporated in the guidelines of the Property Insurance 
Association. (Fachdok 12/0994) 

1319. Anon 

FLEXIBLE FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIAL 

French Patent No. 2,233,300; CI C04B 43/04, A62C 2/02, 
Appl 14 Jun 1973, Disci. 10 Jan 1975, Assignee: Ythier 

A composition material consisting of a layer of alu- 
minum foil (0.08 mm thick) and a layer of asbestos (0.6 
mm thick) cemented together with bitumen is intended 
to protect the surface of structures from catching fire 
when exposed to a local heat source. The aluminum repels 
heat from the spot exposed to the source and prevents 
heating of the structure, so that the structure cannot ignite 
and cannot heat up to reach hazardous temperatures on 



the unheated surface. In efficiency tests, a partition 
covered with this material was heated by a burner with 
a 22 cm flame, the distance between the burner and the 
partition was 13 cm. In 30 min the temperature of the 
unheated surface rose to 40°C, but practically ceased to 
increase with additional 4 hours of heating. In an 
analogous experiment with a structure not covered with 
this material the temperature exceeded 150°C in 30 min 
and continued to increase. When in use this material pro- 
tects structures from moisture effects. Either side can 
be attached to a structure without loss in effectiveness. 
3 drawing figs. (RZh) 

1320. MiffreH 

SAFETY DAMPER FOR WELLS 

French Patent No. 2,247,609; CI E21B 33/10, F16K 17/24, 
Appl 10 Oct 1973, Disci. 9 May 1975, Assignee: Entreprise 
de Recherches et d'Activites PetroUeres 

A patent is disclosed for a damper designed to cap 
gas and oil wells in case of accident or fire. 1 drawing 
fig. 

1321. Dreissig G 

SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL FOR ROOFS IN CASE 
OF FIRE 

GDR Patent No. 113,399; CI 24gl, (F23I 17/02), Appl 
6 Aug 1974, Disci. 5 Jun 1975 

A patent is disclosed for a device which is a pad made 
of elastic polymeric film having a valve and rupturable 
membranes. The pad is affixed to a steel shell which 
is a structural component of the roof. The shell has holes 
for the removal of heat and smoke. The pad is filled 
with condensed gas, e.g. CO2, which, when it expands, 
produces an overpressure. The pad expands and closes 
the openings. When the temperature rises, the gas pres- 
sure in the pad increases, and the membrane, calculated 
for a certain pressure, ruptures and the smoke gas im- 
mediately exhausts from the premise. By selecting a con- 
densed gas with the corresponding pressure of the satu- 
rated vapors it is possible to vary the temperature at 
which the pad ruptures. If a gaseous compound for fire 
extinguishing is used as the condensed gas, it helps to 
fight the fire. The membrane can also be ruptured by 
a stream of water if necessary. 1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

1322. Wendt AC 
SMOKE STOP 

US Patent No. 3,964,214; CI 52/1, (E04H 9/00), Appl 
25 Jun 1974, Disci. 22 Jun 1976, Assignee: US Gypsum 
Co, Chicago, IL 

A smoke stop for doors is disclosed. The smoke stop 
comprises a metal frame with a slot therein extending 
substantially the entire length of the frame on the door 
side thereof, a movable Ud pivotally attached along one 
outer edge of the metal frame and releasably attached 
to a second outer edge of the metal frame, thereby 
completely enclosing the slot in the metal frame, and an 
intumescent material completely enclosed within the en- 
closed slot. When the door is closed and the frame and 
door are subjected to flames, the intumescent material 
expands causing the sealing of the space between the 
frame and the door and thereby providing a smoke stop 
between the door and the frame. 7 claims, 3 drawing 
figs. (Author) 



253 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 



,--/3 




1323. Harmathy TZ 

FLAME DEFLECTING DEVICE FOR MOUNTING ON 

A BUILDING EXTERIOR 

US Patent No. 3,968,841; CI 169/48, (A62C 7/00), Appl 
4 Jun 1975, Disci. 13 Jul 1976, Assignee: Canadian Patents 
and Development Ltd, Ottawa, Canada 

A flame deflecting device for mounting on a building 
exterior comprises a panel which is attached by hinges 
at its lower end to extend upwardly along the face of 
the building between windows at different levels. A releas- 
ing device, preferably actuated by flames from the lower 
wdndow, releases the panel so that it falls to extend sub- 
stantially horizontally to deflect from the upper window 
flames escaping from the lower window, thus retarding 
the spread of fire while allowing the fire causing the 
flames from the lower window to rapidly bum out. The 
releasing device may be a heat destructible, fastening ele- 
ment holding the panel against a compression spring on 
a stud fixed to the wall of the building. 5 claims, 6 draw- 
ing figs. (Author) 




1324. Naidus ES 

EXPLOSION VENT CONSTRUCTION 

US Patent No. 3,%9,858; CI 52/232, (E04B 7/18), Appl 
20 Jun 1975, Disci. 20 Jul 1976, Assignee: RCA Corp, 

NY, NY 

An explosion vent comprises a symmetrical convex 
dome disposed over a building roof or wall vent opening. 
A pair of symmetrically arranged safety braces are 
disposed over the dome. A pin is disposed in each brace 
end and inserted in an enlarged opening or guide in a 
curb assembly which supports the dome on the building 
adjacent the vent opening. The pins and pin-receiving 
openings or guides are arranged to disengage only when 
a predetermined pressure differential (an explosion) "pops 
out" the dome and braces in a predetermined direction 
determined by the parallel axes of the pins. 2 claims, 
4 drawing figs. (Author) 



56 -- 

52' -B 

16' 




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1325. Moulen AW and Grubits SJ 

STAIRWELL PRESSURIZATION IN A TWENTY-SIX 
STORY BUILDING. Dept of Housing and Construction 
(Australia), Experim Bldg Sta; TR 44/153/424(L), 11 
pages, 1 fig, 4 tables, 2 refs, Jul 1975 

Pressure differentials and rates of air movement induced 
at doorways of two fire-isolated stairshafts were measured 
when the air-handUng system was stopped — being its 
fire emergency mode — and fans operated to pressurize 
the stairwells. The survey also provided reference data 
on the pressure induced inside the building for specific 
outside temperature and wind conditions with air condi- 
tioning operating normally. (Author) 



254 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment— Continued 

1326. Moulen AW and Gnibits SJ 

SMOKE CONTROL OF A BUILDING OF 22 LEVELS 
USING THE AIR-HANDLING PLANT IN VARIOUS 
MODES. Dept of Housing and Construction (Australia), 
Experim BIdg Sta; TR 44/153/425(L), 13 pages, 2 figs, 
5 tables, 2 refs, Aug 1975 

Pressure differentials and rates of air movement induced 
at doorways of two fire-isolated stairshafts were measured 
when the air-handling plant was operated in a variety 
of modes of operation for fire-emergency purposes. 
Results obtained are compared with those for operation 
in the fire-emergency mode specified in Australian Stan- 
dard 1668, Part 1-1974, "Fire Precautions in Buildings 
with Air-Handling Systems." The fire-emergency modes 
included operation of stairshaft pressurization fans when 
the air-plant was stopped, as well as conditions when 
supply air was maintained while the return-air dampers 
were closed and while return air was discharged to at- 
mosphere, respectively, and when supply was stopped 
with return air being discharged to atmosphere. Reference 
data are included also for a differential-pressure survey 
of the building operating with normal air conditioning. 
(Author) 

h. SUPPRESSION DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT 

1327. Petersen HC 
nRE VENTILATION 

Brandvaern; 2(2):17-18, 1976 (Danish; Enghsh Summary) 

In the last 20 years increasing attention has been 
devoted to the possibility of controUing or hmiting fires 
by ventilators. Up to the present, however, there are no 
uniform requirements on the structure of such a ventila- 
tion system; differing principles for calculating the free 
cross section of ventilation openings are used in different 
countries and even organizations. There is no uniform 
method of determining the throughput, on which such 
Ccilculations are based. In the FRG the fire insurance com- 
panies use for this purpose a chamber pressurized to 0.5 
mm H2O. The throughput is determined in the absence 
of wind and for a wind of 10 m/sec from each of the 
four directions; the smallest of the five values is selected 
as the throughput. (RZh) 

1328. Beithien H-P 

DESIGN AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE AS WELL AS 
APPLICATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

HLH, 27(3):97, 102, 1976 (German; English Summary) 

A general technical description is given of sprinkler 
systems. A method of determining the water expenditure 
is given as a function of the fire hazard of the premise 
being protected, of the number of sprinklers, and the 
effective area to be sprayed, assumed to be from 9 to 
12 m'^. The operating principle of control and signalling 
devices with , water and air actuation is described. A 
method of choosing the diameter of the pipes is presented. 
Limitations on the use of sprinkler systems to extinguish 
fires are given. 9 figs, 2 tables. 

1329. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE-EXTIN- 
GUISHING SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):46-57, 1976 (Japanese) 



Specifications are presented for the regulation of the 
terminological classification and some technical parame- 
ters of fire-extinguishing systems and devices. All fire 
extinguishers and fire-extinguishing systems are broken 
down into 9 basic categories as a function of the nature 
of the fire -extinguishing means they use, the principal 
ones being systems using water, chemicals, foam, halogen 
substances (e.g., Halon 1301), and CO2. Given in tabular 
form are the flow rates of fire extinguishants as a function 
of the nature of the fire-protected premise, the configura- 
tion and area of the premises, the concentration of the 
fire-extinguishing solution and other factors. Also regu- 
lated are methods of determining the efficiency of fire 
extinguishants and systems. The specifications were 
worked out by the Standardization Group of the Ministry 
of Construction of Japan and are recommended for use 
as a national standard in the development of the new 
fire legislation of Japan, approved in 1974. (RZh) 

1330. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE WATER 
FLOW RATE IN FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):58-59, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications regulating the water consump- 
tion in systems using water as the main fire extinguishant 
or as a component of fire-extinguishing solutions are 
presented. The water consumption rates are calculated 
per 1 m of area of the premises being protected and 
depend on the nature and numerical parameters of the 
premise. On the basis of the water consumption rates 
cited here (minimum permissible hmits) a calculation is 
made of the optimum throughput (capacity) of fire 
hydrants and fixed water pumps. The specifications were 
worked out by the Standardization Group of the Ministry 
of Construction of Japan and are recommended for use 
as national standards in developing the new fire legislation 
in Japan. 1 table. (RZh) 

1331. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE-EXTIN- 
GUISHING SYSTEMS USING CARBON DIOXIDE 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):168-180, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications are presented for some parame- 
ters relating to the design, development and operation 
of complex automatic fire extinguishing systems (ranging 
from closed systems operated manually from a control 
panel to fully automatic) designed for fixed installation 
in production and office buildings, as worked out by the 
Standardization Group of the Japanese Ministry of Con- 
struction and recommended as standards. The specifica- 
tions relate only to systems using CO2 as the main fire 
extinguishing agent. Block diagrams and operating princi- 
ples of some types of such systems are analyzed. Depend- 
ing on their purpose and output (power), systems are clas- 
sified in four main categories to correspond to four enclo- 
sure sizes: up to 50 m^, 50-150 m^, 150-1500 m^ and 
above 1500 m^. For each of the four enclosures minimum 
permissible flow rates are established for the fire-extin- 
guishing solution in extinguishing fires, calculated per 1 
m^ of enclosure volume; these rates are, respectively, 
1, 0.9, 0.8, and 0.75 kg. Also given are analogous specific 
indexes calculated per m'^ of enclosure area. 3 figs, 5 
tables. (RZh) 



255 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

1332 Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPRINKLER 

HEADS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3): 120-147, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications regulating various factors con- 
nected with the design, development, production, installa- 
tion and operation of sprinkler heads used in fire-extin- 
guishing systems are presented. The specifications were 
worked out by the Standardization Group of the Ministry 
of Construction of Japan and are recommended for in- 
troduction as national standards. The principal types of 
sprinkler-head designs recommended in the specifications 
and corresponding to listed series of models are classified. 
Given as reference material are structural descriptions and 
technical parameters of the sprinkler heads which are 
being mass-produced by Japanese industry and which con- 
form to the new specifications. A technical and economic 
foundation for the choice of the recommended values is 
given for each group of specifications. Considered 
separately are the problems connected with optimal loca- 
tion of sprinkler heads in buildings of varying configura- 
tion. Given among other things are specific figures for 
numbers of sprinkler heads per unit area as a function 
of a number of factors, such as type of building, type 
and power of the fire extinguishing system, the type of 
sprinkler head, the type of extinguishant being used, the 
presence of especially fire-hazardous objects in the build- 
mg, etc. 28 figs, 6 tables. (RZh) 

1333. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE-EXTIN- 
GUISHING SYSTEMS USING AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):148-155,181, 1976 (Japanese) 

Some technical specifications regulating the design fea- 
tures of fixed fire-extinguishing systems intended for use 
in residential and office buildings and not using Halon 
fire extinguishants are presented. The regulations govern, 
in particular, the basic nomenclature of the components 
of such systems (electric pumps, piping, fire detectors, 
power sources, etc), as well as the operating pressure 
at the outlets of the pumps, in sprinkler heads and at 
control points in the distributor pipelines. The specifica- 
tions were worked out by the Standardization Group of 
the Ministry of Construction of Japan and are recom- 
mended for future use as national standards; for this pur- 
pose, the technical and economic foundation for these 
specifications is included. 3 figs, 3 tables. (RZh) 

1334. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FOAM FIRE- 
EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):156-167, 1976 (Japanese) 

Presented are technical specifications for the principal 
parameters associated with branched foam fire-extinguish- 
ing systems, including automated systems, as worked out 
by the Standardization Group of the Japanese Construc- 
tion Ministry and recommended for introduction as stan- 
dards. Regulated in particular by these specifications are 
types of basic components included in such systems, such 
as sprinkler heads, pipe distribution Unes, electro-mechani- 
cal water pumps, watertight and ordinary containers for 
the storage of water and other components of foam fire- 
extinguishing solutions, detectors, automatic devices, self- 



contained emergency power sources, and alarm devices. 
It is noted that about 80% of all the newly regulated 
parameters are met by the corresponding technical 
parameters of fire-fighting systems and equipment being 
mass-produced by Japanese industry. About 20% of the 
parameters require certain modifications, primarily with 
regard to making the technical requirements imposed on 
such equipment more rigorous. This relates chiefly to the 
following reUability factors: average lifetime of fail-safe 
operation, service life, accrued operating time to the first 
failure, etc. 9 figs. (RZh) 



1335. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FOAM 

EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):192-203, 1976 (Japanese) 



FIRE- 



Presented are the technical specifications for a number 
of the structural features of fixed automatic sprinkler- 
type fire extinguishing systems which use fire-extinguish- 
ing solutions produced by direct mixing of powder re- 
agents with tap water. Given in particular are recommen- 
dations for the best structural designs of such components 
as valves of the water distribution lines and spring-actu- 
ated filters for cleansing fire-extinguishing solutions of 
mechanical impurities to prevent contamination and failure 
of extinguishing systems. Also regulated are the optimal 
operating pressure limits at various points of extinguishing 
systems. Dimensions and configurations of rooms, con- 
tainers and spaces (within buildings) in which fire-extin- 
guishing system components and equipment are stored are 
considered separately and recommendations are made. 
The specifications were worked out by the Standardization 
Group of the Japanese Ministry of Construction and are 
recommended for introduction as national standards. 10 
figs, 2 tables. (RZh) 

1336. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR POWERED FIRE 

PUMPS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):208-209,213, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications are presented for the principal 
parameters and structural solutions of powered fire pumps 
of varying capacity and design, as worked out by the 
Standardization Group of the Japanese Ministry of Con- 
struction and recommended for introduction as standards. 
A total of eight basic types of fire pumps are regulated 
by the specifications, all designed for a broad range of 
applications. The pumps are designed for a working pres- 
sure of 0.08 to 2.5 m^/min. The range of output is 0.05 
to 2.8 m^/min of fire-extinguishing solution (water). The 
structure and operating principle of some modern auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing systems using pumps are 
described. Recommendations are made as to the most 
effective selection and use of pumps as a function of 
the nominal capacity of the system, as well as the nature 
of the fire extinguishants being used and the fire-hazard 
level of the premise being protected. The specifications 
also provide for some rehability factors: the average main- 
tenance cycle, operational readiness, the average replace- 
ment time, and the service life until disabled. 2 figs, 1 
table. (RZh) 



256 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

1337. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER-PIPE FIX- 
TURES OF FIXED FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):298-305,309, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications relating to the design and 
dimensions of several types of components used in fixed 
fire-extinguishing systems for the connection of water- 
conduit sections of sprinkler heads, fire hydrants, etc are 
presented. The specifications relate in particular to the 
design and dimensions of sleeve, flange and threaded 
joints of sprinkler heads and distribution components of 
fire-extinguishing systems. Sample diagrams of the instal- 
lation and location of individual components of fire-extin- 
guishing systems installed in large residential and office 
buildings are given. The specifications were worked out 
by the Standardization Group of the Ministry of Construc- 
tion of Japan and are recommended for introduction as 
standards. 13 figs. (RZh) 

1338. Ishikawa M 

MONITORING THE STATUS OF BATTERIES USED AS 
EMERGENCY POWER SOURCES FOR FIRE-EXTIN- 
GUISHING SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(4):89-95, 1976 (Japanese) 

Statistical data characterizing the specific number of au- 
tomatic fire detection and extinguishing systems among 
the total number of fire equipment items mass-produced 
in Japan are presented. These data reveal that automation 
of fire equipment in 1975 reached a significant scale 
(58%). In view of this fact, the reliability characteristics 
of automated systems, especially the reliability and work- 
ing capacity of the power sources, take on special sig- 
nificance. Gas-powered electrical units and batteries are 
used as the basic emergency power sources of such 
systems (in case the commercial-frequency municipal elec- 
trical network fails for some reason or other). Given are 
the technical characteristics of types of batteries, a 
description of their structural features, a classification of 
batteries with respect to purpose and sphere of apphcation 
in fire practice. Most widespread up to the present time 
have been the lead-cadmium batteries of the Sumitomo 
Denki Company, which have a charge capacity of 60 a/hr. 
When these batteries are used as emergency power 
sources they are usually installed in the basement floors 
of buildings, clustered in units of 40-50 batteries in each 
unit. The distinctive feature of these batteries is the rela- 
tive independence of their operational parameters on the 
temperature and humidity of the ambient atmosphere, 
which is especially important when storing batteries in 
basement and foundation areas. A method of monitoring 
and checking such batteries during technical maintenance 
is given. 6 figs, 10 tables. (RZh) 

1339. Anon 

FOAM FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

Packs (Japan): 20(1):182, 1976 (Japanese) 

Concise information is given on a portable foam fire 
extinguisher with shoulder straps for back carry; it con- 
sists of two cylinders containing the foam-making solution, 
a proportioner, and a fire hose with a drum reel. The 
foam-making solution provides for generation of a medi- 
um-expansion (1:200) foam; at maximum working pressure 
and maximum discharge-orifice diameter the application 



time is 60 sec. The fire extinguisher is intended for use 
as auxilliary equipment for professional men. (RZh) 

1340. HaU RC 

DO NOT FOLD, BEND, SPINDLE, OR BURN 

Prof Saf: 2\{2):24-28, 1976 

This article covers loss evaluation, conceptual decision, 
and installation of an integrated fire alarm and automatic 
sprinkler system designed to provide maximum life safety 
for operating personnel, as well as the protection for the 
muhi-million-dollar computer components. 4 figs, 1 table, 
7 refs. (Author) 

1341. Enomoto K, Nagai I, Horii K and Konishi M 
DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC WATER CURTAIN 
SYSTEM 

Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan); (ll):25-28, 1974 (Japanese) 

The results of fire tests of a system designed for the 
connection of a pipe with several spaced sprinkler heads 
to a water pump are presented. Varied during the tests 
were such parameters as the diameter and configuration 
of the sprinkler head orifices, the water pressure, the 
angle of incHnation of the spray to the horizontal, etc. 
Five types of sprinkler heads were tested, all different 
in design, including 3 heads with circular outlets measuring 
13, 14 and 16 mm in diameter, a double-outlet head mea- 
suring 2 X 10 mm (a figure-eight-shaped outlet with each 
component 10 mm in diameter) as well as a head having 
a fan-shaped design; heads were tested for an output 
equivalent to a head with a circular outlet 1 1 mm in 
diameter. (RZh) 

1342. Shima T 

THE DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC DEVICES FOR FIRE- 
EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Yuatsuka sekkei; 14(3):50-53, 1976 (Japanese) 

The design and operating principle of several varieties 
of automatic pneumatic devices incorporated as com- 
ponents in complex fire detection and protection systems 
are described. Considered in particular are pneumatic ac- 
tuators designed to open and close windows and dampers 
inside buildings in case of fire so as to create optimal 
conditions for smoke removal, for forcing powder fire- 
extinguishing agents from a cyUnder to be mixed with 
water and for automatic preparation of fire-extinguishing 
solutions, for automatic inflation of rescue mats and like 
devices. Also given are diagrams and a description of 
the operating principle of analogous devices performing 
the same functions, but using electrical power. The electri- 
cal and pneumatic analogs are compared with each other 
as to technical parameters as well as to specific economic 
factors, on the basis of which it is concluded that some 
devices should be pneumatic. 16 figs. (RZh) 

1343. Zimmermann AW 

ACCELERATOR FOR A LIQUID SPRINKLER FIRE- 
EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM WITH A WET SPRINKLER 
PIPE NETWORK FILLED WITH COMPRESSED GAS 

FRG Patent No. 2,233,284; CI A62C 37/06, Appl 6 Jul 
1972, Disci. 11 Dec 1975, Assignee: American LaFrance 
Inc 

The patent relates to a valve device which will ensure 
reliable and rapid triggering of a fixed automatic hquid 



257 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

fire-extinguishing system in case a fire breaks out in the 

premise being protected. In addition, the design of the 

starting valve prevents impurities from entering the 
system, ensuring operational reliabihty. 

1344. Real H 

TRIGGER-ACTUATED, FAST SELF-CLOSING VALVE 
FOR GAS FLASKS, ESPECIALLY FOR HAND- 
OPERATED FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

FRG Patent No. 2,120,455; CI F16K 1/34, Appl 26 Apr 
1971, Disci. 11 Sep 1975 

The patent relates to a shut -off valve for gas flasks, 
primarily for hand-portable fire extinguishers. In order 
to ensure reliable closing of the extinguisher, an elastic 
sealing ring is used; it is arranged in the annular groove 
of a movable locking pin. The valve of this invention 
is of simple design and low cost. 

1345. Anon 
HIGH-SPEED VALVE 

French Patent No. 2,251,767; CI F16K 35/00, Appl 20 
Nov 1973, Disci. 13 Jun 1975, Assignee: Soc de Fabrica- 
tion et d'Entretien de Materiel Electrique 

A valve for fixed fire-extinguishing systems in which 
the extinguishant is suppUed from a pressurized container 
is patented. The valve can be actuated by means of vari- 
ous kinds of devices. 6 drawing figs. 

1346. Billberg A 

SAFETY DEVICE FOR REPLENISHING THE SUPPLY 
OF INERT GAS IN THE CARGO TANKS OF TANKER 
SHIPS 

Swedish Patent No. 377,888; CI A62C 3/12, Appl 12 Jan 
1973, Disci. 4 Aug 1975 

A device is patented for replenishing the supply of inert 
gas in the cargo tanks of tanker ships when the inert- 
gas system used for fire and explosion protection in them, 
supplied with fuel or exhaust gas, fails to operate for 
some reason or other. It consists of one or several high- 
pressure inert-gas tanks which are connected via reducing 
valves to the distributor pipes of the inert-gas system 
or to the tanks proper. Pressure gauges are mounted on 
the distributor pipes or tanks. If the pressure in the tanks 
drops to a value somewhat higher than the temperature 
at which the breathing valves on the tanks for tapping 
fresh air open, the gauges trigger the alarm system and 
simultaneously open magnetic or mechanical valves which 
open a path for the inert gas into the distributor system 
or tanks. The containers can be divided into two groups; 
in this case a valve is provided which automatically con- 
nects the second group if one reserve of inert gas is 
exhausted. Also required is equipment for filling the con- 
tainer with inert gas. 1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

1347. Osborne WB 

SERIES TO PARALLEL TRANSFER CIRCUIT FOR IN- 
ITIATOR STRING 

US Patent No. 3,952,809; CI 169/61, (A62C 37/04), Appl 
14 Mar 1975, Disci. 27 Apr 1976, Assignee: Walter Kidde 
and Co, Inc, Clifton, NJ 

A fire protection system including a plurality of suppres- 
sor units activatable to suppress a detected fire; a plurality 
of electrical current responsive activators, one associated 



with each of the suppressor units and adapted to induce 
activation thereof; a control circuit connecting the activa- 
tors in series and including an actuator for initiating ac- 
tivating current flow to the activators; and an auxUiary 
circuit for connecting the activators parallel in response 
to the initiation of activating current flow by the actuator, 
the auxiliary circuit including a plurality of electronic 
switches, one connected between the supply and each 
of the junctions between each pair of series-connected 
activators. 10 claims, 2 drawing figs. (Author) 



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1348. Landsberg E 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM AND METHOD OF OPERATING 

THE SAME 

US Patent No. 3,958,643; C\ 169/43, (A62C 37/06), Appl 
11 Dec 1974, Disci. 25 May 1976, Priority: FRG, Pat 
No. 2,255,369, 11 Nov 1972, Assignee: Walther und Cie, 
AG, Cologne-Delbrueck, FRG 




258 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment— Continued 

A sprinkler system having a pressurized sprinkler con- 
duit which is separated from a water supply by a normally 
closed valve, and a fire-alarm system having a circuit 
which is connected with this valve and opens the same 
in response to the detection of a fire by the circuit, is 
operated by detecting the absence of electrical energiza- 
tion of the fire-alarm circuit, and thereupon operating the 
sprinkler system as a function of pressure losses in the 
sprinkler conduit rather than as a result of the operation 
of the fire-alarm system. 6 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 



1349. Isobe M 
nRE-EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT 

US Patent No. 3,%0,216; CI 169/48, (E06B 5/16), Appl 
28 Jan 1975, Disci. 1 Jun 1976, Priority: Japan, Pat No 
49-93599. 14 Aug 1974 

A fire-extinguishing apparatus for use inside a building 
wherein a cloth curtain is used to shut off a burning 
area from a nonbuming area, and wherein a support is 
provided for suspending and winding up the cloth curtain, 
and a water feeder supphes water continuously to the 
cloth curtain over the entire length of the width direction 
at the upper end so that the whole surface of the cloth 
curtain is covered by the water flowing thereon from the 
upper end to the lower end. 31 claims, 7 drawing figs. 
(Author) 




1350. Kaneko M 

AUTOMOBILE FIREFIGHTING APPARATUS 

US Patent No. 3,961,669; CI 169/62, (A62C 35/12), Appl 
9 Oct 1974, Disci. 8 Jun 1976, Priority: Japan, Pat No 
48-136627, 6 Dec 1973, Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kogyo 
Kabushiki Kaisha, Japan 

A fire fighting apparatus for installation in an automo- 
bile, essentially comprising an outer container containing 
a fire extinguishing composition, an inner container en- 
cased in the outer container and supported in a fixed 



position relative to the outer container, the inner container 
containing a high-pressure gas, and a plunger slidably sup- 
ported by the outer container in a destructively engageable 
relationship with the inner container. The outer container 
includes an outlet defining a nozzle that is normally closed 
by a plug made of a collapsible material. The inner con- 
tainer is at least partially made of a fragile material, and 
the plunger is destructively engageable with the fragile 
material. An impact generated by collision of the automo- 
bile brings the plunger into destructive engagement with 
the inner container, so that the high-pressure gas flows 
out into the outer container and raises the pressure of 
the composition therein. The composition collapses the 
plug and spouts out through the nozzle. 10 claims, 4 draw- 
mg figs. (Author) 



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1351. Wesson HR, Brown LE and Puckett GL 

nRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD AND APPARATUS 

US Patent No. 3,965,988; CI 169/9, (A62C 13/38), Appl 
13 Dec 1974, Disci. 29 Jun 1976, Assignee: University 
Engineers, Inc, Norman, OK 

A chemical fire extinguishing apparatus that includes 
a chemical storage chamber, chemical discharge conduct 
connected to the chamber for conveying and distributing 
the chemical, and a source of relatively high-pressure gas 
connected to the chamber and communicating with the 
interior thereof to agitate and fluidize the extinguishing 
chemical by impingement of high-pressure gas. Upon 
agitation and fluidization, gas is delivered then to the 
chamber at a lower pressure to entrain the chemical in 
a constant, relatively low-pressure gas stream flowing 
from the chamber to the chemical discharge conduit. 14 
claims, 6 drawing figs. (Author) 



259 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment— Continued 

1352. Zenker KR 

DISCHARGE HEAD HAVING DUAL FUNCTION PLUG 

RETAINING MEMBER 

US Patent No. 3,971,443; CI 169/39, (A62C 37/12), Appl 
11 Jun 1975, Disci. 27 Jul 1976, Assignee: Factory Mutual 
Research Corp, Norwood, MA 

A pressure-responsive discharge head wherein an expel- 
lable plug is disposed in the outlet of a body member 
having an inlet adapted for connection to a source of 
extinguishant with the plug being connected relative to 
the body member by means of a pair of fulcrummed 
levers. A fusible Unk maintains the levers in the plug 
retaining position and is responsive to a predetermined 
temperature for releasing the levers. An additional 
member is provided which maintains the levers in a plug 
retaining position and which is adapted to release the 
levers in response to a predetermined fluid pressure in 
the body member, or in response to an additional predeter- 
mined temperature. 8 claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 








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1353. Demidenko NS, Demidenko LN and Demidenko NN 
DEVICE FOR ACTUATING FIRE-PROTECTION MEANS 

USSR Patent No. 479,874; CI E21F 5/02, Appl 4 Jan 
1%9, Disci. 25 Nov 1975, Assignee: Ukraina Mine 

A device for actuating fire-protection means is 
proposed. The device includes a valve with a rod and 
a thermoelectric cell and is different in that it is made 
in the form of a spindle, the lower end of which rests 
against the rod. The upper end is provided with a pin 
with a stop to prevent lateral motion of the spindle; the 
middle portion has a spring-retained lever connected to 
the thermoelectric cell. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 

1354. Clark RC and Leonard JT 

REDUCING ELECTROSTATIC HAZARD OF CO2FIRE 
EXTINGUISHERS. Dept of Navy; AD-D002 880/3, 10 
pages, 1976 
AvailabiUty: NTIS PAT APPL-691 122/GA 



The patent application is directed to a method and ap- 
paratus for reducing an electrostatic hazard produced dur- 
ing the use of carbon dioxide, CO2, fire extinguishers 
equipped with a plastic horn or nozzle. A metal sleeve 
is inserted into the plastic nozzle so that the inner end 
of the sleeve is in contact with the metal orifice connected 
to the discharge line of the fire extinguisher. Further, 
the metal sleeve insert is of less length than that of the 
nozzle so that the outer end of the nozzle overlaps or 
extends beyond the end of the metal sleeve. A new 
discharge nozzle may be made as a separate element 
which includes a metal sleeve or liner surrounded with 
a glass cloth reinforced resin sheath bonded thereto. 
(Author) 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. AGRICULTURE AND WILDLANDS 

[For more complete coverage of the forest fire litera- 
ture see Forest Fire Control Abstracts (Canada), 
and/or refer to Firebase, the Interagency Fire Center 
of the US Dept of Agriculture (see forematter for ad- 
dress).] 

1355. Jach W 

SELF IGNITION OF HAY— ORIGIN, DETECTION AND 
PREVENTION 

Schadenprisma; 5(2):26-30, 1976 (German) 

According to most recent data, the process of self-heat- 
ing of hay takes place in several phases of development, 
which are characterized by various metabolic reactions 
and micro-organisms. Self -ignition processes can be de- 
tected in the early stage by sampling and investigation. 
Certain soil compositions and transportation and stacking 
methods promote self -ignition, which can be eliminated 
by ventilating the hay stack and monitoring the termpera- 
ture (the method is described). 9 figs. (Fachdok 12/0763) 

b. COMMERCIAL OCCUPANCIES 

1356. Anon 

PREVENTIVE FIRE PROTECTION IN HIGH-RACK 
WAREHOUSES 

Protivpozarna zastita; 16(6):35-37, 1976 (Serbocroation) 

A survey is made of the information presently available 
on protective steps to be taken in warehouses with high 
racks. The author has considered all sides of the problem 
of fire prevention in large warehouses and has formulated 
valuable guidelines for organized fire protection. Although 
not original, the article can be recommended for designers, 
plant managers, and supervisory personnel. (Fachdok 
12/1108) 

c. ELECTRICAL 

1357. Kroehne H 

PREVENTIVE FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE 
FIGHTING DURING THE INSTALLATION AND OPERA- 
TION OF ELECTROTECHNICAL SYSTEMS 

Elek-Prakt; 30(l):7-9, 1976 (German) 



260 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

c. Electrical — Continued 

The fire-prevention measures and safety-engineering 
regulations for fire suppression during the installation and 
operation of electrotechnical systems are outlined. The 
scope of the responsibilities of supervisory personnel, 
electricians and other specialists in safety problems is ex- 
plained. The fire-extinguishing means and the conditions 
under which they can be used to extinguish fires in electri- 
cal systems are indicated. 

1358. Lusk GE and Mak ST 

EHV WOOD POLE FIRES: THEIR CAUSE AND POTEN- 
TIAL CURES 

IEEE Trans Power Apparatus and Systems; PAS- 
95(2):621-629, 1976 

The cause of fires in vertical pole members of wooden 
high voltage transmission line towers not attributable to 
surface leakage currents or lightning stroke has been 
identified as a result of excessive internal Joule losses 
generated within the pole wood. These Joule losses are 
a consequence of the electrical conductivity of high 
moisture content wood and charging currents resulting 
from the capacitive coupling existing between the poles 
and the phase wires and high electric field intensities. 
Suggested cures for the problem include the use of in- 
creased numbers of metal fasteners holding the grounding 
wires to the poles to more uniformly transfer the charging 
current from the pole to the grounding network. 14 figs, 
1 table, 5 refs. (Author) 

1359. Anon 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE CURRENT- 
LEAKAGE INDICATORS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(3):240-245, 1976 (Japanese) 

Technical specifications for fire current-leakage indica- 
tors that have been recommended for introduction as stan- 
dards are presented. The operating principle and classifica- 
tion of such devices, which are installed in fire-hazardous 
premises equipped with various kinds of high-voltage 
systems, are briefly described. It is recommended that 
the specifications be used to test the indicators as well 
as to test the insulation of high- voltage wire for ruptures. 
The main technical parameters and types of high-voltage 
conductors produced by Japanese industry are given. The 
specifications were worked out by the Standardization 
Group of the Japanese Ministry of Construction. 4 figs, 
1 table. (RZh) 

d. INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 

1360. Anon 

DAMP DOWN THE FIRES OF INDUSTRY. PART 2 

Chart Mech Eng\ 22(8):23-25, 1976 

This is the second part of a two-part article on fire 
prevention and protection in industry. The first part dealt 
with the prevention and detection of fire and giving the 
alarm in case fire should break out. This final installment 
describes some of the equipment which is available on 
the market to prevent the spread of fire and extinguish 
it. The journal's industrial editor has treated the subject 
at some length because most articles on fire prevention 
deal with very specific areas, with the result that the 
overall picture is usually out of focus. There is an im- 
mense amount of data on special hazard fire risks and 



for further information the reader should refer to the Fire 
Protection Association (UK), the local fire authority, the 
Factory Inspectorate, or insurers. 4 figs. (Author) 

1361. Anon 

PLANT MANAGEMENT AND FIRE SAFETY 

Face au risque; (121):23-25, 1976 (French) 

The topic "plant and fire safety" was examined in detail 
in a round-table discussion. It was strongly recommended 
that a safety manager be employed to handle all safety 
tasks. Discussion centered around the following aspects: 
justification for this position, functions, personal qualifica- 
tions and selection of such a manager; tasks, technical 
qualifications, training in the safety problems and or- 
ganization of the office. The problem of controlling people 
who have never experienced a fire was discussed by Mr. 
Deren, while Mr. Desrousseaux discussed "material 
aspects" and Mr. Dutriez emphasized the position of man 
as the prime factor in safety. 7 figs. (Fachdok 12/0940) 

1362. Anon 

MANUFACTURE OF POLYSTYRENE 

Face au risque; (124):33-36, 1976 (French) 

Because of its all-around importance, polystyrene is one 
of the most widely found plastics. But it is also very 
fire hazardous, is saturated with toxic gases, and the 
greatest care must be exercised in every stage of its 
production and subsequent treatment. The physical pro- 
perties of the raw material, the fire hazards present during 
its production, and the hazards of subsequent treatment 
are discussed in the article. The required fire-protection 
systems and the precautionary measures are listed, such 
as prohibition of smoking, remote central heating, fire 
compartmentation and partitioning, to name a few. 3 figs. 
(Fachdok 13/0094) 

1363. Thorpe A 

PROTECTING THE OIL IMPORTING INDUSTRY FROM 
FIRE AND EXPLOSIVES 

Fire Prot Rev; 39(433):544-546, 1976 

During discharge of cargo every oil tanker becomes an 
explosion hazard immediately after completing the 
discharge operation when the cargo tanks contain a highly 
explosive hydrocarbon gas left by the discharged oil. The 
fire prevention facilities aboard the vessel and also at 
the discharge refinery n^ust also be efficient. The mea- 
sures taken in the United Kingdom to prevent and control 
on-board fires, fires on offshore platforms, and at unload- 
ing docks refineries are outhned. 3 photos. 

1364. Anon 

FIRE PROTECTION IN PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS 

Haikan gijutsu; 18(3):153-166, 1976 (Japanese) 

It is noted that fire prevention problems in the 
petrochemical industry must be solved in the following 
ways: reducing the fire hazard of the materials being used 
in production, in particular by using inert additives, as 
well as by storing and using readily flammable liquids 
in an inert gas atmosphere; improving production 
processes and equipment; expanding the use of new, 
strong, corrosion- and fire-resistant materials such as 
plastics, silicon compounds, etc; developing precision 
methods of sealing systems and assemblies used in 



261 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies — Continued 

petrochemical plants; developing highly effective protec- 
tive devices which will guarantee fire safety, such as 
Ughtning protectors, grounding devices, etc; and perfecting 
methods of automatic supervision of equipment status. 
2 tables. (RZh) 

1365. Littlefield R, Jr 

COST-EFFECTIVE FIRE SAFETY FOR FLAMMABLE 

FLUIDS 

Instrum Control Syst; 49(8):41-43, 1976 

Materials selection and safety design procedures are 
recommended for plants working with flammable fluids. 
An ideal design with maximum safety includes: 1) un- 
derground emergency facilities for dumping hydrocarbons; 
2) separate ball valves for isolation of processes, each 
automatic valve in the process equipped with overhead 
sprinkler; 3) remotely located facilities for individual 
operation of each fire control valve; and 4) all instrument 
and electrical transmission lines underground or, if over- 
head, in trays with fire deflectors and sprinkler heads. 
5 figs. 



FIRE SAFETY IN 



1366. Ito S 

METHODS OF ENSURING 
PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS 

Kogyo yosui; (209):11-16, 1976 (Japanese) 

The requirements for the equipment of petrochemical 
plants which, if met, will ensure fire safety are cited. 
It is noted that the selection of firesafe equipment is 
directly associated with the nature of the production 
processes. The use of flameless furnaces and gaseous fuel 
is recommended. Such furnaces are also favorable from 
a technological standpoint as compared to the tube fur- 
naces with standard injectors so widely used at the present 
time in Japan (the output is the same). The fuel consumed 
in flameless furnaces is 20 to 30% less; in addition, they 
occupy 23 times less space and have a 57 times smaller 
volume. Considered separately are some organizational 
aspects connected with the development and operation 
of hot-gas indicators designed to transmit an automatic 
signal of the presence of a hot-gas concentration amount- 
ing to 20% of^the lower ignition Hmit in production areas. 
(RZh) 

1367. Oresick A 

THE USE, CARE AND INSPECTION OF HAND-PORTA- 
BLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN INDUSTRY 

ProfSaf- 21(3):32-38, 1976 

It is the contention of the author that portable fire extin- 
guishers are designed in general for use in an industrial 
environment by the ordinary worker. Consequently, it 
becomes incumbent on the part of management to assume 
responsibility for providing rehable and safe fire extin- 
guishing equipment for such individuals. This can be ac- 
complished only through proper inspection and main- 
tenance of such equipment by competent and qualified 
personnel. 3 photos, 1 table, 8 refs. (Author) 

1368. Stefanowski A 

HRE PROTECTION OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY 

Prz poz; 64(3):13-14, 1976 (Polish) 

A report is presented on some innovations introduced 
in the area of organizing supervision of fire-safety mea- 



sures in food-industry plants in the Poznan and Lublin 
districts (Poland). (RZh) 

1369. Sibue fnu 

SAFETY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBON TANK FARMS 

Sapeur Pompier; 87(674): 20-21, 1976; -Sapeur Pompi- 
er; 87(675):28-32, 1976 (French) 

The problems confronting firefighters in liquid hydrocar- 
bon tank farm fires are discussed, namely, legislation, 
definitions of concepts, classification of fuels, supervision, 
fire protection, critique of the various determinations of 
limits, water supply and storage, foam extinguishants, col- 
lecting tanks, etc. Manpower requirements, training of 
personnel, leadership and equipment, requirements for ap- 
paratus, tools, instruments and auxiliary devices are con- 
sidered. Communications, command channels, supplies of 
all kinds, health service, liaison with external assistance 
units, training of personnel in firefighting, prevention and 
rescue possibilities are described. The experience and 
knowledge gained in Florange and Woippy are cited and 
evaluated repeatedly. 3 figs. (Fachdok 12/1131) 

1370. Buecher H 

TASKS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF INDUSTRIAL FIRE 
BRIGADES IN INDUSTRIAL FIRE PROTECTION 

Schadenprisma; 5(3):57-59, 1976 (German) 

Since it has been realized that public fire departments 
are no longer capable of assuring modern and diverse 
industrial plants of timely and fully adequate fire protec- 
tion, a certain category of plants can be compelled by 
legislators to set up and maintain an industrial fire brigade. 
In most cases, however, this is accomplished voluntarily. 
These brigades, which consist of volunteers or assigned 
personnel, have many tasks. By their very nature they 
have a preventive activity (planning, supervision, inspec- 
tion, and maintenance of fire-protection facilities). An im- 
portant task is rendering technical assistance in the plant. 
Fire insurers award a reduction in premium of up to 30% 
when a plant has an industrial fire brigade. 5 figs. 
(Fachdok 12/1123) 

1371. Hartmann FE 

FIRE PROTECTION AND FIREFIGHTING IN A CRUDE 
OIL REFINERY 

Schweiz Feuerwehr Z; 102(3):102,103,105,107,109,111, 
1976 (German and French) 

The fire and explosion hazard of equipment for 
processing oil, for pouring, mixing and loading finished 
petroleum products is characterized. Basic viewpoints on 
fire-protection measures and safety engineering in oil- 
processing plants are advanced. (RZh) 

1372. Jonca J 

USE OF MEDIUM-EXPANSION FOAM TO FIGHT FIRES 
IN DUST-ENDANGERED FACILITIES 

Unser Brandschutz; 26(3):20-21, 1976 (German) 

The soft-coal industry represents the most important 
energy base for the GDR. Soft-coal treatment plants 
number among plants with the greatest coal-dust hazards 
and therefore explosion and fire hazards. The suppression 
method used up to the present time, with mixtures of 
water and wetting agents applied by the spray-jet 
technique, is being replaced by the medium-expansion 



262 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



■IRE SAFETY 

ndustrial Occupancies— Continued 

n method. A comparison of the personnel and equip- 
it required for ten fires in briquetting plants shows 
the medium-expansion foam technique is much more 
lomical. The foam is capable of covering greater 
s, reaches difficultly accessible spots, and prevents 
5-ups. Plant employees are being introduced to medi- 
expansion foam devices. A fixed semiautomatic medi- 
expansion system for belt conveyors is being tested 
briquetting factory. 2 figs, 1 table. (Fachdok 12/0580) 

NSTITUTIONAL OCCUPANCIES 

I. Degenkolb JG 

E SAFETY IN HOSPITALS AND NURSING HOMES 

str Specifier, 29(7): 18-29, 1976 

(1 the basis of a discussion of the special life-safety 
iitions prevailing in hospitals and nursing homes with 
proportions of helpless patients and inadequacies in 
[ response in fire emergencies, buttressed by fire histo^ 
in such institutions, the author urges that patient room 
rs to a corridor should be self-closing and should be 
naintained or should be automatic closing by smoke 
ction. 10 refs. 



L Wooliscroft MJ 

i: HOSPITAL nRE PROBLEM 

NAL APPROACH 

; 68(849):511-512, 1976 



TOWARDS A RA- 



le article presents extracts from a paper given earlier 
lis year at an evening meeting in London of the Royal 
ety of Health (UK) in which a probability calculation 
nade of the possibility of reducing the increasing 
ber of hospital fires with high death rates by exact 
Illation of the risk. Examples are given of the calcula- 
method for cost-effective fire protection on the basis 
umber of beds per room to be protected, with escape 
probabilities calculated by the fault tree process. 3 
;s. 

. Anon 

E PROTECTION AND MEANS OF ESCAPE IN CASE 

FIRE AT REGISTERED NURSING HOMES 

; 69(856):239-240, 1976 

le technical standards for nursing homes of the 
heast Thames Regional Health Authority (UK) are 
ented and critiqued, in part. Some of the points of 
standards are smgled out for special attention, such 
•equirements for dead-end corridors, false ceilings 
is and smoke stopping), fire-resisting self-closing 
s, residents' bedroom doors, wakeful watch, safety 
ing, exit doors and windows, linings, staircases, elec- 
lagnetic door holders, lifts for means of escape, and 
alarms. 

INING 

more complete coverage of the mining literature 
SMRE Safety In Mines Abstracts (UK).] 

. Liebman I and Corry J 
SIVE EXPLOSION BARRIER 

Patent No. 3,960,217; CI 169/64, (A62C 35/04), Appl 
»ct 1975, Disci. 1 Jun 1976, Assignee: USA, Secretary 
le Interior, Washington, DCT 



A passive explosion barrier for suppressing the effects 
of an explosion in a mine gallery, or the like, comprises 
a receptacle containing an explosion-suppressing substance 
adapted to be supported by framework adjacent the mine 
roof. In one embodiment, a corrugated face plate is hinged 
to the base of the receptacle on one side thereof. First 
and second support flanges are formed respectively on 
the upper end of the face plate and on the rim of the 
receptacle on the side thereof opposite the plate. The 
receptacle is mounted to the framework with the support 
flanges resting on first and second beams and with the 
face plate viewing the explosion source and oblique to 
a horizontal plane. The weight of the receptacle, and fric- 
tion between the face plate flange and first beam, prevent 
the receptacle from releasing due to accidental 
disturbances. However, the force of wind accompanying 
an explosion acts against the face plate, causing it to 
both lift from the first beam and pivot toward the recepta- 
cle. As this occurs, the receptacle slips from the first 
beam and spills the suppressing substance into the path 
of the explosion. Wind force also maintains the receptacle 
flange temporarily in contact with the second beam. This 
imparts rotation to the receptacle as it falls to the ground 
for thorough dispersion of the suppressing substance. In 
another embodiment, a pair of face plates are hinged to 
opposite sides of the receptacle for bidirectional operation. 
12 claims, 9 drawing figs. (Author) 




1377. Lehmann EJ 

MINE SAFETY. PART I. FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS (A 
BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABSTRACTS). Nat Tech Informa 
tion Service; NTIS PS-76/0597/5GA, 1 16 pages, 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

The cited reports cover research on underground mine 
fires and explosions, as well as safety and prevention 
measures. The primary concern is with methane and coal 
dust explosions. Safety barriers, dust control, combustion 
products, fire sensors, fire suppression, metal spark inhibi- 
tion, and dust explosions are all included. (This updated 
bibliography contains 110 abstracts, 30 of which are new 
entries to the previous edition.) (Author) 



263 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 



g. POWER PLANTS 

1378. Bernhardt S and Grauf E 

nRE PROTECTION INSTALLATIONS IN THE CON- 
TROL AREA OF THE NECKAR COOPERATIVE 
POWER PLANT GmbH 

VGB Kraftwerkslechnik; 56(7):425-432, 1976 (German) 

The fire protection measures taken in the Neckar 
Cooperative Nuclear Power Plant, an 805 MW pressurized 
water reactor soon to be in operation, surpass in extent 
those previously existing in German nuclear power plants. 
The reason Ues in the regulatory agencies, which, because 
of a fire in the reactor pool during construction and the 
Browns Ferry fire, have become particularly sensitive and 
therefore very exacting in their appraisals. In addition 
to the customary fire sections, additional subsections have 
been created for better provision of suppression facilities 
for fire-hazardous areas. 25 figs. (Fachdok 12/0880) 

h. PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

1379. Anon 

nRE PROTECTION IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

Instalador; (96): 11 5-11 8, 1976 (Spanish) 

Important elements in a protection system for a public 
building are ventilation and smoke removal. In order to 
ensure high efficiency under fire conditions, ventilation 
systems must fulfill specific technical requirements. Inlet 
sections must be made of metal, the inner lining of vertical 
collectors must be made of incombustible materials, provi- 
sions must be made for opening ventilator ducts in case 
the motor shuts off, etc. Ventilators must withstand a 
temperature of 400°C; they must have an output capable 
of providing a 50-fold exchange of air per hour. In the 
horizontal sections on each floor, intake manifolds must 
be arranged every 10 m with cross sections not less than 
20 dm^. In selecting a ventilator with respect to per- 
formance, duct losses and local friction losses must be 
taken into account. 7 figs. (RZh) 

L RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 

1380. Gregersen H and Ahrensbach F 
HRE SAFETY IN OLD BUILDINGS 

Brandvaern; 2(2):9-10, 1976 (Danish; English summary) 

A major fire in one of Copenhagen's old buildings 
served as the starting point for an examination of the 
problem of fire safety of stairwell and vestibule doors. 
The results of fire tests of doors with and without fire- 
protection panels are reported. 3 figs. (Author) 

1381. KungH-C 

LOW COST RESIDENTIAL SPRINKLER PROTECTION 

Fire Technol; 12(2):85-94, 1976 

A realistic bedroom fire test demonstrated that a sprin- 
kler having a smaller than standard orifice is capable of 
controlhng a bedroom fire, protecting the room structure, 
and eliminating fire spread. A test room was constructed 
with a 3.05-m by 3.66-m floor area and a 2.44-m high 
ceiling. A window and a door leading to a simulated hall- 
way were incorporated. A flow meter and pressure gage 
were installed in the sprinkler piping system to give accu- 

264 



rate readings of water discharge rate and pressure. 7 figs, 
1 table, 4 refs. (Author) 

j. TRANSPORTATION (Air, Rail, Road, Water) 

1382. Boeing Commercial Airplane Co 

CRASH, FIRE, AND RESCUE INFORMATION FOR BOE- 
ING COMMERCIAL JET TRANSPORTS 

Boeing Commercial Airplane Co, Seattle, WA; 1976 

This book is written for fire fighters and describes emer- 
gency access locations for fuel, oxygen and batteries for 
each aircraft model. Viewfoils for classroom instruction 
are also available. 

1383. Anon 

FIRE PROTECTION OF SHIPS (POZHARNAYA 
ZASHCHITA SUDOV) 

Sb tr VNII protivopozhar oborony; (6):1-111, 1975 
All-Union Fire Protection Research Inst, Moscow, USSR 
(Russian) 

This collection of papers of the All-Union Fire Protec- 
tion Research Institute (USSR) is devoted to problems 
of structural and active fire protection and routine mea- 
sures on ships. Given, for structural fire protection, are 
the results of computer calculation of the fire resistance 
of ship structures using the method of elementary thermal 
balances. An analysis is made of the explosion-hazard 
properties of fish meal and recommendations are made 
with regard to fire-safety steps for storing and transporting 
meal on ships, on the selection of means for extinguishing 
fish-meal fires in holds, and also on the design of fixed 
fire-extinguishing systems for fish-meal holds. Given are 
the results of investigating the hydrodynamics of making 
high-expansion mechanical foam using foam-generator 
grids, the influence of their structural factors on the 
foam-making process, and an estimate is made of the 
technical efficiency of extinguishing machine-room fires 
with foam. The conditions of spontaneous extinction of 
flames from burning gas jets are examined, and recom- 
mendations are suggested regarding the selection of the 
diameters of auxihary pipelines in the design of gas-carry- 
ing ships. (RZh) 

1384. Cobb A 

ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF ESCAPE FOR BUSES? 

Fire; 68(850):573, 1976 

Two recent bus fire incidents in which the fire spread 
rapidly and dense black smoke and gases hindered evacua- 
tion and fire fighting induced the author to consider steps 
to prevent bus fire disasters. The principal recommenda- 
tion relates to reduction of the fire load in the design 
stage by reducing the electrical circuitry required, replac- 
ing foam-filled upholstery by wooden benches, and con- 
sidering materials other than aluminum and fiberglass for 
the bodywork. 2 figs. 

1385. Houston M 

WITH LOW SMOKE, TOXICITY, AND BURNING RATE, 
CAN PLASTICS FILL AIRCRAFT AND TRANSIT 
NEEDS? 

Mater Eng; 84(2):20-22, 1976 

Government pressure, in the form of guideUnes, 
proposed rules and actual requirements, is forcing compa- 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

j. Transportation (Air, Rail, Road, Water) — Continued 

nies building airplanes, subways and buses to look for 
materials that provide better burning characteristics. A 
number of plastics producers have either announced or 
are planning to announce grades that are substantial im- 
provements over existing ones for panelling, seating and 
glazing. The associate editor of Materials Engineering 
questions whether these plastics are adequate, giving a 
review of the possibilities presently existing in this area 
as well as of the extensive research in many areas such 
as toxicity which may change existing requirements and 
thus again the status of the materials being considered. 
9 figs, 3 tables, 7 refs. 

1386. Anon 

nRE-RESISTANT PAINTS - A NEW APPROACH TO 
nRE SAFETY IN SHIP INTERIORS 

Hansa; 113(6):471-472, 1976 (German) 

Three groups of fire-resistant paints are examined: emul- 
sion paints, paints based on synthetic resins, and colorless 
preparations. The emulsion paints are sky-blue, recom- 
mended as a prime coat, combination paints and well- 
known foam-making agents which, when affected by heat 
and flame, form a solid layer of foam, suitable only for 
protecting wood in interiors and, with restrictions, for 
exterior finishing. Paints made of synthetic resins are 
recommended primarily for the protection of machine 
compartments; they must therefore also possess anti-cor- 
rosion properties; also for canopies of ferryboats, and 
for living quarters. They can be of different shades, glossy 
or flat, smooth. The colorless preparations are suitable 
for fire-retardant treatment of textile materials, paper, etc. 
The fire-retarding mechanism of these paints is con- 
sidered. 

1387. Eriksson L 

FUTURE TRENDS OF FIRE PROTECTION FOR TAN- 
KERS 

Schiff Hafen; 28(2):148, 1976 (EngHsh) 

The appreciable increase in the size of oil tankers that 
has been observed in the last decade has been accom- 
panied by improvements in the fire protection of such 
ships using powerful and mechanized fixed foam fire- 
extinguishing installations. The Intragovemmental 
Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) has reex- 
amined the regulations governing the construction of such 
systems. The principal fire extinguishant is now 
fluoroprotein foam or aqueous film-forming foam, which 
is three times more effective than the ordinary protein 
foam. Not less than 50% of the required foam output 
should be provided through fixed monitors. In some tan- 
kers monitors provide 100% of the foam supply. The 
systems also contain portable generators with a 15:25 or 
50:100 foam expansion ratio. To cool tanker structures 
during a fire fixed water-spray systems are provided. 
Fire-resistant borosilicate glass is used in portholes. Tan- 
kers for the transportation of chemicals are equipped with 
powder fire-extinguishing systems. Attempts are being 
made to use Halon 2402 systems. Improvements are in- 
creasing the efficiency of fire protection and, at the same 
time, are reducing the number of men required to make 
it effective. 2 figs. (RZh) 



1388. Snyder RG 

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN CRASH IMPACT PRO- 
TECTION AND EMERGENCY EGRESS FROM AIR 
TRANSPORT CRAFT, Advisory Group for Aerospace R 
and D (AGARD); AGARD-ograph-221, 310 pages, 1976 
AvaUabihty: NTIS AD-A029 375/3GA 

Analysis of all NATO member air transport accidents, 
1964-1975, revealed that injuries and fatalities, when such 
information could be determined, were primarily due to 
the post-crash effects of fire, smoke and toxic fumes, 
and secondarily to crash impact. Future air transport 
design trends were reviewed, and approximately 150 ad- 
vanced crash-impact and emergency-egress concepts, 
devices, and state-of-the-art techniques were evaluated. 
These included occupant restraints, smoke hoods, aisle 
and egress emergency lighting, passenger warning systems, 
escape slides and devices, heat shields, high-energy emer- 
gency egress systems. It was concluded that rear-facing 
passenger seats, the NASA Ames (21 + G sub x 45 G 
sub z) airline seat, and the production Sheldahl smoke 
hood can provide significantly improved occupant protec- 
tion, while high-energy emergency egress systems appear 
promising for future aircraft. More research is needed 
to improve passenger warning and public address systems. 
Concepts of emergency inflight egress are not yet feasible, 
although technically within the state-of-the-art. (Author) 

1389. Starett PS, Lopez E and Silverman J 
FEASIBILITY AND TRADEOFFS OF A TRANSPORT 
FUSELAGE FIRE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. Lockheed- 
California Co; LR-27477, FAA RD-76-54, 167 pages, Apr 
1976 

Availabihty: NTIS AD-A029 242/5GA 

A feasibility investigation and tradeoff analysis was per- 
formed on two approaches to increase fire safety for a 
hypothetical aircraft: (1) an integrated Fire Management 
System, incorporating fire detection, monitoring, and sup- 
pression, and (2) improved non-metallic materials with 
greater fire retardancy and lower emission of hazardous 
pyrolysis products. Fire-related accident and incident data 
over a 10-year period were analyzed. Then the fire safety 
aspects of the hypothetical aircraft were studied on a 
zone-by-zone basis. A survey was made of the relevant 
available technology to upgrade the aircraft fire protec- 
tion. A fire detection, monitoring, and extinguishing 
system based on this technology was outlined. Candidate 
material improvements were identified. The two ap- 
proaches were defined in terms of performance, 
economics, and timeliness. Performance and cost factors 
favored a fire management system over improved materi- 
als. Unresolved technical problems existed with both ap- 
proaches, and both involved substantial weight and 
economic increases. The fire management system ap- 
peared to have an advantage in timely availability, particu- 
larly since some of the qualifying tests for improved 
materials still need to be developed and accepted. 
Technology currently exists to provide an effective early- 
warning fire detection and monitoring system. A safe, 
effective extinguishing agent suitable for a cabin fire sup- 
pression system has yet to be fully demonstrated. (Author) 



265 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

j. Transportation (Air, Rail, Road, Water) — Continued 

1390. Kourtides DA Parker JA Gilwee WJ Jr Lerner NR 
Hilado CJ LaBossiere LA and Ming-ta SH 

A COMPOSITE SYSTEM APPROACH TO AIRCRAFT 
CABIN SAFETY. Nat Aeronautics and Space Admin; 
NASA TM-X-73126, A-6555, 46 pages, Apr 1976 
Availability: NTIS N76-25354 

The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of 
two polymeric composites currently in use and seven 
others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels 
are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting 
oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire-con- 
tainment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution 
from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) 
composition of the volatile products of thermal degrada- 
tion; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of 
pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating 
resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the per- 
formance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of 
increased fire safety using polymers with high anaerobic 
char yield is shown. Processing parameters of one of the 
baremaleimide composites are detailed. (Author) 

1391. Welker JR, Brown LE, Ice JN, Martinsen WE and 
West HH 

nRE SAFETY ABOARD LNG VESSELS. Univ Engrs Inc; 
UE-293-FR, USCG D-94-76, 295 pages, Jan 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A030 619/fGA 

This report contains results of an analytical examination 
of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with 
the marine handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) cargo. 
Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations at 
receiving terminals and, more specifically, on the LNG 
tanker's cargo handling and hazard sensing and control 
equipment and operations. Analytical procedures included 
historical (statistical) analysis of failure incidents for land- 
based and marine LNG operations and for operations with 
analogous cargoes, formal fault-tree analysis of a 
"composite" LNG tanker cargo and hazard control 
systems, calculation of magnitudes of potential hazards, 
estimation of on-site (shipboard and immediate environs) 
risk of fire fatality for a range of spill sizes, and calcula- 
tion of fire control capabilities provided by (1) regulation, 
(2) current shipfitting practice, and (3) a most effective, 
practical system. Despite present high-quaUty standards 
of design, construction, and materials for LNG tanker 
cargo-handling equipment, hazard control systems are 
necessary. With hazard control systems based on design 
spill sizes, risk of on-site fire fatality can be reduced 
to at least 10"'° fatalities per person-hour exposure in 
the hazardous zone. Risk from cargo spills caused by 
an LNG tanker being rammed while docked at the ter- 
minal may also be excessive. Published US regulations 
and codes and foreign codes and rules do not now specify 
protection and prevention systems which would provide 
the estimated reduction in risk needed to achieve the sug- 
gested tolerable level (lO''" fire fatalities per hour expo- 
sure). (Author) 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND 
FACILITIES 

a. ADMINISTRATION, ORGANIZATION AND 

MANAGEMENT 

1392. Jones DL 

THE ROLE OF THE DISTRICT ADMINISTRATOR 

Fire; 69(856):237-238, 1976 

The tasks of a District Administrator (UK) are outlined 
in a symposium paper excerpted in this article entitled 
"Management and Fire Protection". The theoretical part 
of the work consists in initiating a fire precaution plan 
survey of buildings, identifying priorities, advising the Dis- 
trict Fire Officer of the policy to be followed, allocation 
of resources, monitoring of administration, and commu- 
nicating fire facts to higher authorities. The practical ex- 
periences of an Administrator are illustrated by an account 
of a nurses' home fire. 

b. EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

1393. Rust H 

TRAINING VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENTS IN THE 
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY 

Brandhilfe; 23(9):21 1-216, 1976 (German) 

The new FwDV 2/1 is a draft fire service regulation. 
What is new in it is the integrated peacetime training 
and special training within the framework of expansion 
of disaster protection. There are three training levels: 
basic training (taken first by every member of the volun- 
teer fire departments), special training, and training of 
command personnel. An innovation is the 14-day courses; 
to overcome the difficulties in the different states, a phase 
plan is provided at the outset. Two graphs illustrate the 
fire department training situation. 2 figs. (Fachdok 
12/1122) 

1394. Wells AC 

SPECIALIZATION IN THE FIRE SERVICE 

Fire; 69(856):243-250, 1976 

To maintain professionalism, the fire service must 
achieve a degree of credibihty by academic and vocational 
quaUfication. The British fire service has a well-equipped 
Technical College which has the scope for expansion to 
provide academic/vocational training to a higher standard, 
possibly degree level. Resistance to efforts to estabhsh 
fire-engineering-oriented courses has undermined the 
professional independence of the fire service. The author 
deals with the problems involved in the need for advanc- 
ing the cause of specialization. 1 fig, 1 table, 8 refs. 

c. FACILITIES 

1395. Brown JR, Crossen JG, Davis JN, Grant RJ and 
Malinovsky RA 

AN ENGINEERING DESIGN OF THE CONSOLIDATED 
FIRE STATION, WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB, OHIO. 
VOL 2. MAIN REPORT TEXT AND APPENDICES. Air 
Force Inst Tech, School of Eng; GCE MC/76S-2-Vol-2, 
477 pages, Sep 1976 
AvailabiUty: NTIS AD-A030 355/2GA 



266 




PENN STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 

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